how we know what isn t so

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How We Know What Isn T So

Author : Thomas Gilovich
ISBN : 1439106746
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 50. 38 MB
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Thomas Gilovich offers a wise and readable guide to the fallacy of the obvious in everyday life. When can we trust what we believe—that "teams and players have winning streaks," that "flattery works," or that "the more people who agree, the more likely they are to be right"—and when are such beliefs suspect? Thomas Gilovich offers a guide to the fallacy of the obvious in everyday life. Illustrating his points with examples, and supporting them with the latest research findings, he documents the cognitive, social, and motivational processes that distort our thoughts, beliefs, judgments and decisions. In a rapidly changing world, the biases and stereotypes that help us process an overload of complex information inevitably distort what we would like to believe is reality. Awareness of our propensity to make these systematic errors, Gilovich argues, is the first step to more effective analysis and action.

Metaliterate Learning For The Post Truth World

Author : Thomas P. Mackey
ISBN : 9780838917763
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 30. 55 MB
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Foreword by Troy A. Swanson Metaliteracy, Jacobson and Mackey’s revolutionary framework for information literacy, is especially well suited as a tool for ensuring that learners can successfully navigate the proliferation of fake news, questionable content, and outright denialism of facts in today’s information morass. Indeed, it is starkly evident that the competencies, knowledge, and personal attributes specific to metaliterate individuals are critical; digital literacy and traditional conceptions of information literacy are insufficient for the significant challenges we currently face. This book examines the newest version of the Metaliteracy Goals and Learning Objectives, including the four domains of metaliterate learning, as well as the relationship between metaliteracy and the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. Featuring contributions from a variety of information literacy instructors, educators, librarians, and faculty, the chapters in this book discuss the social, political, and ethical dimensions of information creation, distribution, and use; use case studies to demonstrate how metaliteracy guides learners to read online information with a critical eye, apply metacognitive thinking to the consumption of all information, and make purposeful and responsible contributions to the social media ecosystem as active participants; examine when images are taken out of context and paired with misleading text, a prevalent feature of the misinformation frequently shared via social media; and situates metaliteracy in such contexts such as the academic library, a science class, fiction writing, digital storytelling, and a theater arts course. Metaliteracy is a powerful model for preparing learners to be responsible participants in today’s divisive information environment, and this book showcases several teaching and learning practices that have already proven effective.

Don T Believe Everything You Think

Author : Thomas E. Kida
ISBN : 9781615920051
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 37. 29 MB
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Do you believe that you can consistently beat the stock market if you put in the effort? —that some people have extrasensory perception? —that crime and drug abuse in America are on the rise? Many people hold one or more of these beliefs although research shows that they are not true. And it’s no wonder since advertising and some among the media promote these and many more questionable notions. Although our creative problem-solving capacity is what has made humans the successful species we are, our brains are prone to certain kinds of errors that only careful critical thinking can correct. This enlightening book discusses how to recognize faulty thinking and develop the necessary skills to become a more effective problem solver. Author Thomas Kida identifies “the six-pack of problems” that leads many of us unconsciously to accept false ideas: · We prefer stories to statistics. · We seek to confirm, not to question, our ideas. · We rarely appreciate the role of chance and coincidence in shaping events. · We sometimes misperceive the world around us. · We tend to oversimplify our thinking. · Our memories are often inaccurate. Kida vividly illustrates these tendencies with numerous examples that demonstrate how easily we can be fooled into believing something that isn’t true. In a complex society where success—in all facets of life—often requires the ability to evaluate the validity of many conflicting claims, the critical-thinking skills examined in this informative and engaging book will prove invaluable.

