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Income Inequality In The United States 1947 1985

Author : Nan L. Maxwell
ISBN : 0313264112
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 35. 56 MB
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This interdisciplinary work presents the results of a comprehensive study of the causes and consequences of the rise in family income inequality during the period between 1947 and 1985. By examining the impact of changing industrial and occupational employment, population age structure, household structure, female labor force participation, and government spending on income inequality, the book systematically estimates and compares the influences on the inequality upturn. Strong evidence is presented which argues that the predominant influence on increasing income inequality is the changing economy, which has resulted in increased income at the top of the distribution and reduced income at the bottom.

An Analysis Of The Trend In The Distribution Of Pre Transfer Family Income In The United States 1976 To 1988

Author : Thomas Daniel Donley
ISBN : WISC:89094332780
Genre :
File Size : 88. 26 MB
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Inequality

Author : William M. Dugger
ISBN : 0313300143
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 29. 10 MB
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Radical institutionalism explains inequality as evolving from class exploitation, gender domination, race discrimination, and national predation.

Family Economics And Nutrition Review

Author :
ISBN : UCBK:C069157288
Genre : Home economics
File Size : 71. 12 MB
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Society And Health

Author : Sol Levine
ISBN : 019508506X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 2 MB
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How do some families create more healthful environments for their children? How do we explain the health status differences between men and women, blacks and whites, and different communities or cultures? How is stress generated in the workplace? What accounts for the persistent social class differences in mortality rates? Why do societies experience higher rates of mortality after economic recession? Such fundamental questions about the social determinants of health are discussed in depth in this wide-ranging and authoritative book. Well-known contributors from North America and Europe assess the evidence for the diverse ways by which society influences health and provide conceptual frameworks for understanding these relationships. The book opens with a broad review of research on the social environment's contribution to health status and then addresses particular social factors: the family, the community, race, gender, class, the economy, the workplace and culture. The concluding two chapters examine the contribution of medicine to the improved health of Americans and recast the health care policy debate in a broad social policy context.

Created Unequal

Author : James K. Galbraith
ISBN : 0226278794
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 53. 19 MB
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The strong U.S. economy in the late 1990s has validated the bold thesis of this book. Created Unequal shows that America's historically high inequality of pay and incomes is not the result of impersonal market forces such as technology or trade, but of bad economic policies over several decades and the poor performance they created. Featuring a new preface on the improvements since 1994, Created Unequal is a rousing book that reminds us we can reclaim our country through economic understanding, commonsense policy, and political action.

International Bibliography Of The Social Sciences

Author : British Library British Library of Political and Economic Science
ISBN : 0415074576
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 71. 63 MB
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This bibliography lists the most important works published in economics in 1990. Renowned for its international coverage and rigorous selection procedures, the IBSS provides researchers and librarians with the most comprehensive and scholarly bibliographic service available in the social sciences. The IBSS is compiled by the British Library of Political and Economic Science at the London School of Economics, one of the world's leading social science institutions. Published annually, the IBSS is available in four subject areas: anthropology, economics, political science and sociology.

