human-cell-transformation

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Human Cell Transformation

Author : Johng S. Rhim
ISBN : 9783030222543
Genre : Science
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This book, part contributed volume, part proceedings, discusses state-of-the-art advances on human cell transformation in cell models for the study of cancer and aging. Several of the chapters are from the Human Cell Transformation: Advances in Cell Models for the Study of Cancer and Aging conference that was held in June 2018 at McGill University. The authors represent international expertise on a wide variety of topics ranging from different types of cancer (prostate, bone, breast, etc.) to tumor microenvironment, tumor progression, homogeneity, and possible therapies and treatments.

Human Cell Transformation

Author : Johng S. Rhim
ISBN : 1461402549
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 55 MB
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Rhim and Kremer’s state-of-the-art volume on Human Cell Transformation: Role of Stem Cells and the Microenvironment highlights the latest findings on the current state of human cell transformation model systems and provides the insight into the molecular and cellular changes involved in the conversion of normal cells to neoplastic cells. Chapters cover all recently developed novel human cell models. In addition, the rapidly growing fields of knowledge regarding not only stem cells in cancer progression, but also the role of the microenvironments in human carcinogenesis are discussed. A wealth of topics is presented including: · Derivation of epithelial, fibroblastic, and hematopoietic in vitro model systems · Oncogenes · Tumor suppressor genes · Viral transformation · In vitro model systems for viral, chemical and radiation carcinogenesis · Cell aging · The multistep nature of human carcinogenesis · The role of stem cells and the microenvironment in tumorigenesis · The genes involved in multistep carcinogenesis Unique in both scope and focus – devoted solely to human cell transformation systems – Human Cell Transformation: Role of Stem Cells and the Microenvironment provides unparalleled, in-depth coverage for cancer researchers, cell and molecular biologists, hematologists, virologists, and workers in related fields. Essential reading for everyone who needs to be kept up-to-date in this fast-paced area! Features ؠ Multistep models ؠ Breast cancer/Stem cells ؠ Prostate cancer/Stem cells ؠ Multistep / Genes

Human Cell Transformation

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ISBN : 1461402557
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Human Cell Transformation

Author : Johng S. Rhim
ISBN : 149394164X
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 38 MB
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Rhim and Kremer’s state-of-the-art volume on Human Cell Transformation: Role of Stem Cells and the Microenvironment highlights the latest findings on the current state of human cell transformation model systems and provides the insight into the molecular and cellular changes involved in the conversion of normal cells to neoplastic cells. Chapters cover all recently developed novel human cell models. In addition, the rapidly growing fields of knowledge regarding not only stem cells in cancer progression, but also the role of the microenvironments in human carcinogenesis are discussed. A wealth of topics is presented including: · Derivation of epithelial, fibroblastic, and hematopoietic in vitro model systems · Oncogenes · Tumor suppressor genes · Viral transformation · In vitro model systems for viral, chemical and radiation carcinogenesis · Cell aging · The multistep nature of human carcinogenesis · The role of stem cells and the microenvironment in tumorigenesis · The genes involved in multistep carcinogenesis Unique in both scope and focus – devoted solely to human cell transformation systems – Human Cell Transformation: Role of Stem Cells and the Microenvironment provides unparalleled, in-depth coverage for cancer researchers, cell and molecular biologists, hematologists, virologists, and workers in related fields. Essential reading for everyone who needs to be kept up-to-date in this fast-paced area! Features ؠ Multistep models ؠ Breast cancer/Stem cells ؠ Prostate cancer/Stem cells ؠ Multistep / Genes

Neoplastic Transformation In Human Cell Culture

Author : Johng S. Rhim
ISBN : 9781461204114
Genre : Medical
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The role of carcinogenic agents in the deveolopment of human cancers is now being defined using a variety of human cells as experi mental model systems. A workshop on "neoplastic transformation in human cell systems in vitro: mechanisms of carcinogenesis" was held at the Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, on April 25-26, 1991. The aims of the workshop were to present the state-of-the art in the transformation of human cells in culture, as well as to provide insight into the molecular and cellular changes involved in the conver sion of normal cells to a neoplastic state of growth. The following topics were closely related to the theme of the workshops: 1. Derivation of in vitro model systems (epithelial, fibroblastic, and hematopoietic). 2. Factors modulating cellular transformation. 3. Usefulness of defined in vitro model systems for viral, chemical, and radiation carcinogenesis. 4. Multistep nature of human cell carcinogenesis. 5. Role of activated and suppressor oncogenes in neoplastic trans formation. The workshop was organized by J. S. Rhim and A. Dritschilo (cochairmen), G. Jay, J. little, M. McCormick, R Tennant, and R R Weischelbaum. There were 32 speakers, 30 poster presentations, and about 190 participants.

