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Interactions Between Soil Particles And Microorganisms

Author : Pan Ming Huang
ISBN : 0471607908
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 97 MB
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This definitive guide provides the scientific community with a critical evaluation of the interactions of minerals, organic components and microorganisms in the soil and their importance in the ecosystem. * Provides a unique insight into the effects of microbes on pollutants in the soil, which is necessary for all environmental scientists working in this area * Allows further discussion and development to uncover the dynamics and mechanisms of the environmental processes of nature

Soil Mineral Microbe Organic Interactions

Author : Qiaoyun Huang
ISBN : 9783540776864
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 73 MB
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The book presents the latest research findings and prospects on soil mineral-organic matter-microorganism interactions. It includes topics covering mechanisms of transformations, dynamics and bioavailability of heavy metals, radionuclides, biomolecules and nutrients immobilized on soil minerals, humic substances, mineral-humic complexes and microorganisms and their impact on plant, animal and human health. The book is organized into six parts.

Rhizosphere Biology Interactions Between Microbes And Plants

Author : Vadakattu V. S. R. Gupta
ISBN : 9789811561252
Genre : Medical
File Size : 54. 99 MB
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This book presents a detailed discussion on the direct interactions of plants and microorganisms in the rhizosphere environment. It includes fifteen chapters, each focusing on a specific component of plant-microbe interactions, such as the influence of plants on the root microbiome, and the downstream effects of rhizosphere microbial dynamics on carbon and nutrient fluxes in the surroundings. As such, the book helps readers gain a better understanding of diversity above the ground, and its effect on the microbiome and its functionality.

Environmental Impacts Of Soil Component Interactions

Author : P. M. Huang
ISBN : 087371914X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 32. 40 MB
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This book addresses the interactions of soil minerals with organics and microbes and their impacts on the dynamics, transformations, and toxicity of metals, metalloids, other inorganics, and xenobiotics that affect land quality and ecosystem health. It is the result of the work group on "interactions of soil minerals with organic components and microorganisms" in the International Society of Soil Science.

Microbiome Host Interactions

Author : D. Dhanasekaran
ISBN : 9781000353129
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71. 81 MB
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Microbiota are a promising and fascinating subject in biology because they integrate the microbial communities in humans, animals, plants, and the environment. In humans, microbiota are associated with the gut, skin, and genital, oral, and respiratory organs. The plant microbial community is referred to as "holobiont," and it is influential in the maintenance and health of plants, which themselves play a role in animal health and the environment. The contents of Microbiome-Host Interactions cover all areas as well as new research trends in the fields of plant, animal, human, and environmental microbiome interactions. The book covers microbiota in polar soil environments, in health and disease, in Caenorhabditis elegans, and in agroecosystems, as well as in rice root and actinorhizal root nodules, speleothems, and marine shallow-water hydrothermal vents. Moreover, this book provides comprehensive accounts of advanced next-generation DNA sequencing, metagenomic techniques, high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, and understanding nucleic acid sequence data from fungal, algal, viral, bacterial, cyanobacterial, actinobacterial, and archaeal communities using QIIME software (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology). FEATURES Summarizes recent insight in microbiota and host interactions in distinct habitats, including Antarctic, hydrothermal vents, speleothems, oral, skin, gut, feces, reproductive tract, soil, root, root nodules, forests, and mangroves Illustrates the high-throughput amplicon sequencing, computational techniques involved in the microbiota analysis, downstream analysis and visualization, and multivariate analysis commonly used for microbiome analysis Describes probiotics and prebiotics in the composition of the gut microbiota, skin microbiome impact in dermatologic disease prevention, and microbial communities in the reproductive tract of humans and animals Presents information in a reachable way for students, teachers, researchers, microbiologists, computational biologists, and other professionals who are interested in strengthening or enlarging their knowledge about microbiome analysis with next-generation DNA sequencing in the different branches of the sciences