Uneven Tides

Author : Sheldon H. Danziger
ISBN : 9781610441469
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 85. 66 MB
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Inequality has been on the rise in America for more than two decades. This socially divisive trend began in the economic doldrums of the 1970s and continued through the booming 1980s, when surging economic tides clearly failed to lift all ships. Instead, escalating inequality in both individual earnings and family income widened the gulf between rich and poor and led to the much-publicized decline of the middle class. Uneven Tides brings together a distinguished group of economists to confront the crucial questions about this unprecedented rise in inequality. Just how large and pervasive was it? What were its principal causes? And why did it continue in the 1980s, when previous periods of national economic growth have generally reduced inequality? Reviewing the best current evidence, the essays in Uneven Tides show that rising inequality is a complex phenomenon, the result of a web of circumstances inherent in the nation's current industrial, social, and political situation. Once attributed to the rising supply of inexperienced workers—as baby boomers, new immigrants, and women entered the labor market—the growing inequality in individual earnings is revealed in Uneven Tides to be the direct result of the economy's increasing demand for skilled workers. The authors explore many of the possible causes of this trend, including the employment shift from manufacturing to the service sector, the heightened importance of technology in the workplace, the decline of unionization, and the intensified efforts to compete in a global marketplace. Uneven Tides also examines the equally dramatic growth in the inequality of family income, and reviews the effects of family size, the age and education of household heads, and the transition to both two-earner and single-parent families. Although these demographic shifts played a role, what emerges most clearly is an understanding of the powerful influence of public policy, as increasingly regressive taxes, declining welfare benefits, and a stagnant minimum wage continue to amplify the effects of market forces on income. With the rise in inequality now much in the headlines, it is clear that our nation's ability to reverse these shifting currents requires deeper understanding of their causes and consequences. Uneven Tides is the first book to get beyond the news stories to a clear analysis of the changing fortunes of America's families. It should be required reading for anyone with a serious interest in the economic underpinnings of the country's social problems.

Why America Lost The War On Poverty And How To Win It

Author : Frank Stricker
ISBN : 9780807882290
Genre : History
File Size : 24. 58 MB
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In a provocative assessment of American poverty and policy from 1950 to the present, Frank Stricker examines an era that has seen serious discussion about the causes of poverty and unemployment. Analyzing the War on Poverty, theories of the culture of poverty and the underclass, the effects of Reaganomics, and the 1996 welfare reform, Stricker demonstrates that most antipoverty approaches are futile without the presence (or creation) of good jobs. Stricker notes that since the 1970s, U.S. poverty levels have remained at or above 11%, despite training programs and periods of economic growth. The creation of jobs has continued to lag behind the need for them. Stricker argues that a serious public debate is needed about the job situation; social programs must be redesigned, a national health care program must be developed, and economic inequality must be addressed. He urges all sides to be honest--if we don't want to eliminate poverty, then we should say so. But if we do want to reduce poverty significantly, he says, we must expand decent jobs and government income programs, redirecting national resources away from the rich and toward those with low incomes. Why America Lost the War on Poverty--And How to Win It is sure to prompt much-needed debate on how to move forward.

American Economic Growth And Standards Of Living Before The Civil War

Author : Robert E. Gallman
ISBN : 9780226279473
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 36. 6 MB
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This benchmark volume addresses the debate over the effects of early industrialization on standards of living during the decades before the Civil War. Its contributors demonstrate that the aggregate antebellum economy was growing faster than any other large economy had grown before. Despite the dramatic economic growth and rise in income levels, questions remain as to the general quality of life during this era. Was the improvement in income widely shared? How did economic growth affect the nature of work? Did higher levels of income lead to improved health and longevity? The authors address these questions by analyzing new estimates of labor force participation, real wages, and productivity, as well as of the distribution of income, height, and nutrition.

Men Astutely Trained

Author : Peter Mcdonough
ISBN : 1439106088
Genre : History
File Size : 27. 51 MB
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A perceptive & provocative analysis of the transformation that swept through American Catholicism in the decades leading up to Vatican II. The Jesuits have been the carriers of a culture borne along by a fruitful & often frustrating tension between their dual commitment to ancient virtues & to the pursuit of the free play of ideas. This book explains developments among the Jesuits and sets them in the larger context of the sea-changes that shook the world and the Catholic Church in the world during the mid-20th century.

Structural Contexts Of Opportunities

Author : Peter M. Blau
ISBN : 0226057291
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 37. 22 MB
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The distinguished sociologist Peter Blau has opened up a variety of fields with brilliant contributions, ranging from research on social networks of small groups and quantitative studies of formal organizations to more synoptic investigations of populations and the large scale structures which hold them together. In this capstone to a prolific career, he has brought together these concerns to form a wide ranging theory of population structures and their influence on social life—from opportunities in job choice and social mobility, to organizational participation, and intergroup relations. Blau begins by outlining the influences of population structures on intergroup relations and then examining the implications these influences have on occupational opportunities. He looks at the many groups within which an individual is likely to socialize—family, ethnic group, socioeconomic class—and the distance away from these groups an individual is likely to move. Blau demonstrates how such factors affect social mobility, which, in turn, influences membership and structures several types of organizations. Blau then moves on to interpersonal relationships and analyzes the social exchanges in them that reveal the ultimate effects of ethnic, socioeconomic, and other aspects of population structures. He defines two types of power: influence in direct interpersonal exchange, and large-scale domination (economic or political) of groups without personal contact.