Unraveling The Signaling Network In Human Cell Transformation

Author : Rocky Cipriano
ISBN : OCLC:1164806505
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The use of cellular transformation models has aided our understanding of tumorigenesis. The continued refinement of these cellular models is critical to expanding our understanding of the signaling pathways dysregulated in cancer and linking specific genetic alterations with the therapeutic efficiencies of new treatment options. In studies described here ablation of p73, or PTEN, or overexpression of BCL-2 resulted in a transformed phenotype which retained wild-type p53. Using this model of cellular transformation has allowed the dissection of genetic alterations that confer a sensitive or resistant phenotype to Nutlin-3, an HDM2 antagonist currently in clinical trials. Our results suggest that treating tumors harboring inactive PTEN, p73, or with elevated BCL-2 expression with Nutlin-3 could re-engage p53 activity and induce apoptosis, arguing that therapies aimed at reactivating p53 could prove efficient in tumors harboring these genetic alterations. Such studies are critical in light of findings demonstrating HDMX overexpression protects cells from Nutlin-3 toxicity. As cell culture models of human cell transformation evolve, a more detailed analysis of the pathways commonly altered during cancer development can begin to be defined. Using normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) obtained from reduction mammoplasties, we established a cellular model of the basal or triple negative subtype of breast cancer. This progressive model of breast cancer initiation uncovered a novel TGF-beta mediated suppressive barrier engaged by dysregulated oncogenic signaling. Unlike fibroblasts, we report here that HMECs undergo a TGF-beta-mediated OIS in response to oncogenic RAS, which does not require p53, p16, ATM or CHK2. Finally, my studies led to the discovery and characterization of a novel oncogene, FAM83B, identified by combining a phenotypic based forward genetic screen with a HMEC transformation model. FAM83B is a previously uncharacterized protein, identified here as a driver of HMEC transformation that functions by hyperactivating the MAPK and mTOR signaling cascades. We further demonstrate that FAM83B is a member of an eight protein family which contains a conserved N-terminal DUF 1669, that is necessary and sufficient for a transformed phenotype. The results presented here have (1) linked transforming events with the therapeutic efficiency of Nutlin-3, (2) identified a novel growth arrest pathway responsible for suppressing breast cancer initiation and (3) identified a novel oncogene family which may result in the development of novel therapeutics.

Transformation Of Human Diploid Fibroblasts

Author : George E. Milo
ISBN : 0849349567
Genre : Medical
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This comprehensive publication draws together the important aspects of carcinogen-cell interaction. This interesting work describes the regulation of normal cell proliferation, cellular responses to carcinogen damage, the biologic consequences of cellular DNA modification, the structural and genomic changes resulting from carcinogen insult, and the possible involvement of such changes in the conversion of normal human fibroblasts to malignant cells. It presents current reviews with up-to-date literature references and provides critical information from leading investigators that is essential in understanding the biology of human cell transformation. This volume is especially useful to advanced students in genetic toxicology, molecular biologists, and all who are interested in the molecular and macromolecular changes in human cells leading to neoplasia.

Cell Transformation

Author : J. Celis
ISBN : 9781468450095
Genre : Mathematics
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Cell Transformation Systems Relevant To Radiation Induced Cancer In Man Proceedings Of A Workshop Jointly Organised By The Nuclear Energy Board Of Ireland The United States Department Of Energy And The Commission Of The European Communities Held In Du

Author : Kenneth Helme Chadwick
ISBN : UCAL:B4513968
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61. 7 MB
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The transformation of mammalian cells in vitro provides quantitative and qualitative information on the processes by which physical and chemical agents induce malignancy. Recently, there has been considerable progress on the developmnent of new cell transformation systems and the role of oncogenes in cell transformation. An International Workshop held during April 1989 in Dublin encouraged collaborative interactions between the scientists working in this field and provided a forum for critical review of current research results. Cell Transformation and Radiation-induced Cancer is a record of the papers presented at the Workshop. It includes work which focuses on the potential of emerging human cell transformation systems and their relevance to radiation carcinogenesis, and on the role and interplay of oncogenes, retroviruses and radiation in cell transformation. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence of such variables as radiation quality, dose and dose rate, promoters and suppressors and cell types on in vitro cell transformation. Also considered are the implications of the results from cell transformation studies for radiation-induced cancer in man and for radiological protection. This book will be of interest to molecular biologists, medical physicists and cancer specialists who require a comprehensive account of the latest work on cell transformation and radiation-induced cancer.

