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Human Respiratory Viral Infections

Author : Sunit K. Singh
ISBN : 9780429586453
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67. 32 MB
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Using a multidisciplinary approach, Human Respiratory Viral Infections is set at the level between the definitive reference work and an essential clinical manual. Exploring recent advances in human respiratory viral research, the text builds on the basic sciences of epidemiology, virology, molecular biology, and immunology to cover clinical diagnos

Viral And Other Infections Of The Human Respiratory Tract

Author : S. Myint
ISBN : 9789401179300
Genre : Medical
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This book is a festschrift to mark the career of ogy, immunology and clinical aspects of each Dr David Tyrrell, eminent virologist and group. There are also more general chapters physician. Almost all of the contributors have overviewing the clinical manifestations, treat been colleagues or students at some time ment and pathophysiology of respiratory during his career. Unlike most festschrifts, virus infections. In addition, chapters in however, the essays have been integrated to which psychological aspects and the ethical produce a comprehensive book that covers use of human volunteers are discussed will be the entire field of non-bacterial infections of of interest to all those involved with respira the human respiratory tract. This is a measure tory infectious agents. of the breadth of interest of the research We hope also that this book serves as a undertaken by David, spanning a period of fitting tribute to a man who is a true poly over 40 years. math: a physician, researcher, teacher, We hope that this book will be of interest mentor, linguist and ambassador for science, to microbiologists, virologists and in particu among other things. To those of us who have lar, to physicians. All the major virus groups contributed to this book, he is even more: a are covered, as well as chlamydial and friend.

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

Author : Bernhard Resch
ISBN : 9789533077185
Genre : Medical
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In this online Open Access book on "Human RSV Infections", several distinguished authors contribute their experience in respiratory syncytial virology. A major focus lies on the fascinating pathophysiology of RSV and represents recent and actual work on different mechanisms involved in the complex pathogenesis of the virus. The second section elucidates epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects of RSV infection covering a more clinical view of RSV disease. At last, treatment modalities including the search for a vaccine that is still not in sight are discussed and conclude this book, thus building up a circle that runs from experimental models of RSV related lung disease over clinical aspects of disease to the latest news of therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to human RSV infection.

Epidemiology And Diagnosis Of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

Author : Javed Akhter
ISBN : OCLC:1154287319
Genre : Medicine
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Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections.

Vertical Mammaplasty And Liposuction

Author : Madeleine Lejour
ISBN : 1576260437
Genre : Medical
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Using a multidisciplinary approach, Human Respiratory Viral Infections is set at the level between the definitive reference work and an essential clinical manual. Exploring recent advances in human respiratory viral research, the text builds on the basic sciences of epidemiology, virology, molecular biology, and immunology to cover clinical diagnosis, mechanism of pathogenesis, manifestations of disease, impact, treatment, and management strategies. Provides a comprehensive review of all the major human respiratory viral infections Supplies a detailed description of the anatomy of the respiratory system Discusses the salient features of specific viruses Examines the latest diagnostic tools Covers risk factors associated with incidence of respiratory viral infections in children and adults in different occupational and environmental settings Presenting the latest knowledge in human respiratory viral infections, this text will be immensely valuable for pulmonologists, biomedical scientists, research scholars, virologists, vaccinologists, immunologists, clinicians, pharmacologists, and public health specialists.

Epidemiology Of Novel Viruses Associated With Human Respiratory Tract Infections In Hong Kong

Author : Chik-Yan Yip
ISBN : 1374678279
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This dissertation, "Epidemiology of Novel Viruses Associated With Human Respiratory Tract Infections in Hong Kong" by Chik-yan, Yip, 葉植恩, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4150871 Subjects: Virus diseases - China - Hong Kong - Epidemiology Viruses Respiratory infections Molecular epidemiology

Correlates Of Protection And Disease In Experimental Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

Author : Maximillian Shahin Habibi
ISBN : OCLC:1064069369
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Novel And Re Emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases

Author : Gregory R. Bock
ISBN : 0470770686
Genre : Science
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The past decade has seen mounting global concern regarding viral outbreaks such as SARS, avian influenza and West Nile virus. In 2004 and 2005, reports of bird-to-human, and possible human-to-human, transmissions of the H5N1 influenza viruses raised fears that these viruses could cause a pandemic on the scale of the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Previous to this, a novel coronavirus had been identified as the aetiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a new respiratory viral disease that emerged at the end of 2002 and caused profound disturbances in over 30 countries worldwide in 2003. It is not known whether the SARS coronavirus will re-emerge, especially since its origins and potential reservoir(s) are unresolved. However, these outbreaks have shown that these viruses can emerge in any part of the world at any time. This book critically evaluates the latest scientific evidence on novel or re-emerging viral diseases and brings together contributions from world experts on this topic, explaining best practice in their area, and discussing lessons learned and how best to collaborate to prevent and control future outbreaks. Topics covered include: the latest advances in virology, particularly in the area of epidemiology diagnostics animal models for viral infection antiviral and vaccine development Novel and Re-emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases offers a comprehensive and interdisciplinary account of all aspects of the topic, from basic molecular biology to public health issues, and is therefore essential reading for virologists, infectious disease specialists, public health managers, researchers and epidemiologists, as well as those working in vaccine development, pharmaceutical medicine and drug discovery

Immune Responses Of Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells To Respiratory Syncytial Virus And Human Metapneumovirus

Author : Ming-Shum Yip
ISBN : 1374665371
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This dissertation, "Immune Responses of Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus" by Ming-shum, Yip, 葉名琛, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Abstract of thesis entitled Immune responses of Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus submitted by Yip Ming Shum for the Degree of Master of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in August 2007 Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are recognized as substantial causes of acute respiratory tract infections worldwide. Infection particularly in infants, immunocompromised and elderly individuals could result in severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. In Hong Kong, both viruses co-circulate in spring and summer and share similar epidemiological features and clinical manifestations in humans. However, little is known whether the viruses trigger distinct or overlapping immune responses. In BALB/c mice and nasal secretions of HMPV-infected children, HMPV and RSV induce different cytokine and chemokine production. Therefore, we hypothesize that HMPV and RSV may trigger differential host immune responses. Airway epithelial cells are the primary target for HMPV and RSV. In this study, we aim to characterize the responses induced by HMPV- and RSV- infection in the airway epithelial cell line, A549. We first examined the infection patterns of the viruses in A549. Using the immunofluorescence assay, we have demonstrated that HMPV and RSV required different multiplicity of infection (MOI) to achieve similar infectivity in A549, suggesting differential permissiveness of the cell line to the viruses. At similar infectivities, the gene expression pattern of viral polymerase gene (L) of HMPV and RSV was different, showing the variation of replication kinetics at transcription level between the viruses in the host. Nevertheless, by cytopathic assays, the virus titer in HMPV- and RSV-infected A549 cells and cell-culture supernatant increased and was comparable at equivalent infectivities during the period of culture. We next investigated the cytokine and chemokine responses of A549 cells to HMPV and RSV by quantitative RT-PCR. At similar infectivities, both HMPV- and RSV-infected epithelial cells showed low expression of antiviral cytokines (interferon α [IFN-α] and IFN-β). HMPV-infected epithelial cells failed to induce proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α] and interleukin [IL-] 6), and only low level upregulation of these cytokines was shown in RSV-infected cells. Gene expression of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not FasL, was significantly upregulated in A549 cells infected with HMPV or RSV, with RSV being the stronger inducer of this death receptor ligand. RSV induced high level of inflammatory chemokines (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]) in the first 3 hours of infection. However, HMPV did not induce IL-8 and RANTES mRNA and appeared to be a less potent inducer of MCP-1 than RSV. Also, it was found that RSV but not HMPV moderately upregulated the gene expression of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) in epithelial cells during the late phase of infection. Our results suggest that RSV and HMPV may trigger differential innate immune responses in human respiratory epithelial cells. Further work should include the impact of these infected respirat

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Saudi Arabia

Author : Mohamed A. Farrag
ISBN : 3659330361
Genre :
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Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common infectious disease among human population worldwide. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of RTIs in infants and young children with a high disease impact on the lower respiratory tract. Two types of HRSV; A and B, were found to circulate concurrently with slight predominance of type A in most epidemics. There is a substantial lack of information on HRSV circulating in Saudi Arabia in terms of circulating types and strains, virus isolation, antigenic and genetic characterization, and phylogenetic relationship with strains circulating worldwide.

