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Illustrating The Phaenomena

Author : Elly Dekker
ISBN : 9780199609697
Genre : Art
File Size : 49. 39 MB
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In this volume all extant celestial maps and globes made before 1500 are described and analysed. It also discusses the astronomical sources involved in making these artefacts in antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Islamic world and the European Renaissance before 1500.

Astronomy In Culture Cultures Of Astronomy Astronomie In Der Kultur Kulturen Der Astronomie

Author : Gudrun Wolfschmidt
ISBN : 9783347712942
Genre : History
File Size : 72. 67 MB
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This book "Astronomy in Culture - Cultures of Astronomy" provides a cultural history of astronomy. After a keynote on the efforts to protect the dark sky as an intangible global heritage admired of all cultures under the World Heritage Convention, tangible places of astronomical heritage are described. Archaeoastronomical sites from different continents and astronomical observatories from the late Middle Ages to the 21st century are presented as cultural heritage (material culture) in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 outlines some intangible astronomical heritage of Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Astronomical observations in all cultures are the basis for time keeping and calendars all over the world. Constellations are represented as figures resembling animals or seasonal activities, and seasonal climate determines rituals and cultural festivals. Chapter 4 is devoted to some astronomical heritage presented in modern planetariums and museums representing the modern culture. A highlight is the network study of patterns stored in the planetarium software "Stellarium". Chapter 5 contains some cross-cultural comparisons involving the whole sky. Scholars from different academic backgrounds (archaeology, history of science, philology, art history, planetarium educators, computer/data science) present their studies of this traditional knowledge and how it has been transmitted and transformed over the millennia in the seven chapters of this impressive book. Dieses Buch "Astronomie in der Kultur - Kulturen der Astronomie" bietet eine Kulturgeschichte der Astronomie. Es beginnt mit den Bemühungen, den dunklen Himmel, der von allen Kulturen bewundert wird, im Rahmen der Welterbekonvention als immaterielles Erbe zu schützen. Astronomische Observatorien und archäoastronomische Stätten werden in Kapitel 2 als kulturelles Erbe (materielle Kultur) vorgestellt. Kapitel 3 bietet das immaterielle Erbe von der Antike bis zum Mittelalter. Astronomische Beobachtungen in allen Kulturen sind die Grundlage für Zeitrechnungen und Kalender auf der ganzen Welt. Sternbilder werden als Figuren dargestellt, die Tieren oder Tätigkeiten der Jahreszeiten ähneln, und das jahreszeitliche Klima bestimmt die Rituale und kulturellen Feste. Kapitel 4 ist einem Teil des astronomischen Erbes gewidmet, das in modernen Planetarien und Museen der modernen Kultur präsentiert wird. Ein Höhepunkt ist die Netzwerkstudie der Muster, die in der Planetariumssoftware "Stellarium" gespeichert sind. Kapitel 5 enthält einige kulturübergreifende Vergleiche, die den gesamten Himmel betreffen. Wissenschaftler mit unterschiedlichen akademischen Hintergründen (Archäologie, Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Philologie, Kunstgeschichte, Planetariumspädagogen, Informatik/Datenwissenschaft) stellen in den sieben Kapiteln dieses beeindruckenden Buches ihre Studien über dieses traditionelle Wissen und seine Übertragung und Veränderung im Laufe der Jahrtausende vor.

Cartography Between Christian Europe And The Arabic Islamic World 1100 1500

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ISBN : 9789004446038
Genre : History
File Size : 52. 87 MB
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Cartography between Christian Europe and the Arabic-Islamic World offers a timely assessment of interaction between medieval Christian European and Arabic-Islamic geographical thought, making the case for significant but limited cultural transfer across a range of map genres.

