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Humanitarians At War

Author : Gerald Steinacher
ISBN : 9780191014970
Genre : History
File Size : 82. 76 MB
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The Geneva-based International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is one of the world's oldest, most prominent, and revered aid organizations. But at the end of World War II things could not have looked more different. Under fire for its failure to speak out against the Holocaust or to extend substantial assistance to Jews trapped in Nazi camps across Europe, the ICRC desperately needed to salvage its reputation in order to remain relevant in the post-war world. Indeed, the whole future of Switzerland's humanitarian flagship looked to hang in the balance at this time. Torn between defending Swiss neutrality and battling Communist critics in the early Cold War, the Red Cross leadership in Geneva emerged from the world war with a new commitment to protecting civilians caught in the crossfire of conflict. Yet they did so while interfering with Allied de-nazification efforts in Germany and elsewhere, and coming to the defence of former Nazis at the Nuremberg Trials. Not least, they provided the tools for many of Hitler's former henchmen, notorious figures such as Joseph Mengele and Adolf Eichmann, to slip out of Europe and escape prosecution - behaviour which did little to silence those critics in the Allied powers who unfavourably compared the 'shabby' neutrality of the Swiss with the 'good neutrality' of the Swedes, their eager rivals for leadership in international humanitarian initiatives. However, in spite of all this, by the end of the decade, the ICRC had emerged triumphant from its moment of existential crisis, navigating the new global order to reaffirm its leadership in world humanitarian affairs against the challenge of the Swedes, and playing a formative role in rewriting the rules of war in the Geneva Conventions of 1949. This uncompromising new history tells the remarkable and intriguing story of how the ICRC achieved this - successfully escaping the shadow of its ambiguous wartime record to forge a new role and a new identity in the post-1945 world.

Humanitarian Action In Times Of War

Author : Larry Minear
ISBN : 1555874371
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 56. 30 MB
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The three chapter titles summarize the contents: Guiding Humanitarian Principles--Toward a Framework for Action; Emerging Humanitarian Policy Guidelines--Toward More Effective Programs; and Evolving Humanitarian Standards--Toward of Code of Conduct for Armed Conflicts. Discussion includes the international legal context, operational strategies, tasks of the humanitarian community and of individual agencies, code enforcement, and issues for further analysis. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Humanitarian Intervention

Author : United States
ISBN : MINN:31951D00268003V
Genre : Government publications
File Size : 76. 90 MB
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Humanitarian Wars?

Author : Rory Brauman
ISBN : 9781787382169
Genre : Armed Forces
File Size : 56. 65 MB
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In the eyes of Rony Brauman of Médecins sans Frontières, wars are always triggered in the name of morality. Today's "humanitarian" interventions are little more than new moral crusades-and their justifications are based on lies. There are plenty of examples of hawkish propaganda in recent years: Saddam Hussein's mythical weapons of mass destruction; a dubious genocide in Kosovo; doctored figures of famine in Somalia; and a fake massacre of protesters in Libya. Without being militantly non-interventionist, Brauman is extremely suspicious of the thirst for war displayed by many of today's world leaders, the consequences of which are devastating. He is critical of international peacekeeping bodies and tribunals: the UN Security Council and the International Criminal Court represent, for him, the interests of the powerful before all else. Basing his argument on the criteria for a "just war," Brauman criticizes the Western obsession with imposing democratic values by force. In this sober and convincing book, he thoroughly dismantles the notion of the justness of "humanitarian wars."

The Ethics Of Armed Humanitarian Intervention

Author :
ISBN : 9781428980471
Genre :
File Size : 54. 49 MB
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Humanitarian Intervention In Somalia Bibliography

Author :
ISBN : IND:30000038070599
Genre : International relief
File Size : 73. 31 MB
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Humanitarian Economics

Author : Gilles Carbonnier
ISBN : 9780190491543
Genre : Disaster relief
File Size : 56. 59 MB
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While the booming humanitarian sector faces daunting challenges, humanitarian economics emerges as a new field of study and practice--one that encompasses the economics and political economy of war, disaster, terrorism and humanitarianism. Carbonnier's book is the first to present humanitarian economics to a wide readership, defining its parameters, explaining its utility and convincing us why it matters. Among the issues he discusses are: how are emotions and altruism incorporated within a rational-choice framework? How do the economics of war and terrorism inform humanitarians' negotiations with combatants, and shed light on the role of aid in conflict? What do catastrophe bonds and risk-linked securities hold for disaster response? As more actors enter the humanitarian marketplace (including private firms), Carbonnier's revealing portrayal is especially timely, as is his critique of the transformative power of crises.

