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In Silico Toxicology

Author : Mark T. D. Cronin
ISBN : 9781849730044
Genre : Medical
File Size : 26. 66 MB
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In silico methods to predict toxicity are becoming increasingly important, particularly in light of European legislation such as Reach and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. The objective of In Silico Toxicology: Principles and Applications is to enable the reader to develop new, and use existing, in silico methods to predict the toxicity and fate of chemicals. It develops the theme in a logical sequence leading the use through the retrieval, and assessment of quality, of toxicological data and information; the calculation of descriptors and properties; the basis of statistical techniques for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARS); the interpretation and validation of models for regulatory use; the mechanistic basis to modelling; as well as chemical grouping approaches and application of the models for risk assessment. The book also addresses other aspects of in silico toxicology including how to predict both external and internal exposure and the role of in silico approaches in integrated testing strategies. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book is relevant to toxicologists and modellers using in silico toxicological approaches to perform risk assessment for regulatory purposes and product development. Series Editors: D Anderson, University of Bradford, Uk MD Waters, ILS, N Carolina, USA TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, Kent, UK The field of toxicological research is continually expanding and diversifying driven by the need to understand the human and ecological risks of exposure to chemicals and other toxicants. This series is devoted to coverage of modern toxicology and assessment of risk and is responding to the resurgence in interest in the of scientific investigation.

In Silico Modeling Of Drugs Against Coronaviruses

Author : Kunal Roy
ISBN : 1071613650
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50. 62 MB
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This essential volume explores a variety of tools and protocols of structure-based (homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, protein-protein interaction network) and ligand-based (pharmacophore mapping, quantitative structure-activity relationships or QSARs) drug design for ranking and prioritization of candidate molecules in search of effective treatment strategy against coronaviruses. Beginning with an introductory section that discusses coronavirus interactions with humanity and COVID-19 in particular, the book then continues with sections on tools and methodologies, literature reports and case studies, as well as online tools and databases that can be used for computational anti-coronavirus drug research. Written for the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology series, chapters include the kind of practical detail and implementation advice that ensures high quality results in the lab. Comprehensive and timely, In Silico Modeling of Drugs Against Coronaviruses: Computational Tools and Protocols is an ideal reference for researchers working on the development of novel anti-coronavirus drugs for SARS-CoV-2 and for coronaviruses that will likely appear in the future.

Computational Toxicology

Author : Luis G. Valerio
ISBN : 9780128060476
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 16 MB
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The remarkable advances of high-performance computing to facilitate and increase efficiency in helping to resolve or support assessments on the toxic effects of chemicals on tissues and genomic material have led to development of novel in silico methods. These methods can support risk assessment via integration of study data that can be translated into meaningful predictive information. This chapter describes some methods in computational toxicology and how to integrate experimental data with computational assessments for supporting risk assessment.

Computational Systems Pharmacology And Toxicology

Author : Rudy J Richardson
ISBN : 9781788011204
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 80 MB
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The network approaches of systems pharmacology and toxicology serve as early predictors of the most relevant screening approach to pursue both in drug discovery and development and ecotoxicological assessments. Computational approaches have the potential to improve toxicological experimental design, enable more rapid drug efficacy and safety testing and also reduce the number of animals used in experimentation. Rapid advances in availability of computing technology hold tremendous promise for advancing applied and basic science and increasing the efficiency of risk assessment. This book provides an understanding of the basic principles of computational toxicology and the current methods of predictive toxicology using chemical structures, toxicity-related databases, in silico chemical-protein docking, and biological pathway tools. The book begins with an introduction to systems pharmacology and toxicology and computational tools followed by a section exploring modelling adverse outcomes and events. The second part of the book covers the discovery of protein targets and the characterisation of toxicant-protein interactions. Final chapters include case studies and additionally discuss interactions between phytochemicals and Western therapeutics. This book will be useful for scientists involved in environmental research and risk assessment. It will be a valuable resource for postgraduate students and researchers wishing to learn about key methods used in studying biological targets both from a toxicity and pharmacological activity standpoint.