Astronomical Knowledge Transmission Through Illustrated Aratea Manuscripts

Author : Marion Dolan
ISBN : 9783319567846
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 96 MB
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This carefully researched monograph is a historical investigation of the illustrated Aratea astronomical manuscript and its many interpretations over the centuries. Aratus' 270 B.C.E. Greek poem describing the constellations and astrological phenomena was translated and copied over 800 years into illuminated manuscripts that preserved and illustrated these ancient stories about the constellations. The Aratea survives in its entirety due to multiple translations from Greek to Latin and even to Arabic, with many illuminated versions being commissioned over the ages. The survey encompasses four interrelated disciplines: history of literature, history of myth, history of science, and history of art. Aratea manuscripts by their nature are a meeting place of these distinct branches, and the culling of information from historical literature and from the manuscripts themselves focuses on a wider, holistic view; a narrow approach could not provide a proper prospective. What is most essential to know about this work is that because of its successive incarnations it has survived and been reinterpreted through the centuries, which speaks to its importance in all of these disciplines. This book brings a better understanding of the history, changes and transmission of the original astronomical Phaenomena poem. Historians, art historians, astronomy lovers, and historians of astronomy will learn more specialized details concerning the Aratea and how the tradition survived from the Middle Ages. It is a credit to the poetry of Aratus and the later interpreters of the text that its pagan aspects were not edited nor removed, but respected and maintained in the exact same form despite the fact that all sixty Aratea manuscripts mentioned in this study were produced under the rule of Christianity.

The Spatial Reformation

Author : Michael J. Sauter
ISBN : 9780812250664
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 92 MB
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In The Spatial Reformation, Michael J. Sauter offers a sweeping history of the way Europeans conceived of three-dimensional space, including the relationship between Earth and the heavens, between 1350 and 1850. He argues that this "spatial reformation" provoked a reorganization of knowledge in the West that was arguably as important as the religious Reformation. Notably, it had its own sacred text, which proved as central and was as ubiquitously embraced: Euclid's Elements. Aside from the Bible, no other work was so frequently reproduced in the early modern era. According to Sauter, its penetration and suffusion throughout European thought and experience call for a deliberate reconsideration not only of what constitutes the intellectual foundation of the early modern era but also of its temporal range. The Spatial Reformation contends that space is a human construct: that is, it is a concept that arises from the human imagination and gets expressed physically in texts and material objects. Sauter begins his examination by demonstrating how Euclidean geometry, when it was applied fully to the cosmos, estranged God from man, enabling the breakthrough to heliocentrism and, by extension, the discovery of the New World. Subsequent chapters provide detailed analyses of the construction of celestial and terrestrial globes, Albrecht Dürer's engraving Melencolia, the secularization of the natural history of the earth and man, and Hobbes's rejection of Euclid's sense of space and its effect on his political theory. Sauter's exploration culminates in the formation of a new anthropology in the eighteenth century that situated humanity in reference to spaces and places that human eyes had not actually seen. The Spatial Reformation illustrates how these disparate advancements can be viewed as resulting expressly from early modernity's embrace of Euclidean geometry.

The Oxford Dictionary Of Late Antiquity

Author : Oliver Nicholson
ISBN : 9780192562463
Genre : History
File Size : 54. 22 MB
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The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity is the first comprehensive reference book covering every aspect of history, culture, religion, and life in Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Near East (including the Persian Empire and Central Asia) between the mid-3rd and the mid-8th centuries AD, the era now generally known as Late Antiquity. This period saw the re-establishment of the Roman Empire, its conversion to Christianity and its replacement in the West by Germanic kingdoms, the continuing Roman Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Persian Sassanian Empire, and the rise of Islam. Consisting of over 1.5 million words in more than 5,000 A-Z entries, and written by more than 400 contributors, it is the long-awaited middle volume of a series, bridging a significant period of history between those covered by the acclaimed Oxford Classical Dictionary and The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. The scope of the Dictionary is broad and multi-disciplinary; across the wide geographical span covered (from Western Europe and the Mediterranean as far as the Near East and Central Asia), it provides succinct and pertinent information on political history, law, and administration; military history; religion and philosophy; education; social and economic history; material culture; art and architecture; science; literature; and many other areas. Drawing on the latest scholarship, and with a formidable international team of advisers and contributors, The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity aims to establish itself as the essential reference companion to a period that is attracting increasing attention from scholars and students worldwide.

Astrolabes In Medieval Cultures

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ISBN : 9789004387867
Genre : History
File Size : 81. 20 MB
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Astrolabes in Medieval Cultures brings together fifteen studies on the astrolabe in the Middle Ages. By considering sources and instruments from Muslim, Christian, and Jewish contexts, this volume provides state-of-the-art research on the history and use of the astrolabe.