The Architecture And Biology Of Soils

Author : Karl Ritz
ISBN : 9781845935320
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22. 82 MB
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Soil is a fundamental and critical component of terrestrial ecosystems, but one that is often overlooked. It is an extremely complex environment, both in terms of its physical structure and in that it supports levels of biodiversity far greater than those found above ground in any ecosystem. Bringing together existing knowledge across many areas of soil biology and physics, this book develops the concept of soil architecture and explores key characteristics of the remarkable `inner space' of the soil. The authors consider how such structure develops through time and the consequences this has for life underground. They also explore the interactions between the biological and physical components of the soil and how they relate to its many functions, in order to demonstrate the key role of soil architecture in underpinning ecosystem dynamics. The diverse but richly interrelated perspectives offered in this book make it an essential resource for researchers and students in soil and environmental sciences, terrestrial ecology, plant sciences and microbiology.

The Biology Of Arid Soils

Author : Blaire Steven
ISBN : 9783110419047
Genre : Nature
File Size : 68. 45 MB
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Soils have been called the most complex microbial ecosystems on Earth. A single gram of soil can harbor millions of microbial cells and thousands of species. However, certain soil environments, such as those experiencing dramatic change exposing new initial soils or that are limited in precipitation, limit the number of species able to survive in these systems. In this respect, these environments offer unparalleled opportunities to uncover the factors that control the development and maintenance of complex microbial ecosystems. This book collects chapters that discuss the abiotic factors that structure arid and initial soil communities as well as the diversity and structure of the biological communities in these soils from viruses to plants.

Nucleic Acids And Proteins In Soil

Author : Paolo Nannipieri
ISBN : 9783540294498
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 93 MB
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With millions of different bacterial species living in soil, the microbial community is extremely complex, varying at very small scales. Microbe-driven functions are essential for most processes in soil. Thus, a better understanding of this microbial diversity will be invaluable for the management of the various soil functions. Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Soil combines traditional approaches in soil microbiology and biochemistry with the latest techniques in molecular microbial ecology. Included are methods to analyse the presence and importance of nucleic acids and proteins both inside and outside microbial cells, the horizontal gene transfer which drives bacterial diversity, as well as soil proteomes. Further chapters describe techniques such as PCR, fingerprinting, the challenging use of gene arrays for structural and functional analysis, stable isotope probing to identify in situ metabolic functions, and the use of marker and reporter genes in soil microbial ecology.

Biophysico Chemical Processes Of Heavy Metals And Metalloids In Soil Environments

Author : Antonio Violante
ISBN : 0470175478
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 10 MB
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Written by a multidisciplinary group of soil and environmental scientists, Biophysico-Chemical Processes of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soil Environments provides the scientific community with a critical qualitative and quantitative review of the fundamentals of the processes of pollutants in soil environments. The book covers pollutants' speciation, mobility, bioavailability and toxicity, and impacts on development of innovative restoration strategies. In addition, the development of innovative remediation strategies for polluted soils is covered.

Handbook Of Soil Sciences

Author : Pan Ming Huang
ISBN : 9781439803080
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 19 MB
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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for co

Advances In Applied Microbiology

Author :
ISBN : 9780323850780
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 20 MB
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Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 114 continues the comprehensive reach of this widely read and authoritative review source in microbiology. Users will find invaluable references and information on a variety of areas relating to the topic of microbiology, with this release focusing on recent advances in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids in the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field of microbiology Includes discussions on the role of specific molecules in pathogen life stages, interactions, and much more