Chemical Toxicity Prediction

Author : Mark T. D. Cronin
ISBN : 9781849733847
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 91 MB
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The aim of this book is to provide the scientific background to using the formation of chemical categories, or groups, of molecules to allow for read-across i.e. the prediction of toxicity from chemical structure. It covers the scientific basis for this approach to toxicity prediction including the methods to group compounds (structural analogues and / or similarity, mechanism of action) and the tools to achieve this. The approaches to perform read-across within a chemical category are also described. The book will provide concise practical guidance for those wishing to apply these methods (in risk / hazard assessment) and will be illustrated with case studies. Chemical Toxicity Prediction is the first book that addresses the concept of category formation and read-across for toxicity prediction specifically. This topic has really taken off in the past few years due to concerns over dealing with the REACH legislation and also due to the availability of the OECD (Q)SAR Toolbox. Much (lengthy and complex) guidance is available on category formation e.g. from the OECD and, to a lesser extent, the European Chemicals Agency but there is no one single source of information that covers all techniques in a concise user-friendly format. There is a real need for this information as in silico toxicology has come to the fore in recent years, primarily as a result of the EU REACH legislation, but also due to many other drivers e.g. reduction of animal testing, Cosmetics regulation. Category formation is seen as the only practical approach to make rational and transparent predictions for complex (human) toxicological endpoints. The book covers all the areas required to create a robust category and perform read-across.

In Silico Toxicology

Author : Mark Cronin
ISBN : 9781849732093
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44. 31 MB
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In Silico methods to predict toxicity have become increasingly important recently, particularly in light of European legislation such as REACH and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. In assessing the risk that a chemical may pose to human health or to the environment, focus is now being directed towards exploitation of in silico methods to replace in vivo or in vitro techniques. A prediction of potential toxicity requires several stages: 1) Collation and organisation of data available for the compound, or if this is not available, information for related compounds. 2) An assessment of the quality of the data. 3) Generation of additional information about the compound using computational techniques at various levels of complexity - calculation of physico-chemical properties, 2-D, 3-D / MO descriptors and specific receptor modelling / interaction. 4) Use of an appropriate strategy to predict toxicity - ie a statistically valid method which makes best use of all available information (mechanism of action, activity for related compounds, extrapolation across species and endpoints, likely exposure scenario amounts over time etc). 5) Consideration then needs to be given to how this information is used in the real world ie use of expert systems / tools as relevant to assessors (if sufficiently different to previous) - weight of evidence approaches. 6) Finally evidence should be presented from case studies within this area. No other publication brings together information on all of these areas in one book and this publication is unique in that it provides a logical progression through every one of these key stages and defines the use of computational approaches to predict the environmental toxicity and human health effects of organic chemicals. The volume is aimed at the developers and users of in silico toxicology and provides an analysis of all aspects required for in silico prediction of toxicology, including data collation, quality assessment and computational approaches. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book provides a very useful single source reference for people working in this area including academics, professionals, under- and post-graduate students as well as Governmental Regulatory Scientists involved in chemical risk assessment and REACH.

Practical Toxicology

Author : David Woolley
ISBN : 9781498709309
Genre : Medical
File Size : 48. 30 MB
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Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk, Third Edition shows how to conduct a program of safety evaluation and testing and then to interpret and apply the resulting data and information in the real world, beginning with the basic concepts in toxicology and progressing to the interpretation of the resulting data. Revised and updated chapters on risk assessment guide the reader to setting the foundations necessary for submission to regulatory authorities. In addition, a new chapter in the book reviews the errors in toxicology, mistakes, misuse, mismanagement, and misunderstanding with a view to avoiding these in the future. New Chapters in the Third Edition: Toxicology in silico Errors in Toxicology Safety Assessment of Extractables and Leachables. This new edition follows a practical sequence from introducing the basics of toxicology (including the vital concept of normality in controls) to describing a test program and then interpreting the data and translating that to risk assessment that can be used in a number of real world situations where safety and secure risk assessment are essential. Although written primarily from the perspective of pharmaceutical development, the test designs and toxicological problems encountered in that field are entirely relevant to those with other classes of chemicals, the only difference being the regulatory context. Toxicology is an international discipline and the book has been written to take into account some of the differences in regulatory nuance between the main regions of the world. Completely revised and written in an easily accessible style, the text address several audiences—from students and post-graduates coming to the subject for the first time to established professionals who find themselves needing to learn about toxicology, toxicity testing, interpretation of the results, and risk assessment. It is intended primarily as a textbook, with case studies and information on where to go to ask questions, but can also be used as a practical reference book. It covers all the basics of toxicology and the main aspects of safety evaluation testing and risk assessment while reviewing critically the current state of the discipline. It also provides a foundation for those seeking registration or certification.