Gesturing Toward Reality David Foster Wallace And Philosophy

Author : Robert K. Bolger
ISBN : 9781441164087
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 80. 28 MB
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Asked in 2006 about the philosophical nature of his fiction, the late American writer David Foster Wallace replied, "If some people read my fiction and see it as fundamentally about philosophical ideas, what it probably means is that these are pieces where the characters are not as alive and interesting as I meant them to be." Gesturing Toward Reality looks into this quality of Wallace's work-when the writer dons the philosopher's cap-and sees something else. With essays offering a careful perusal of Wallace's extensive and heavily annotated self-help library, re-considerations of Wittgenstein's influence on his fiction, and serious explorations into the moral and spiritual landscape where Wallace lived and wrote, this collection offers a perspective on Wallace that even he was not always ready to see. Since so much has been said in specifically literary circles about Wallace's philosophical acumen, it seems natural to have those with an interest in both philosophy and Wallace's writing address how these two areas come together.

The Wisest One In The Room

Author : Thomas Gilovich
ISBN : 9781451677560
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 88. 93 MB
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Renowned psychologists describe the five most useful insights from social psychology that will help make you “wise”: wise about why we behave the way we do, and wise about how to use that knowledge to understand others and change ourselves for the better. When faced with a challenge, we often turn to those we trust for words of wisdom. Friends, relatives, and colleagues: someone with the best advice about how to boost sales, the most useful insights into raising children, or the sharpest take on a political issue. In The Wisest One in the Room, renowned social psychologists Thomas Gilovich and Lee Ross ask: Why? What do these people know? What are the foundations of their wisdom? And, as professors and researchers who specialize in the study of human behavior, they wonder: What general principles of human psychology are they drawing on to reach these conclusions? They find that wisdom, unlike intelligence, demands some insight into people—their hopes, fears, passions, and drives. It’s true for the executive running a Fortune 500 company, the candidate seeking public office, the artist trying to create work that will speak to the ages, or the single parent trying to get a child through the tumultuous adolescent years. To be wise, they discover, one must be psych-wise when dealing with everyday challenges. In The Wisest One in the Room Gilovich and Ross show that to answer any kind of behavioral question, it is essential to understand the details—especially the hidden and subtle details—of the situational forces acting upon us. Understanding these forces is the key to becoming wiser in the way we understand the people and events we encounter, and wiser in the way we deal with the challenges that are sure to come our way. With the lessons gleaned here, you can learn the key to becoming “the wisest one in the room.”

The Demon Haunted World

Author : Carl Sagan
ISBN : 9780307801043
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 48 MB
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A prescient warning of a future we now inhabit, where fake news stories and Internet conspiracy theories play to a disaffected American populace “A glorious book . . . A spirited defense of science . . . From the first page to the last, this book is a manifesto for clear thought.”—Los Angeles Times How can we make intelligent decisions about our increasingly technology-driven lives if we don’t understand the difference between the myths of pseudoscience and the testable hypotheses of science? Pulitzer Prize-winning author and distinguished astronomer Carl Sagan argues that scientific thinking is critical not only to the pursuit of truth but to the very well-being of our democratic institutions. Casting a wide net through history and culture, Sagan examines and authoritatively debunks such celebrated fallacies of the past as witchcraft, faith healing, demons, and UFOs. And yet, disturbingly, in today's so-called information age, pseudoscience is burgeoning with stories of alien abduction, channeling past lives, and communal hallucinations commanding growing attention and respect. As Sagan demonstrates with lucid eloquence, the siren song of unreason is not just a cultural wrong turn but a dangerous plunge into darkness that threatens our most basic freedoms. Praise for The Demon-Haunted World “Powerful . . . A stirring defense of informed rationality. . . Rich in surprising information and beautiful writing.”—The Washington Post Book World “Compelling.”—USA Today “A clear vision of what good science means and why it makes a difference. . . . A testimonial to the power of science and a warning of the dangers of unrestrained credulity.”—The Sciences “Passionate.”—San Francisco Examiner-Chronicle