Soil Clays

Author : G. Jock Churchman
ISBN : 9780429532245
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60. 13 MB
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As the human population grows from seven billion toward an inevitable nine or 10 billion, the demands on the limited supply of soils will grow and intensify. Soils are essential for the sustenance of almost all plants and animals, including humans, but soils are virtually infinitely variable. Clays are the most reactive and interactive inorganic compounds in soils. Clays in soils often differ from pure clay minerals of geological origin. They provide a template for most of the reactive organic matter in soils. They directly affect plant nutrients, soil temperature and pH, aggregate sizes and strength, porosity and water-holding capacities. This book aims to help improve predictions of important properties of soils through a modern understanding of their highly reactive clay minerals as they are formed and occur in soils worldwide. It examines how clays occur in soils and the role of soil clays in disparate applications including plant nutrition, soil structure, and water-holding capacity, soil quality, soil shrinkage and swelling, carbon sequestration, pollution control and remediation, medicine, forensic investigation, and deciphering human and environmental histories. Features: Provides information on the conditions that lead to the formation of clay minerals in soils Distinguishes soil clays and types of clay minerals Describes clay mineral structures and their origins Describes occurrences and associations of clays in soil Details roles of clays in applications of soils Heavily illustrated with photos, diagrams, and electron micrographs Includes user-friendly description of a new method of identification To know soil clays is to enable their use toward achieving improvements in the management of soils for enhancing their performance in one or more of their three main functions of enabling plant growth, regulating water flow to plants, and buffering environmental changes. This book provides an easily-read and extensively-illustrated description of the nature, formation, identification, occurrence and associations, measurement, reactivities, and applications of clays in soils.

Containment Of High Level Radioactive And Hazardous Solid Wastes With Clay Barriers

Author : Raymond N. Yong
ISBN : 9781482266245
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 40. 35 MB
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One of the principal objections to or problems with the use of nuclear fuel is that a proven method for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel has yet to be established. The central focus of most schemes underway to dispose of these high-level radioactive wastes relies on clay-based buffers and barriers to isolate spent fuel canisters in borehole

The Role Of Colloidal Systems In Environmental Protection

Author : Monzer Fanun
ISBN : 9780444632845
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 35. 42 MB
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The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection describes the importance of colloids in many applications that contribute to environmental protection, including drinking water and wastewater treatment, heavy metal remediation, treatment of radioactive materials, corrosion, and energy conversion. Knowledge of the physical and chemical composition of colloids is important to understand and accurately model the relevant processes. The book familiarizes the reader with the technological features of the application of colloids in environmental protection, and provides chemical engineers, researchers, and scientists in academic and corporate communities with the latest developments in this field. Each chapter covers the whole spectrum of the relevant science, from the fundamentals to applications. Provides the applied technological features of colloids in environmental protection Gives insight into the use of bio-solid colloids as contaminant carriers Covers the natural occurrence of biosurfactants in the environment and their applications Provides information on the use of nanoparticles for environmental applications Chapters written by recognized and respected experts in the field from all over the world

Soil Based Wastewater Treatment

Author : Jose A. Amador
ISBN : 9780891189688
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51. 67 MB
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Our book addresses the needs of practitioners, engineers, scientists, regulators, resource managers, planners, and others with a need to know about septic systems. It arose after discussions about the need for a text that integrated current understanding of the hydrologic, physical, chemical, and biological processes involved in the treatment of wastewater using soil. In our experience, people working with septic systems – ourselves included – have a fragmented understanding of what these systems are, how they function, how wastewater moves through soil, how and which pollutants are removed, and how these systems impact the environment and public health. The relevant information is scattered across disciplines, information sources and audiences. This book is an attempt to collect and integrate this information in one place, and provide a scientific framework for understanding soil-based wastewater treatment.

Microbiome Under Changing Climate

Author : Ajay Kumar
ISBN : 9780323906975
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 47. 30 MB
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Microbiome Under Changing Climate: Implications and Solutions presents the latest biotechnological interventions for the judicious use of microbes to ensure optimal agricultural yield. Summarizing aspects of vulnerability, adaptation and amelioration of climate impact, this book provides an important resource for understanding microbes, plants and soil in pursuit of sustainable agriculture and improved food security. It emphasizes the interaction between climate and soil microbes and their potential role in promoting advanced sustainable agricultural solutions, focusing on current research designed to use beneficial microbes such as plant growth promoting microorganisms, fungi, endophytic microbes, and more. Changes in climatic conditions influence all factors of the agricultural ecosystem, including adversely impacting yield both in terms of quantity and nutritional quality. In order to develop resilience against climatic changes, it is increasingly important to understand the effect on the native micro-flora, including the distribution of methanogens and methanotrophs, nutrient content and microbial biomass, among others. Demonstrates the impact of climate change on secondary metabolites of plants and potential responses Incorporates insights on microflora of inhabitant soil Explores mitigation processes and their modulation by sustainable methods Highlights the role of microbial technologies in agricultural sustainability