Pneumoviruses And Metapneumoviruses

Author : Helene F. Rosenberg
ISBN : 9783906980393
Genre :
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Pneumoviruses and Metapneumoviruses" that was published in Viruses

Evaluation Of Anti Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Effects Of Short Interfering Rnas And ? Defensin 4

Author : Ke Zhang
ISBN : 1361373644
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This dissertation, "Evaluation of Anti-human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Effects of Short Interfering RNAs and Β-defensin-4" by Ke, Zhang, 张科, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infection is a global public health burden in children aged under 2 years and immunocompromised or elderly adults. The choice for prophylaxis and therapy of hRSV infection was constrained to Palivizumab and Ribavirin. Therefore, this study aimed to develop effective anti-hRSV infection agents, such as short interfering RNA (siRNA) and β-defensin-4 (β-D-4). Since there still is no compatible animal model to evaluate antiviral effect of anti-hRSV agents, we first attempted to establish suitable animal model. A clinical isolate of hRSV (KI-RSV-W) was adapted in BALB/c mice by serial passages. Old male mice (age > 8 months) were used for establishment of hRSV infection model, because the more efficient viral infection in lungs of the old male mice than that old female mice and young mice (age We then designed and evaluated anti-hRSV effect of siRNAs. A total of 25 siRNAs targeting 4 viral genes (M2-1, NS2, N and F) were designed and their anti-hRSV effect was assessed in vitro. The results showed that 6 siRNAs respectively targeting M2-1, N and F genes exhibited higher anti-hRSV effect than that of the positive control, whereas those targeting NS2 gene did not show significant antiviral effect. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of three most potent siRNAs (M2-1-361, N889 and F-1143) were 0.51, 2.14 and 0.64 nM, respectively. Antiviral activity of β-D-4 against hRSV infection was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments showed supreme antiviral effect with IC50 around 3.4 μg/ml when the virus was pretreated with β-D-4, but no significant inhibitory effect was observed when the cells were pretreated with β-D-4 or β-D-4 was maintained in the culture medium after viral infection. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of β-D-4 was associated with direct interaction with the virus itself and blocked virus entry of the cells. Furthermore, a single dose (13.6 μg) of β-D-4 intratracheal (i.t.) administration in old male mice after the viral infection resulted in about 0.7 log reduce of viral load in lung tissues, while inoculation of premixed β-D-4 and the virus caused about 3 logs decrease of viral load in lungs. These results have demonstrated that β-D-4 may be an effective anti-hRSV agent. Taken together, old male BALB/c mice might be used to establish hRSV infection model. Three siRNAs and the β-D-4 were validated as the potent anti-hRSV agents, respectively. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5312330 Subjects: Antiviral agents Respiratory syncytial virus

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Author :
ISBN : 0080466699
Genre : Medical
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was first identified half a century ago in 1956. Following its discovery, the virus soon became recognised as a major viral pathogen causing extensive outbreaks of respiratory tract infections in both the very young and in vulnerable adults. It is an unusual virus in that it can cause repeated reinfections throughout life. The topics covered within this volume are wide ranging in scope from the most basic molecular biology of the virus to the clinical picture of RSV in the developing world. The internationally recognised experts were invited not only to review the present state of knowledge but also to give their perspective on the current situation and to identify the gaps and future requirements for research in an effort to stimulate new cross-cutting approaches to tackle this major viral pathogen.

Comparison Of Influenza A Virus Induced Apoptosis In Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