Human Shields

Author : Neve Gordon
ISBN : 9780520301849
Genre : History
File Size : 26. 72 MB
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From Syrian civilians locked in iron cages to veterans joining peaceful indigenous water protectors at the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation, from Sri Lanka to Iraq and from Yemen to the United States, human beings have been used as shields for protection, coercion, or deterrence. Over the past decade, human shields have also appeared with increasing frequency in noncombat contexts such as antinuclear struggles, civil and environmental protests, and even computer games. The phenomenon, however, is by no means a new one. In Human Shields, Neve Gordon and Nicola Perugini describe how human shields have been used in key historical and contemporary moments and across geographical sites. The practice of human shielding corresponds with the history of shifting understandings of what is valued as "human": in the American Civil War and the Franco-German War, only the elite were used as shields, while in later conflicts, hundreds of thousands of women and children and people of color were placed in the crossfire as deterrents. Human Shields demonstrates how this increasing weaponization of human beings has made the position of civilians trapped in theaters of violence more precarious and their lives more expendable.

The Humanitarian Enterprise

Author : Larry Minear
ISBN : 9781565491496
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 79. 92 MB
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* Epilogue discussing the international response to the terrorist attacks of 2001 and the war in Afghanistan * A fundamental text about the future of humanitarianism in the twenty-first century International humanitarian activities have grown enormously in scale over the past decade, and the complex links between humanitarian work and the worlds of politics and military engagement have become increasingly contested. Larry Minear uncovers what international humanitarians--including the UN, national governments, the Red Cross, and many private relief and development agencies--have learned about performing humanitarian work well, and the arguments that remain unresolved.

Humanitarianism War And The Recolonization Of Angola

Author : Horace Campbell
ISBN : UOM:39015053775501
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26. 29 MB
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Includes statistics.

Waging Humanitarian War

Author : Eric Heinze
ISBN : 9780791477083
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 83. 91 MB
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Examines the ethical, legal, and political dimensions of military intervention for humanitarian reasons.

Military Resistance To Humanitarian War In Kosovo And Beyond

Author : Kenneth R. Rizer
ISBN : OSU:32435067900316
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 50 MB
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) success in the Balkan conflict overshadowed Pentagon resistance to military intervention in Kosovo. Using the new institutionalism, content analysis of actors' statements, and recent civil-military relations studies, this paper explains why the Pentagon opposed war in Kosovo, and why it will likely oppose future such "humanitarian wars. This paper shows that the US military holds an institutionalized philosophy of conservative realism. This philosophy stems from the nature of the profession, and is transmitted to succeeding generations through the military's unique cultural, historical, and educational traditions. Within this philosophical paradigm, the Pentagon views war as a legitimate political tool used only as a last resort, and then only for promoting or defending the nation's survival or vital interests. The Pentagon resisted military intervention in Kosovo because intervention on behalf of human rights was incompatible with this institutionalized, conservative philosophy. Indeed, the Clinton administration's justification for military intervention stemmed directly from the liberal, Wilsonian tradition of basing foreign policy on universal principles rather than interests. Such a rationale was, and remains, antithetical to the military's interest-based, conservative view of war. The paper concludes that this military philosophy is unlikely to change in the short term, that it will continue to strain relations with liberal administrations, and that it ultimately helps prevent cavalier uses of American military power.

Humanitarian Law And The Protection Of War Victims

Author : Jean Pictet
ISBN : 9028603050
Genre : Human rights
File Size : 86. 24 MB
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War S Offensive On Women

Author : Julie Mertus
ISBN : STANFORD:36105110360463
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 22. 50 MB
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Annotation Julie Mertus contends that attempts by humanitarian groups to provide assistance and protection for women will fall short unless they enlist the same women as major actors in such efforts. Case studies from Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan describe experiences in tackling gender issues in humanitarian organizations and in situations of conflict. Mertus goes on to show how international human rights law has begun to address gender-based violence and how agencies can make use of these developments.