Transformation Of Human Epithelial Cells 1992

Author : George E Milo
ISBN : 9781351355971
Genre : Science
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This book offers a conceptual explanation of the interrelationships that exist between the stages in the progression of initiated epithelial cells in culture compared with the diverse tissue of organs and the progression of tumors from different organ sites. The fate of the modification of adducts is discussed at the molecular level. The role that modifications in hot spots in oncogenes and supressor genes play at the molecular level and how these molecular modifications can lead to an explanation of molecular control in the formation of tumor phenotypes is also examined. Researchers in cell biology and toxicology, applied pharmacology, carcinogenesis, teratogenesis, mutagenesis, and molecular toxicology will find the book useful, interesting reading.

Neoplastic Transformation Of Human Cells

Author : National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
ISBN : 1722408766
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The goal of this project was to gain a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms of cancer induction by ionizing radiation as a risk assessment for workers subjected to high LET irradiation such as that found in space. The following ions were used for irradiation: Iron, Argon, Neon, and Lanthanum. Two tests were performed: growth in low serum and growth in agar were used as indicators of cell transformation. The specific aims of this project were to: (1) compare the effectiveness of various ions on degree of transformation of a single dose of the same RBE; (2) determine if successive irradiations with the same ion (Ge 600 MeV/u) increases the degree of transformation; (3) test if clones with the greatest degree of transformation produce tumors in nude mice; and (4) construct a cell hybrid of a transformed and control (non-transformed) clone. The cells used for this work are human mammary epithelial cells with an extended lifespan and selected for growth in MEM + 10% serum. Goth-Goldstein, Regine Unspecified Center NASA ORDER T-9297-R...

Neoplastic Transformation In Human Cell Culture

Author : Johng S Rhim
ISBN : 1461204127
Genre :
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Suppression Of Chemically Induced Hamster Cell Transformation By A Single Human Chromosome

Author : Andrea B. Stoler
ISBN : NWU:35558002847123
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Protein Phosphatase 2a Complexes And Human Cell Transformation

Author : Jason David Arroyo
ISBN : OCLC:421747038
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From this analysis, I determined that TSSK6 can induce cell transformation and activate Akt, while a separate cell viability screen revealed that TSSK6 is necessary for the survival of INA6 multiple myeloma cells. In addition, HIPK4, CSNK1E , and AKT1 were shown to replace ST in cooperation with an activated allele of Rac1 . The strongest support for the contribution of PP2A disruption to tumorigenesis comes from the observation of cancer-associated mutations in PP2A subunit genes. In collaborative work, we demonstrated that both PP2A A[alpha] and A[beta] function as tumor suppressor genes but act through distinct mechanisms. Haplo-insufficiency for the PP2A A[alpha] subunit leads to specific loss of PP2A A[alpha]-B56[gamma]-C complexes, activates Akt, and induces cell transformation. In contrast, loss of PP2A A[beta] complexes transforms cells due to the phosphorylation and activation of the small GTPase RalA. The studies presented in this dissertation further our understanding of the biology of PP2A complexes in both normal and transformed states and should contribute to improved therapeutic targeting of tumors harboring PP2A disruptions.

Spontaneous And Virus Induced Transformation In Cell Culture

Author : Jan Ponten
ISBN : 9783709182581
Genre : Medical
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A. Definitions of Transformation in vitro When normal tissues or organs are explanted to conditions favoring the growth of cells as individual units ("cell culture"), the original cell population undergoes a large variety of modifications. Only a minority of the cells will thrive and multiply and within a rather short period of time, the complex composition of the original explant is replaced by a much simplified one of only a few recogniz ably different cell types. With most organs fibroblast-like cells survive longest and outgrow other types. This is then a stable state of affairs for many gener ations. This treatise will not discuss whether this simplification and stabilization represents selection of certain pre-existing cell types or a modification of cells into only a few recognizably different categories; for an excellent review see HARRIS. (1964). Table 1. Terminology Employed to Describe Transformations in vitro Type of transformation Essential features Irregular growth Lack of contact inhibition of cell membrane movement ("ruffled membranes") between juxtaposed cells Unrestrained growth Deficient inhibition of the cell cycle (mitosis) in a crowded culture Infinite growth Capacity of cells to undergo an infinite number of di visions (formation of established cell lines) Cells may depart from this typical behavior in numerous ways involving for instance cellular morphology, immunology, chromosomes or metabolism. Such changes have, sometimes rather vaguely, been called "transformations". This is unprecise and the term "transformation" will here be used exclusively to indicate disturbances in cell growth related to neoplasia.