High School Career Academies

Author : Nan L. Maxwell
ISBN : 9780880992145
Genre : Education
File Size : 23. 54 MB
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Income Inequality Poverty And Economic Welfare

Author : Daniel J. Slottje
ISBN : 9783642510731
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 87. 39 MB
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Presented are new methods and new empirical studies on the subject of income inequality and poverty. The purpose of the book is to explore new ways to analyze recent trends in income inequality and poverty, both from the perspective of quantifying poverty and inequality and quantifyig the impact of various factors on the trends in inequality and poverty. The novelty lies in the diversity of empirical approaches used and customers will benefit from learning about different methods.

How Policies Make Citizens

Author : Andrea Louise Campbell
ISBN : 9781400841318
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 76. 87 MB
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Some groups participate in politics more than others. Why? And does it matter for policy outcomes? In this richly detailed and fluidly written book, Andrea Campbell argues that democratic participation and public policy powerfully reinforce each other. Through a case study of senior citizens in the United States and their political activity around Social Security, she shows how highly participatory groups get their policy preferences fulfilled, and how public policy itself helps create political inequality. Using a wealth of unique survey and historical data, Campbell shows how the development of Social Security helped transform seniors from the most beleaguered to the most politically active age group. Thus empowered, seniors actively defend their programs from proposed threats, shaping policy outcomes. The participatory effects are strongest for low-income seniors, who are most dependent on Social Security. The program thus reduces political inequality within the senior population--a laudable effect--while increasing inequality between seniors and younger citizens. A brief look across policies shows that program effects are not always positive. Welfare recipients are even less participatory than their modest socioeconomic backgrounds would imply, because of the demeaning and disenfranchising process of proving eligibility. Campbell concludes that program design profoundly shapes the nature of democratic citizenship. And proposed policies--such as Social Security privatization--must be evaluated for both their economic and political effects, because the very quality of democratic government is influenced by the kinds of policies it chooses.

The Health And Wealth Of A Nation Employer Based Health Insurance And The Affordable Care Act

Author : Nan L. Maxwell
ISBN : 9780880994262
Genre : BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
File Size : 62. 5 MB
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"In this timely new book, Nan L. Maxwell examines the behavior of firms with respect to their provision of health care prior to ACA deliberations and uses those behaviors to forecast changes in employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) once the ACA is fully implemented. Her analysis focuses on potential changes in the ESI offer due to implementation of the ACA concerning access and quality. The ACA will likely influence the behavior of virtually all firms that offered health insurance at the time of its passage. The ACA is unlikely to incentivize small firms to offer health insurance if they did not already offer it when the act was passed. The differences in ESI coverage and quality of the offer made to low-wage and high-wage workers is likely to converge when the ACA is fully implemented. Disparities in the offer of benefits other than health insurance might increase between low-wage and high-wage firms."--Publisher's website.