Practical Toxicology

Author : David Woolley
ISBN : 9781498709323
Genre : Medical
File Size : 51. 40 MB
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Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk, Third Edition shows how to conduct a program of safety evaluation and testing and then to interpret and apply the resulting data and information in the real world, beginning with the basic concepts in toxicology and progressing to the interpretation of the resulting data. Revised and updated chapters on risk assessment guide the reader to setting the foundations necessary for submission to regulatory authorities. In addition, a new chapter in the book reviews the errors in toxicology, mistakes, misuse, mismanagement, and misunderstanding with a view to avoiding these in the future. New Chapters in the Third Edition: Toxicology in silico Errors in Toxicology Safety Assessment of Extractables and Leachables. This new edition follows a practical sequence from introducing the basics of toxicology (including the vital concept of normality in controls) to describing a test program and then interpreting the data and translating that to risk assessment that can be used in a number of real world situations where safety and secure risk assessment are essential. Although written primarily from the perspective of pharmaceutical development, the test designs and toxicological problems encountered in that field are entirely relevant to those with other classes of chemicals, the only difference being the regulatory context. Toxicology is an international discipline and the book has been written to take into account some of the differences in regulatory nuance between the main regions of the world. Completely revised and written in an easily accessible style, the text address several audiences—from students and post-graduates coming to the subject for the first time to established professionals who find themselves needing to learn about toxicology, toxicity testing, interpretation of the results, and risk assessment. It is intended primarily as a textbook, with case studies and information on where to go to ask questions, but can also be used as a practical reference book. It covers all the basics of toxicology and the main aspects of safety evaluation testing and risk assessment while reviewing critically the current state of the discipline. It also provides a foundation for those seeking registration or certification.

Advance Methodologies In Linear And Nonlinear Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships Qsars From Drug Design To In Silico Toxicology Applications

Author : Lisa Michielan
ISBN : OCLC:955715149
Genre :
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Development Of Artificial Intelligence Based In Silico Toxicity Models

Author : Ladan Malazizi
ISBN : OCLC:809549253
Genre :
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Toxic compounds, such as pesticides, are routinely tested against a range of aquatic, avian and mammalian species as part of the registration process. The need for reducing dependence on animal testing has led to an increasing interest in alternative methods such as in silico modelling. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship)-based models are already in use for predicting physicochemical properties, environmental fate, eco-toxicological effects, and specific biological endpoints for a wide range of chemicals. Data plays an important role in modelling QSARs and also in result analysis for toxicity testing processes. This research addresses number of issues in predictive toxicology. One issue is the problem of data quality. Although large amount of toxicity data is available from online sources, this data may contain some unreliable samples and may be defined as of low quality. Its presentation also might not be consistent throughout different sources and that makes the access, interpretation and comparison of the information difficult. To address this issue we started with detailed investigation and experimental work on DEMETRA data. The DEMETRA datasets have been produced by the EC-funded project DEMETRA. Based on the investigation, experiments and the results obtained, the author identified a number of data quality criteria in order to provide a solution for data evaluation in toxicology domain. An algorithm has also been proposed to assess data quality before modelling. Another issue considered in the thesis was the missing values in datasets for toxicology domain. Least Square Method for a paired dataset and Serial Correlation for single version dataset provided the solution for the problem in two different situations. A procedural algorithm using these two methods has been proposed in order to overcome the problem of missing values. Another issue we paid attention to in this thesis was modelling of multi-class data sets in which the severe imbalance class samples distribution exists. The imbalanced data affect the performance of classifiers during the classification process. We have shown that as long as we understand how class members are constructed in dimensional space in each cluster we can reform the distribution and provide more knowledge domain for the classifier.