Solar System Maps

Author : Nick Kanas
ISBN : 9781461408963
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 32 MB
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In recent years, there has been increased interest in our Solar System. This has been prompted by the launching of giant orbiting telescopes and space probes, the discovery of new planetary moons and heavenly bodies that orbit the Sun, and the demotion of Pluto as a planet. In one generation, our place in the heavens has been challenged, but this is not unusual. Throughout history, there have been a number of such world views. Initially, Earth was seen as the center of the universe and surrounded by orbiting planets and stars. Then the Sun became the center of the cosmos. Finally, there was no center, just a vast array of galaxies with individual stars, some with their own retinue of planets. This allowed our Solar System to be differentiated from deep-sky objects, but it didn’t lose its mystery as more and more remarkable bodies were discovered within its boundaries. This book tells the exciting story of how we have conceptualized and mapped our Solar System from antiquity to modern times. In addition to the complete text, this story is made more vivid by: • 162 Solar System and planetary maps, diagrams, and images (over a third in color); • direct quotes and figures from antiquarian, contemporary, and Space Age documents and photographs that allow the reader to track how humans have viewed the Solar System from original sources; • nine tables that compare the various world views, relative planetary positions, and components of the Solar System with each other. Broad in scope and rich in imagery, this book will draw the reader into the story of our Solar System and how it has been mapped since the beginning of recorded time.

Astrology Through History Interpreting The Stars From Ancient Mesopotamia To The Present

Author : William E. Burns
ISBN : 9781440851438
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
File Size : 81. 61 MB
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Alphabetically arranged entries cover the history of astrology from ancient Mesopotamia to the 21st century. In addition to surveying the Western tradition, the book explores Islamic, Indian, East Asian, and Mesoamerican astrology. • Provides alphabetically arranged reference entries that delineate the historical and cultural significance of astrology from ancient Mesopotamia to the present • Directs direct users to additional sources of information via entry bibliographies • Offers sidebars offer additional facts from primary source documents • Incorporates a timeline to help readers to place astrological developments in chronological context • Features an introductory essay for a narrative overview of the history of astrology, priming readers on its cultural relevance

Heaven And Earth United

Author :
ISBN : 9789004381438
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 29 MB
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Recognising that almost every culture has entertained the idea that the stars and planets influence the Earth and its inhabitants, Heaven and Earth United explores the ways in which scientific instruments have been used for astrological purposes.

A Saving Science

Author : Eric M. Ramírez-Weaver
ISBN : 9780271078274
Genre : Art
File Size : 53. 67 MB
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In A Saving Science, Eric Ramírez-Weaver explores the significance of early medieval astronomy in the Frankish empire, using as his lens an astronomical masterpiece, the deluxe manuscript of the Handbook of 809, painted in roughly 830 for Bishop Drogo of Metz, one of Charlemagne’s sons. Created in an age in which careful study of the heavens served a liturgical purpose—to reckon Christian feast days and seasons accurately and thus reflect a “heavenly” order—the diagrams of celestial bodies in the Handbook of 809 are extraordinary signifiers of the intersection of Christian art and classical astronomy. Ramírez-Weaver shows how, by studying this lavishly painted and carefully executed manuscript, we gain a unique understanding of early medieval astronomy and its cultural significance. In a time when the Frankish church sought to renew society through education, the Handbook of 809 presented a model in which study aided the spiritual reform of the cleric’s soul, and, by extension, enabled the spiritual care of his community. An exciting new interpretation of Frankish painting, A Saving Science shows that constellations in books such as Drogo’s were not simple copies for posterity’s sake, but functional tools in the service of the rejuvenation of a creative Carolingian culture.

Medieval Meteorology

Author : Anne Lawrence-Mathers
ISBN : 9781108418393
Genre : History
File Size : 24. 77 MB
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Explores how scientifically-based weather forecasting spread and flourished in medieval Europe, from c.700-c.1600.