The Working Life

Author : Nan L. Maxwell
ISBN : 9780880992985
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 34. 77 MB
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Over the past few decades, the economic prospects for workers possessing relatively few skills have worsened as the demand for skills in the labor market has increased. Even in jobs that might be categorized as low-skilled, workers require a diverse set of skills to succeed. Many of these skills can only be obtained through schooling or job training. This is why workers lacking skills find it difficult to attain a foothold in the labor market and why employers have difficulty filling low-skilled jobs. While it was previously assumed that the supply of workers able to fill low-skilled jobs exceeded the demand, this book reveals that the labor market for low-skilled workers actually operates quite differently. Maxwell presents the results of her groundbreaking survey of 405 employers, which queried them about jobs requiring no more than a high school education and no more than one year of work experience. These data allow her to establish the link between skills and low-skilled jobs and to reveal the current state of the labor market facing low-skilled workers. The data also highlights the knowledge and skills that employers require in low-skilled jobs and the abilities that individuals who apply for those jobs bring to the table. Overall, the employers' responses allow Maxwell to make the following five key points: (1) Low-skilled jobs require skills. Low-skilled jobs are not no-skilled jobs. While individuals do not have to have a high level of credentials to apply for low-skilled jobs, once they are hired, employers emphasize that they must possess the requisite skills to succeed in their jobs. Among them are the so-called new basic skills: English, math, problem-solving, and communication skills. In addition, appropriate workplace behavior and the ability to follow instructions are important, and physical abilities and mechanical skills are also required, often at levels more intense than at other jobs; (2) Shortages of appropriately skilled workers in low-skilled jobs exist, even when labor markets are slack. Close to 60 percent of firms in this study report great difficulty--one-fourth of them had extreme difficulty--finding qualified workers for low-skilled jobs even when unemployment rates exceed 7.0 percent; (3) Skills are rewarded in the labor market for workers in low-skilled jobs. Low-skilled jobs requiring skills with a high relative demand in the local labor market (I.E., skills in short supply) carry increased occupational wages; (4) Low skilled jobs offer promotional opportunities. Firms report that over 90 percent of entry-level low-skilled jobs have promotional opportunities, as long as workers are willing and able to expand their skill sets. Firms also construct pipelines of appropriately skilled workers by hiring entry-level workers with skills needed in the position above entry level; and (5) Hiring requirements in low-skilled jobs are relaxed in tight labor markets. Firms match recruiting and screening methods to the skills needed in the low-skilled jobs. As labor markets loosen, these firms use less extensive recruiting methods but adopt more intensive screening methods. This suggests that, during loose labor markets, firms sort through a greater number of applicants in order to uncover workers with the skill sets needed in the job. Maxwell also defines low-skilled jobs, identifies the populations who fill these jobs and the economic realities facing them, and offers policy solutions aimed at facilitating the career development of low-skilled individuals. These solutions include building skills while attending public schools and while attending publicly-funded employment and training programs. They also include increasing the demand for low-skilled workers and refining the nation's workforce development programs to better steer individuals into jobs providing economic self-sufficiency. The following chapters are contained in this book: (1) Low Skilled Jobs: The Reality behind the Popular Perceptions; (2) Local Labor Markets and Low-Skilled Jobs: Theory and Data; (3) How Skills Matter; (4) Recruiting and Screening Workers in Low-Skilled Positions; (5) Skills, Promotions, and Low-Skilled Positions; (6) Labor Markets for Workers in Low-Skilled Positions: How Can Policies Help Workers?

Inequality And Inclusive Growth In Rich Countries

Author : Brian Nolan
ISBN : 9780192533746
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 51. 6 MB
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Rising inequality in income and wealth across the OECD has been widely recognised and identified as a major concern; Inequality and Inclusive Growth in Rich Countries links this phenomenon with stagnation in wages and incomes for ordinary working households in order to address the challenge of promoting growth and prosperity. The concentration of wealth at the top of society is now seen as a threat to social and political stability. Inequality and Inclusive Growth in Rich Countries aims to identify what structures and policies are associated with success or failure in limiting the rise in inequality and promoting income growth for those in the middle and lower reaches of the income distribution. It analyses the varying experiences of ten rich countries over recent decades in depth, revealing that there are indeed responses that governments and societies can adopt, and that stagnation and rising inequality do not have to be accepted, but can be combatted given the political will and capacity.

Proceedings

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015079389733
Genre : Census
File Size : 47. 31 MB
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Social Science Quarterly

Author :
ISBN : UCBK:C039597572
Genre : Political science
File Size : 86. 68 MB
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