In Silico Methods For Predicting Drug Toxicity

Author : Emilio Benfenati
ISBN : 1493936093
Genre : Biomedicine
File Size : 84. 33 MB
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This detailed volume explores in silico methods for pharmaceutical toxicity by combining the theoretical advanced research with the practical application of the tools. Beginning with a section covering sophisticated models addressing the binding to receptors, pharmacokinetics and adsorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion, the book continues with chapters delving into models for specific toxicological and ecotoxicological endpoints, as well as broad views of the main initiatives and new perspectives which will very likely improve our way of modelling pharmaceuticals. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include the kind of detailed implementation advice that is key for achieving successful research results. Authoritative and practical, In Silico Methods for Predicting Drug Toxicity offers the advantage of incorporating data and knowledge from different fields, such as chemistry, biology, -omics, and pharmacology, to achieve goals in this vital area of research.

New Horizons In Predictive Toxicology

Author : Alan G E Wilson
ISBN : 9781849733045
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27. 14 MB
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The sophistication of modelling and simulation technologies have improved dramatically over the past decade and their applications in toxicity prediction and risk assessment are of critical importance. The integration of predictive toxicology approaches will become increasingly necessary as industrial chemicals advance and as new pharmaceuticals enter the market. In this comprehensive discussion of predictive toxicology and its applications, leading experts express their views on the technologies currently available and the potential for future developments. The book covers a wide range of topics including in silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches that are being used in the safety assessment of chemical substances. It reflects the growing and urgent need to strengthen and improve our ability to predict the safety and risks posed by industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals in humans. The reader will find extensive information on the use of current animal models used for various toxicities and target mediated toxicities. Also discussed are the recent regulatory initiatives to improve the safety assessment of chemicals. The book provides an expert and comprehensive discussion on the current status and future directions of predictive toxicology and its application. The various chapters in the book also reflect the growing need for improvements in our technologies and abilities to predict toxicities of pharmaceutical and industrial chemicals to ensure product safety and protect public health.

Molecular And Cellular Toxicology

Author : Lesley Stanley
ISBN : 9781118526019
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59. 70 MB
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Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on people, animals, and the environment. Toxicologists are trained to investigate, interpret, and communicate the nature of those effects. Over the last ten years the subject of toxicology has changed dramatically, moving from a discipline which was once firmly wedded to traditional methods to one which is keen to embrace the innovative techniques emerging from the developing fields of cell culture and molecular biology. There is an acute need for this to be reflected in a paradigm shift which takes advantage of the opportunities offered by modern developments in the life sciences, including new in vitro and in silico approaches, alternative whole organism (non-mammalian) models and the exploitation of ‘omics methods, high throughput screening (HTS) techniques and molecular imaging technologies. This concise, accessible introduction to the field includes the very latest concepts and methodologies. It provides MSc, PhD and final year undergraduate students in pharmacy, biomedical and life sciences, as well as individuals starting out in the cosmetics, consumer products, pharmaceutical and testing industries, with everything they need to know to get to grips with the fast moving field of toxicology and the current approaches used in the risk assessment of drugs and chemicals.

Computational Toxicology

Author : Patricia Ruiz
ISBN : 9780128060438
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61. 76 MB
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Human health risk assessment is “the process to estimate the nature and probability of adverse health effects in humans who may be exposed to chemicals in contaminated environmental media, now or in the future.” Currently, most data required for human risk assessment are derived from toxicological studies conducted in laboratory animals. The “Toxicology in the 21st Century” initiative expands the toxicity testing tools to include the development of alternative toxicity testing methods that examine pathways of toxicity (on a large scale) and the employment of dose-response and extrapolation modeling tools. While the latter methodology is in its infancy, several methodologies for dose-response and extrapolation modeling are more mature. Over the last decade, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has gained acceptance as a computational tool for use in public health assessments. In this chapter, we present examples of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, and biologically based dose response (BBDR) models that have been developed for use in public health assessments and advancing knowledge gained through in silico examinations of biological systems.