Molecular And Cell Biology

Author : Harry Gelboin
ISBN : 9780323149068
Genre : Health & Fitness
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Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Cancer, Volume 2: Molecular and Cell Biology explores the link between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cancer from the viewpoint of molecular and cell biology. This volume consists of 26 chapters divided into eight sections based on the following themes: DNA and Chromatin Interactions; Microbial Mutagenesis; Mammalian Mutagenesis; DNA Repair; Transformation of Cells in Culture; Animal and Human Models; Genetics; and Comments and Observations. The discussion begins with an analysis of the interactions of PAHs with cellular macromolecules and with DNA of mammalian cells in culture. The following chapters focus on microbial and mammalian mutagenesis by PAHs; mechanisms of DNA excision repair in human cells; effect of DNA repair on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of PAH metabolites in human cells; and oncogenic transformation of cell cultures by PAHs and their derivatives. The final chapter makes the case for the establishment of a system for conducting quantitative assessments of biomedical risk presented by many types of environmental perturbants such as PAHs. This monograph will be of interest to investigators and educators concerned with scientific aspects of PAH research; government officials and elected representatives as well as industry leaders who must confront and solve the problems related to PAHs; and others in the field of molecular and cell biology.

Genetic Requirements For The Transformation Of Human Cells

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ISBN : OCLC:74236499
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Much of what we know about the details of neoplastic transformation comes from studies in cell culture. With the original demonstration by Weinberg, Wigler and Barbacid that cells could be transformed in vitro by DNA sequences from cancer cells, mouse cells have become premier models for the study of oncogene and tumor suppressor function. This has evolved in recent years to the study of genetically defined mouse models (transgenics and knock-outs). These have provided a great deal of key information regarding the transformation process and have served as model systems in which to test new anti-cancer therapies. Despite the utility of the aforementioned approach, there is a fundamental problem with absolute reliance on this paradigm. Genetic alterations that easily transform rodent cells in culture do not have a similar effect on normal human cells. This implies a difference between the processed of neoplastic transformation in man and mice. In the face intense scrutiny, the nature of this difference has remained a mystery for more than 30 years.

Viruses Cell Transformation And Cancer

Author : J.A. Grand
ISBN : 0444504966
Genre : Medical
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Viruses are the agent responsible for perhaps up to one million cases of cancer worldwide each year. Significantly, the study of viruses has also provided important clues to the causes and development of the most common human cancers. This volume presents an account of those viruses which have been directly associated with common human malignancies such as human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical carcinoma, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Burkitt's lymphoma. In addition, the biology and biochemistry of those viruses which have been shown to be capable of transforming cells in culture are described in detail. Thus adenovirus are discussed, as are the other small DNA tumour viruses - Simian virus 40 (SV40) and polyoma virus. Consideration has also been given to human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human herpes virus 8 (HHV8), amongst others. General themes such as the host's immune response to viral infection, virally-induced apoptosis and the use of viruses as a delivery system in gene therapy have been discussed. Individual chapters have been written by an international group of experts in their own field of research.

The Use Of Human Cells For The Evaluation Of Risk From Physical And Chemical Agents

Author : Amleto Castellani
ISBN : 9781475711172
Genre : Medical
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In this volume are collected 30 papers, 9 round table discus sions and 11 communications presented at the ASI Course on "The use of human cells for the evaluation of risk from physical and chemical agents", sponsored by NATO and organized by ENEA. The aim of the Course was to present different scientific ap proaches and technical advices in order to get dose-effect relation ships which are the basis for risk evaluation. The scientific back ground which is behind this approach was extensively discussed. Emphasis has been given to the use of human cells or human data in order to attempt to have a correct and realistic evaluation of the damage in humans. There are many criticisms on the use of animal data for human risk evaluation because of differences between species and between strains within the same species: differences in metabolism, activa tion processes and DNA repair ability makes uncertain the extrapola tion of animal data to humans. Also data obtained using specific strains or highly inbred strains in order to reduce the variance are not applicable due to the heterogeneity of the human population connected with individual responses. In this respect only the use of human cells enable us to detect the individual variability and to identify sensitive subpopu lations that would be at greater risk. My appreciation to Pieranita and Alberto Castellani for the as sistance during the meeting and to Giuseppe Biondi for his help in some of the editorial work.

Carcinogenesis A Comprehensive Survey

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ISBN : UCSC:32106007193763
Genre : Carcinogenesis
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