The Mysterious Spheres On Greek And Roman Ancient Coins

Author : Raymond V. Sidrys
ISBN : 9781789697919
Genre : Antiques & Collectibles
File Size : 66. 85 MB
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This book is not a standard coin catalogue, but it focuses on quantities and percentages of the mysterious 5950 sphere images on Roman coin reverses, and a few Greek coins. This research identifies political, cultural, religious and propaganda trends associated with the coin sphere images, and offers a variety of new findings.

Cosmos Liturgy And The Arts In The Twelfth Century

Author : Margot E. Fassler
ISBN : 9781512823080
Genre : History
File Size : 42. 43 MB
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In Cosmos, Liturgy, and the Arts in the Twelfth Century, Margot E. Fassler takes readers into the rich, complex world of Hildegard of Bingen’s Scivias (meaning “Know the ways”) to explore how medieval thinkers understood and imagined the universe. Hildegard, renowned for her contributions to theology, music, literature, and art, developed unique methods for integrating these forms of thought and expression into a complete vision of the cosmos and of the human journey. Scivias was Hildegard’s first major theological work and the only one of her writings that was both illuminated and copied by scribes from her monastery during her lifetime. It contains not just religious visions and theological commentary, but also a shortened version of Hildegard’s play Ordo virtutum (“Play of the virtues”), plus the texts of fourteen musical compositions. These elements of Scivias, Fassler contends, form a coherent whole demonstrating how Hildegard used theology and the liturgical arts to lead and to teach the nuns of her community. Hildegard’s visual and sonic images unfold slowly and deliberately, opening up varied paths of knowing. Hildegard and her nuns adapted forms of singing that they believed to be crucial to the reform of the Church in their day and central to the ongoing turning of the heavens and to the nature of time itself. Hildegard’s vision of the universe is a “Cosmic Egg,” as described in Scivias, filled with strife and striving, and at its center unfolds the epic drama of every human soul, embodied through sound and singing. Though Hildegard’s view of the cosmos is far removed from modern understanding, Fassler’s analysis reveals how this dynamic cosmological framework from the Middle Ages resonates with contemporary thinking in surprising ways, and underscores the vitality of the arts as embodied modes of theological expression and knowledge.

The Cambridge Companion To Ancient Greek And Roman Science

Author : Liba Taub
ISBN : 9781107092488
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 74. 22 MB
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Provides a broad framework for engaging with ideas relevant to ancient Greek and Roman science, medicine and technology.

Decoding Astronomy In Art And Architecture

Author : Marion Dolan
ISBN : 9783030765118
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 22 MB
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For centuries, our ancestors carefully observed the movements of the heavens and wove that astronomical knowledge into their city planning, architecture, mythology, paintings, sculpture, and poetry. This book uncovers the hidden messages and advanced science encoded within these sacred spaces, showing how the rhythmic motions of the night sky played a central role across many different cultures. Our astronomical tour transports readers through time and space, from prehistoric megaliths to Renaissance paintings, Greco-Roman temples to Inca architecture. Along the way, you will investigate unexpected findings at Lascaux, Delphi, Petra, Angkor Wat, Borobudur, and many more archaeological sites both famous and little known. Through these vivid examples, you will come to appreciate the masterful ways that astronomical knowledge was incorporated into each society’s religion and mythology, then translated into their physical surroundings. The latest archaeoastronomical studies and discoveries are recounted through a poetic and nontechnical narrative, revealing how many longstanding beliefs about our ancestors are being overturned. Through this celestial journey, readers of all backgrounds will learn the basics about this exciting field and share in the wonders of cultural astronomy.