Morristown New Jersey In The Spanish American War

Author : Andrew Magoun Sherman
ISBN : NYPL:33433081762746
Genre : Morristown (N.J.)
File Size : 83. 5 MB
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The News Media Civil War And Humanitarian Action

Author : Larry Minear
ISBN : 1555876765
Genre : History
File Size : 29. 42 MB
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The civil wars - and the ensuing humanitarian crises - that have been prominent features of the first post-Cold War decade have revealed a close and active relationship among a triangle of institutions: the news media, governments, and humanitarian organisations. This three-way relationship has elicited considerable commentary, with the media often depicted as the decisive casual link between a given crisis and how governments and aid groups behave.

Humanitarianism War And Politics

Author : Peter J. Hoffman
ISBN : 9781442266148
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 24. 4 MB
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What is humanitarianism? This authoritative book provides a comprehensive analysis of the original idea and its evolution, exploring its triangulation with war and politics. Peter J. Hoffman and Thomas G. Weiss trace the origins of humanitarianism, its social movement, and the institutions (international humanitarian law) and organizations (providers of assistance and protection) that comprise it. They consider the international humanitarian system’s ability to regulate the conduct of war, to improve the wellbeing of its victims, and to prosecute war criminals. Probing the profound changes in the culture and capacities that underpin the sector and alter the meaning of humanitarianism, they assess the reinventions that constitute “revolutions in humanitarian affairs.” The book begins with traditions and perspectives—ranging from classic international relations approaches to “Critical Humanitarian Studies” —and reviews seminal wartime emergencies and the creation and development of humanitarian agencies in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The authors then examine the rise of “new humanitarianisms” after the Cold War’s end and contemporary cases after 9/11. The authors continue by unpacking the most recent “revolutions”—the International Criminal Court and the “Responsibility to Protect”—as well as such core challenges as displacement camps, infectious diseases, eco-refugees, and marketization. They conclude by evaluating the contemporary system and the prospects for further transformations, identifying scholarly puzzles and the acute operational problems faced by practitioners.

Just War Or Just Peace?

Author : Simon Chesterman
ISBN : 019925799X
Genre : Law
File Size : 58. 79 MB
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The question of the legality of humanitarian intervention is, at first blush, a simple one. The Charter of the United Nations clearly prohibits the use of force, with the only exceptions being self-defence and enforcement actions authorized by the Security Council. There are, however,long-standing arguments that a right of unilateral intervention pre-existed the Charter.This book, which won the ASIL Certificate of Merit in 2002, begins with an examination of the genealogy of that right, and arguments that it might have survived the passage of the Charter, either through a loophole in Article 2(4) or as part of customary international law. It has also been arguedthat certain `illegitimate' regimes lose the attributes of sovereignty and thereby the protection given by the prohibition of the use of force. None of these arguments is found to have merit, either in principle or in the practice of states.A common justification for a right of unilateral humanitarian intervention concerns the failure of the collective security mechanism created after the Second World War. Chapters 4 and 5, therefore, examine Security Council activism in the 1990s, notable for the plasticity of the circumstances inwhich the Council was prepared to assert its primary responsibility for international peace and security, and the contingency of its actions on the willingness of states to carry them out. This reduction of the Council's role from substantive to formal partly explains the recourse to unilateralismin that decade, most spectacularly in relation to the situation in Kosovo.Crucially, the book argues that such unilateral enforcement is not a substitute for but the opposite of collective action. Though often presented as the only alternative to inaction, incorporating a `right' of intervention would lead to more such interventions being undertaken in bad faith, it wouldbe incoherent as a principle, and it would be inimical to the emergence of an international rule of law.

The Great War And The Origins Of Humanitarianism 1918 1924

Author : Bruno Cabanes
ISBN : 9781107020627
Genre : History
File Size : 74. 72 MB
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Pioneering study of the transition from war to peace and the birth of humanitarian rights after the Great War.

Patronage Or Partnership

Author : Ian Smillie
ISBN : 9780889369443
Genre : Crisis management
File Size : 72. 69 MB
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* A refreshing study of capacity building through various local perspectives* Includes studies from Mozambique, Bosnia, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Haiti, and GuatemalaStrengthening local capacity is more difficult than one might expect; there are significant trade-offs between outsiders providing assistance in the midst of an emergency, and encouraging the building of long-term local skills. By critically examining the dilemma from local perspectives, "Patronage or Partnership" finds genuine hope amidst the prevailing rhetoric and confusion.

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