Dynamics Mobility And Transformation Of Pollutants And Nutrients

Author :
ISBN : 9780080548463
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 81 MB
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623435-28a.gif Volume A deals with the dynamics, mobility and transformation of pollutants and nutrients. Soil is a dynamic system in which soil minerals constantly interact with organic matter and microorganisms. Close association among abiotic and biotic entities governs several chemical and biogeochemical processes and affects bioavailability, speciation, toxicity, transformations and transport of xenobiotics and organics in soil environments. This book elaborates critical research and an integrated view on basic aspects of mineral weathering reactions; formation and surface reactivity of soil minerals with respect to nutrients and environmental pollutants; dynamics and transformation of metals, metalloids, and natural and anthropogenic organics; effects of soil colloids on microorganisms and immobilization and activity of enzymes, and metabolic processes, growth and ecology of microbes. It offers up-to-date information on the impact of such a processes on soil development, agricultural production, environmental protection, and ecosystem integrity.

Advances In Agronomy

Author :
ISBN : 9780128023464
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 32. 60 MB
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Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and a first-rate source for the latest research in agronomy. Each volume contains an eclectic group of reviews by leading scientists throughout the world. Five volumes are published yearly which ensures that authors’ contributions are disseminated to the readership in a timely manner. As always, the subjects covered are varied and exemplary of the myriad of subject matter dealt with by this long-running serial. Timely and state-of-the-art reviews Distinguished, well recognized authors A venerable and iconic review series Timely publication of submitted reviews

Soil Ecology Research Developments

Author : Tian-Xiao Liu
ISBN : 1600219713
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 8 MB
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Soil ecology is the study of the interactions among soil organisms, and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil environment. It is particularly concerned with the cycling of nutrients, formation and stabilisation of the pore structure, the spread and vitality of pathogens, and the biodiversity of this rich biological community. This new book presents the latest research in the field from around the world.

Interactive Feedbacks Between Soil Fauna And Soil Processes

Author : Maria Luz Cayuela
ISBN : 9782889635481
Genre :
File Size : 68. 20 MB
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Soil fauna plays a significant role at all trophic levels of the soil food web and regulates processes that are crucial for soil functioning, such as nutrient cycling, immobilization and/or degradation of toxic compounds, formation of soil structure, greenhouse gas emissions and C turnover. Although soil fauna is not thought to contribute significantly to soil respiration during litter or soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, the diversity of soil fauna has been found to strongly influence SOM distribution and dynamics. Yet, the functional contribution of soil fauna to many soil processes is not well understood due to methodological limitations and the high complexity of interactions at various spatiotemporal scales. In general, soil fauna has received far less scientific attention than bacteria and fungi (and lately archaea) in soil studies and has been regularly ignored in global biogeochemical models, with maybe exceptions for some earthworms. However, recent studies are raising the awareness of the influence of soil fauna on ecosystems dynamics. For instance, earthworms have been found to be major players in N2O emissions from soils. They exert a strong influence on C stabilization, and they promote the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Less studied, ants and termites have been found to increase crop productivity in drylands, and different lifeforms of Collembola have been shown to impact microorganisms in various ways over time, thereby potentially affecting C and N cycles within farming systems. The influence of soil fauna indeed manifests over a broad ranges of spatiotemporal scales. For example, some effect such as aggregate formation may cumulate over time and finally contribute to the formation of whole soil profiles, which serve as a framework for other soil processes such as water movement, decomposition, etc. Meanwhile, soil biodiversity is impacted by an increasing human pressure through deforestation, agriculture intensification, habitat fragmentation or climate change (increasing temperatures, extreme weather events), which leads to soil biodiversity loss, in particular of soil fauna, with associated consequences on soil functioning and resilience.

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