Lost Maps Of The Caliphs

Author : Yossef Rapoport
ISBN : 9780226553405
Genre : History
File Size : 26. 4 MB
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About a millennium ago, in Cairo, an unknown author completed a large and richly illustrated book. In the course of thirty-five chapters, this book guided the reader on a journey from the outermost cosmos and planets to Earth and its lands, islands, features, and inhabitants. This treatise, known as The Book of Curiosities, was unknown to modern scholars until a remarkable manuscript copy surfaced in 2000. Lost Maps of the Caliphs provides the first general overview of The Book of Curiosities and the unique insight it offers into medieval Islamic thought. Opening with an account of the remarkable discovery of the manuscript and its purchase by the Bodleian Library, the authors use The Book of Curiosities to re-evaluate the development of astrology, geography, and cartography in the first four centuries of Islam. Their account assesses the transmission of Late Antique geography to the Islamic world, unearths the logic behind abstract maritime diagrams, and considers the palaces and walls that dominate medieval Islamic plans of towns and ports. Early astronomical maps and drawings demonstrate the medieval understanding of the structure of the cosmos and illustrate the pervasive assumption that almost any visible celestial event had an effect upon life on Earth. Lost Maps of the Caliphs also reconsiders the history of global communication networks at the turn of the previous millennium. It shows the Fatimid Empire, and its capital Cairo, as a global maritime power, with tentacles spanning from the eastern Mediterranean to the Indus Valley and the East African coast. As Lost Maps of the Caliphs makes clear, not only is The Book of Curiosities one of the greatest achievements of medieval mapmaking, it is also a remarkable contribution to the story of Islamic civilization that opens an unexpected window to the medieval Islamic view of the world.

Comparativism In Art History

Author : Jas Elsner
ISBN : 9781351571395
Genre : Art
File Size : 68. 14 MB
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Featuring some of the major voices in the world of art history, this volume explores the methodological aspects of comparison in the historiography of the discipline. The chapters assess the strengths and weaknesses of comparative practice in the history of art, and consider the larger issue of the place of comparative in how art history may develop in the future. The contributors represent a comprehensive range of period and geographic command from antiquity to modernity, from China and Islam to Europe, from various forms of art history to archaeology, anthropology and material culture studies. Art history is less a single discipline than a series of divergent scholarly fields ? in very different historical, geographic and cultural contexts ? but all with a visual emphasis on the close examination of objects. These fields focus on different, often incompatible temporal and cultural contexts, yet nonetheless they regard themselves as one coherent discipline ? namely the history of art. There are substantive problems in how the sub-fields within the broad-brush generalization called 'art history' can speak coherently to each other. These are more urgent since the shift from an art history centered on the western tradition to one that is consciously global.

Abstraction In Medieval Art

Author : Elina Gertsman
ISBN : 9789048542673
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 43. 70 MB
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Abstraction haunts medieval art, both withdrawing figuration and suggesting elusive presence. How does it make or destroy meaning in the process? Does it suggest the failure of figuration, the faltering of iconography? Does medieval abstraction function because it is imperfect, incomplete, and uncorrected-and therefore cognitively, visually demanding? Is it, conversely, precisely about perfection? To what extent is the abstract predicated on theorization of the unrepresentable and imperceptible? Does medieval abstraction pit aesthetics against metaphysics, or does it enrich it, or frame it, or both? Essays in this collection explore these and other questions that coalesce around three broad themes: medieval abstraction as the untethering of image from what it purports to represent, abstraction as a vehicle for signification, and abstraction as a form of figuration. Contributors approach the concept of medieval abstraction from a multitude of perspectives-formal, semiotic, iconographic, material, phenomenological, epistemological.

The Routledge Companion To Medieval Iconography

Author : Colum Hourihane
ISBN : 9781315298351
Genre : Art
File Size : 81. 27 MB
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Sometimes enjoying considerable favor, sometimes less, iconography has been an essential element in medieval art historical studies since the beginning of the discipline. Some of the greatest art historians – including Mâle, Warburg, Panofsky, Morey, and Schapiro – have devoted their lives to understanding and structuring what exactly the subject matter of a work of medieval art can tell. Over the last thirty or so years, scholarship has seen the meaning and methodologies of the term considerably broadened. This companion provides a state-of-the-art assessment of the influence of the foremost iconographers, as well as the methodologies employed and themes that underpin the discipline. The first section focuses on influential thinkers in the field, while the second covers some of the best-known methodologies; the third, and largest section, looks at some of the major themes in medieval art. Taken together, the three sections include thirty-eight chapters, each of which deals with an individual topic. An introduction, historiographical evaluation, and bibliography accompany the individual essays. The authors are recognized experts in the field, and each essay includes original analyses and/or case studies which will hopefully open the field for future research.

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