Author : Kit-Man Yuen
ISBN : 1361285729
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This dissertation, "Comparison of Influenza A Virus Induced Apoptosis in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells: an in Vitro and Ex Vivo Study" by Kit-man, Yuen, 阮潔雯, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which is panzootic in poultry, continues to spread and becomes endemic in Asia, Africa, and Europe. It causes human disease with high fatality (about 60%) and continues to pose a pandemic threat. The pathological lesions associated with human H5N1 disease is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The biological basis underlying the development of ARDS in human H5N1 disease remains controversial. Clinical, animal and in vitro studies suggested that the differences between H5N1 influenza viruss and low pathogenic influenza viruses in regard to viral replication, tissue tropism and cytokine dysregulation may contribute to disease pathogenesis. We previously found delayed onset of apoptosis in influenza H5N1 virus infected human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. This may allow a longer survival time for the virus in target cells for prolonged viral replication, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 disease. As human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells are target cells of influenza virus, I explored if influenza H5N1 and H1N1 virus infected human respiratory epithelial cells displayed differential apoptotic response and dissected the apoptotic pathways triggered by influenza virus infection. In this study, the apoptotic response in highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 viruses, A/HK/483/97 and A/Vietnam/1203/04, their precursor avian influenza H9N2 virus, A/Quail/HK/G1/97, and seasonal H1N1 virus, A/HK/54/98 infected primary human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells was compared by TUNEL. A delayed onset of apoptosis in influenza H5N1 viruses and avian H9N2 virus infected alveolar epithelial cells was observed; the pattern was similar in bronchial epithelial cells. Concomitantly, by Western blotting, a delay in caspase 3 activation in H5N1 virus (A/HK/483/97) infected alveolar epithelial cells compared to H1N1 virus (A/HK/54/98) infected cells was shown. Also, influenza H5N1 and H1N1 virus induced apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human alveolar epithelial cells. Chemokine IP-10 was differentially up-regulated in influenza H5N1 virus infected alveolar epithelial cells, but its relationship to the delayed onset of apoptosis requires further studies. TRAIL, an upstream signaling molecule of extrinsic apoptotic pathway, mRNA was up-regulated in influenza H5N1 infected alveolar epithelial cells but not in influenza H1N1 infected cells. Using recombinant viruses, I showed that the 627 amino acid residue on PB2 of H5N1 virus and mutation of amino acids on 253 and 591 residues on PB2 of H9N2 virus contribute to the TRAIL upregulation. Immunohistochemical staining of physiologically relevant ex vivo model of human bronchus showed that influenza H5N1 (A/Vietnam/3046/04) and H9N2 (A/Quail/HK/G1/97) virus did not infect human bronchi as well as human H1N1 (A/HK/54/98) virus. Profiling of apoptosis related genes showed that TRAIL tends to be up-regulated in H5N1 virus infected bronchi ex vivo. This study demonstrated the delayed onset of apoptosis by H5N1 virus infected respiratory epithelial cells may be a mean for influenza virus to have prolonged replication within the human respiratory tract and contribute to disease severity. The results generated provide a robust research agenda, yielding critical inf

Human Respiratory Viral Infections

Author : Sunit K. Singh
ISBN : 9781466583207
Genre : Medical
File Size : 35. 52 MB
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Using a multidisciplinary approach, Human Respiratory Viral Infections is set at the level between the definitive reference work and an essential clinical manual. Exploring recent advances in human respiratory viral research, the text builds on the basic sciences of epidemiology, virology, molecular biology, and immunology to cover clinical diagnosis, mechanism of pathogenesis, manifestations of disease, impact, treatment, and management strategies. Provides a comprehensive review of all the major human respiratory viral infections Supplies a detailed description of the anatomy of the respiratory system Discusses the salient features of specific viruses Examines the latest diagnostic tools Covers risk factors associated with incidence of respiratory viral infections in children and adults in different occupational and environmental settings Presenting the latest knowledge in human respiratory viral infections, this text will be immensely valuable for pulmonologists, biomedical scientists, research scholars, virologists, vaccinologists, immunologists, clinicians, pharmacologists, and public health specialists.

Respiratory Syncytial Viruses Advances In Research And Treatment 2012 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781481630580
Genre : Medical
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Respiratory Syncytial Viruses—Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Respiratory Syncytial Viruses in a compact format. The editors have built Respiratory Syncytial Viruses—Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Respiratory Syncytial Viruses in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Respiratory Syncytial Viruses—Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Current Insights Into Host Immune Responses To Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Rsv And Challenges Towards Efficient Treatments And Vaccines Against Rsv

Author : Alexis M. Kalergis
ISBN : 9782889639182
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We acknowledge the initiation and support of this Research Topic by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). We hereby state publicly that the IUIS has had no editorial input in articles included in this Research Topic, thus ensuring that all aspects of this Research Topic are evaluated objectively, unbiased by any specific policy or opinion of the IUIS

Sars Mers And Other Viral Lung Infections

Author : David S. Hui
ISBN : 9781849840705
Genre : Medical
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Viral respiratory tract infections are important and common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past two decades, several novel viral respiratory infections have emerged with epidemic potential that threaten global health security. This Monograph aims to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and other viral respiratory infections, including seasonal influenza, avian influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus, through six chapters written by authoritative experts from around the globe.

Chemoprophylaxis And Virus Infections Of The Respiratory Tract

Author : J.S. Oxford
ISBN : 9781351079068
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 89 MB
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Originally, it was our intention to produce a single-volume book covering all aspects and approaches to the problem of specific inhibitors of respiratory viruses. However, as the work progressed it became obvious that certain chapters, because of the research interests of the authors, concentrated particularly on influenza viruses. It seemed logical therefore, to divide the book into two volumes, the first emphasizing influenza and the second concentrating on other viruses as well as discussing important general aspects of drug screening and clinical testing, although the second volume does have some chapters which deal mainly with influenza.

Influenza A Virus Infection Of Human Respiratory Epithelium

Author : Wan-Yi Chan
ISBN : 1374803162
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