Nudge

Author : Richard H. Thaler
ISBN : 9781101655092
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 41. 45 MB
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From the winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, Richard H. Thaler, and Cass R. Sunstein: a revelatory look at how we make decisions—for fans of Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink and Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking, Fast and Slow * More than 1.5 million copies sold * New York Times bestseller * Named a Best Book of the Year by The Economist and the Financial Times Every day we make choices—about what to buy or eat, about financial investments or our children’s health and education, even about the causes we champion or the planet itself. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. Nudge is about how we make these choices and how we can make better ones. Using dozens of eye-opening examples and drawing on decades of behavioral science research, Nobel Prize winner Richard H. Thaler and Harvard Law School professor Cass R. Sunstein show that no choice is ever presented to us in a neutral way, and that we are all susceptible to biases that can lead us to make bad decisions. But by knowing how people think, we can use sensible “choice architecture” to nudge people toward the best decisions for ourselves, our families, and our society, without restricting our freedom of choice.

The Practitioner S Guide To Governance As Leadership

Author : Cathy A. Trower
ISBN : 9781118237366
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 23. 86 MB
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THE PRACTITIONER'S GUIDE TO GOVERNANCE AS LEADERSHIP The Practitioner's Guide to Governance as Leadership offers a resource that shows how to achieve excellence and peak performance in the boardroom by putting into practice the groundbreaking model that was introduced in the book, Governance as Leadership. This proven model of effective governance explores how to attain proficiency in three governance modes or mindsets: fiduciary, strategic, and generative. Throughout the book, author Cathy Trower offers an understanding of the Governance as Leadership model through a wealth of illustrative examples of high-performing nonprofit boards. She explores the challenges of implementing governance as leadership and suggests ideas for getting started and overcoming barriers to progress. In addition, Trower provides practical guidance for optimizing the practices that will improve organizational performance including: flow (high skill and high purpose), discernment, deliberation, divergent thinking, insight, meaningfulness, consequence to the organization, and integrity. In short, the book is a combination of sophisticated thinking, instructive vignettes, illustrative documents, and practical recommendations. The book includes concrete strategies that can help improve critical thinking in the boardroom, a board's overall performance as a team, as well as information for creating a strong governance culture and understanding what is required of an effective CEO and a chairperson. To determine a board's fitness and help the members move forward, the book contains three types of assessments: board members evaluate each other; individual board member assessments; and an overall team assessment. This practitioner's guide is written for nonprofit board members, chief executives, senior staff members, and anyone who wants to reflect on governance, discern how to govern better, and achieve higher performance in the process. Email: [email protected] Website: www.trowerandtrower.com

Advances In Experimental Epistemology

Author : James R. Beebe
ISBN : 9781472505316
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 54. 7 MB
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Experimental epistemology uses experimental methods of the cognitive sciences to shed light on debates within epistemology,the philosophical study of knowledge and rationally justified belief. In this first critical collection on this exciting new subfield, leading researchers tackle key questions pertaining to knowledge, evidence, and rationally justified belief. Advances in Experimental Epistemology addresses central epistemological issues such as whether subjects in high stakes situations need to possess stronger evidence in order to have knowledge;whether and in what respects knowing that p depends upon what actions one undertakes in light of p; how philosophers should respond to deep and pervasive disagreement about particular cases of knowledge and belief and the methodological challenges to epistemology that are presented by disagreement in epistemic intuitions.As well as moving research in epistemology forward, this cutting-edge volume helps define the future course of research in experimental philosophy.

Collaboration Among Competing Managed Care Organizations For Quality Improvement

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 0309184355
Genre : Medical
File Size : 62. 27 MB
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In November, 1997, The Institute of Medicine convened a one-day conference to explore areas for potential collaboration to improve quality among competing health plans consistent with antitrust and other legal requirements. The conference was convened to clarify the limits of such potential activities and to explore ways to stimulate collaboration; in short, to explore permissible and promising areas for collaboration for competing health plans. Competition has existed at the provider level in the pre-managed care era and continues among physicians, physician groups and hospitals today. What is new is the extent of competition at the managed care organization level in individual regional markets. As large numbers of individuals are enrolled in health plans, the potential for new forms of cooperation for improving quality of care becomes possible. Along with these new possibilities, however, come questions about whether they bring the potential for antitrust violation.

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