Computational Toxicology

Author : Bruce A. Fowler
ISBN : 9780123965080
Genre : Computers
File Size : 31. 58 MB
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Computational Toxicology: Methods and Applications for Risk Assessment is an essential reference on the translation of computational toxicology data into information that can be used for more informed risk assessment decision-making. This book is authored by leading international investigators who have real-world experience in relating computational toxicology methods to risk assessment. Key topics of interest include QSAR modeling, chemical mixtures, applications to metabolomic and metabonomic data sets, toxicogenomic analyses, applications to REACH informational strategies and much more. The examples provided in this book are based on cutting-edge technologies and set out to stimulate the further development of this promising field to offer rapid, better and more cost-effective answers to major public health concerns. Authored by leading international researchers engaged in cutting-edge applications of computational methods for translating complex toxicological data sets into useful risk assessment information Incorporates real-world examples of how computational toxicological methods have been applied to advance the science of risk assessment Provides the framework necessary for new technologies and fosters common vocabularies and principles upon which the effects of new chemical entities should be compared

Practical Toxicology

Author : David Woolley
ISBN : 1498709281
Genre :
File Size : 41. 69 MB
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Preceded by A guide to practical toxicology: evaluation, prediction, and risk / Adam Woolley. 2nd ed. c2008.

Green Toxicology

Author : Alexandra Maertens
ISBN : 1839162287
Genre :
File Size : 38. 44 MB
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Green Toxicology is an integral part of Green Chemistry. One of the key goals of Green Chemistry is to design less toxic chemicals. Therefore, an understanding of toxicology and hazard assessment is important for any chemist working in Green Chemistry, but toxicology is rarely part of most chemists' education. As a consequence, chemists lack the toxicological lens necessary to view chemicals in order to design safer substitutions. This book seeks to fill that gap and demonstrate how a basic understanding of toxicology, as well as the tools of in silico and in vitro toxicology, can be an integral part of Green Chemistry. R&D chemists, product stewards, and toxicologists who work in the field of sustainability, can all benefit from integrating Green Toxicology principles into their work. Topics include in silico tools for hazard assessment, toxicity testing, and lifecycle considerations, this book aims to act as a bridge between green toxicologists and green chemists.

The History Of Alternative Test Methods In Toxicology

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ISBN : 9780128136980
Genre : Medical
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The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies.

Toxicological Risk Assessment And Multi System Health Impacts From Exposure

Author : Aristidis M. Tsatsakis
ISBN : 9780323853583
Genre : Medical
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Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multisystem Health Impacts From Exposure highlights the emerging problems of human and environmental health attributable to cumulative and multiple sources of long-term exposure to environmental toxicants. The book describes the cellular, biological, immunological, endocrinologic, genetic, and epigenetic effects of long-term exposure. It examines how the combined exposure to nanomaterials, metals, pharmaceuticals, multifrequency radiation, dietary mycotoxins, and pesticides accelerates ecotoxicity in humans, animals, plants, and the larger environment. The book goes on to also offer insights into mixture risk assessments, protocols for evaluating the risks, and how this information can serve the regulatory agencies in setting safer exposure limits. The book is a go-to resource for scientists and professionals in the field tackling the current and emerging trends in modern toxicology and risk assessment. • Bridges basic research with clinical, epidemiological, regulatory, and translational research, conveying both an introductory understanding and the latest developments in the field • Evaluates real-life human health risk assessment for long-term exposures to xenobiotic mixtures and the role they play in contributing to chronic disease • Discusses advances in predictive (in silico) toxicology tools and the benefits of using omics technologies in toxicology research

Mutagenicity Assays And Applications

Author : Ashutosh Kumar
ISBN : 9780128092606
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 65 MB
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Mutagenicity: Assays and Applications presents an extensive examination of the detection, assessment and future of mutagenicity, particularly as it concerns human health and the environment. Chapters focused on specific types of mutagens or testing methods for their detection collectively explore the current state of human and environmental mutagenesis, future perspectives and regulatory needs. The test procedures for measuring mutagenicity, their advantages and limitations are described with practical and procedural detail, along with their presentation and data processing aspects. It is an essential reference covering the breadth and depth of the field of mutagenicity studies and regulation. By providing both important introductory material and practical assays and applications, this book is useful to graduate students, academic and industry researchers and regulators at various stages of their careers, leading to improved risk assessment and regulation. Presents an up-to-date and in-depth review of the current state of mutagenesis research Draws upon the combined experience and expertise of an international group of highly respected editors and chapter authors Provides an introduction to the concept of mutagenesis with particular consideration given to novel chemicals and materials

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