learning-artificial-languages

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Learning Artificial Languages

Author : Angela Carpenter
ISBN : 3836459264
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 82. 55 MB
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If Universal Grammar (UG) can aid adult second language acquisition an important question arises: are linguistic principles that are not active in the native language also accessible to second language learners? This question of adult accessibility to UG is addressed by investigating whether a specific phonological principle that does not exist in the subjects' native language is accessible to adult learners. Artificial languages were constructed to compare the acquisition of a stress system that follows a natural phonological principle with one that is almost identical to the same principle, but differs in one feature, thus making it an "unnatural" system. If second language learners have access to innate universal linguistic principles they should be better able to learn the natural rule over the unnatural one. The positive results lend support to the idea of adult second language learners having access to UG. This book should be of interest to educators and researchers in the fields of artificial language learning, second language acquisition and phonological stress or those with a general interest in laboratory phonology.

Implicit Learning Of Artificial Languages

Author : David Russell Adams
ISBN : OCLC:29000118
Genre :
File Size : 83. 48 MB
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Learning Quality And Quantity Sensitive Stress In Artificial Languages

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:950237175
Genre :
File Size : 37. 92 MB
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Implicit And Explicit Learning Of Artificial Languages

Author : Selma Lewis
ISBN : OCLC:313330831
Genre : Grammar, Comparative and general
File Size : 69. 73 MB
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Encyclopedia Of The Sciences Of Learning

Author : Norbert M. Seel
ISBN : 9781441914279
Genre : Education
File Size : 22. 12 MB
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Over the past century, educational psychologists and researchers have posited many theories to explain how individuals learn, i.e. how they acquire, organize and deploy knowledge and skills. The 20th century can be considered the century of psychology on learning and related fields of interest (such as motivation, cognition, metacognition etc.) and it is fascinating to see the various mainstreams of learning, remembered and forgotten over the 20th century and note that basic assumptions of early theories survived several paradigm shifts of psychology and epistemology. Beyond folk psychology and its naïve theories of learning, psychological learning theories can be grouped into some basic categories, such as behaviorist learning theories, connectionist learning theories, cognitive learning theories, constructivist learning theories, and social learning theories. Learning theories are not limited to psychology and related fields of interest but rather we can find the topic of learning in various disciplines, such as philosophy and epistemology, education, information science, biology, and – as a result of the emergence of computer technologies – especially also in the field of computer sciences and artificial intelligence. As a consequence, machine learning struck a chord in the 1980s and became an important field of the learning sciences in general. As the learning sciences became more specialized and complex, the various fields of interest were widely spread and separated from each other; as a consequence, even presently, there is no comprehensive overview of the sciences of learning or the central theoretical concepts and vocabulary on which researchers rely. The Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning provides an up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the specific terms mostly used in the sciences of learning and its related fields, including relevant areas of instruction, pedagogy, cognitive sciences, and especially machine learning and knowledge engineering. This modern compendium will be an indispensable source of information for scientists, educators, engineers, and technical staff active in all fields of learning. More specifically, the Encyclopedia provides fast access to the most relevant theoretical terms provides up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the most important theories within the various fields of the learning sciences and adjacent sciences and communication technologies; supplies clear and precise explanations of the theoretical terms, cross-references to related entries and up-to-date references to important research and publications. The Encyclopedia also contains biographical entries of individuals who have substantially contributed to the sciences of learning; the entries are written by a distinguished panel of researchers in the various fields of the learning sciences.

Attention And Awareness In Foreign Language Learning

Author : Richard W. Schmidt
ISBN : 9780824817947
Genre : Education
File Size : 45. 20 MB
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Presents research into the learning of Spanish, Japanese, Finnish, Hawaiian, and English as a second language, with additional comments and examples from French, German, and miniature artificial languages.

Learning Hierarchies

Author : Benjamin M. Faber
ISBN : OCLC:263686591
Genre : Grammar, Comparative and general
File Size : 48. 7 MB
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Implicit And Explicit Learning Of Languages

Author : Patrick Rebuschat
ISBN : 9789027268723
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 44. 73 MB
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Implicit learning is a fundamental feature of human cognition. Many essential skills, including language comprehension and production, intuitive decision making, and social interaction, are largely dependent on implicit (unconscious) knowledge. Given its relevance, it is not surprising that the study of implicit learning plays a central role in the cognitive sciences. The present volume brings together eminent researchers from a variety of fields (e.g., cognitive psychology, linguistics, education, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology) in order to assess the progress made in the study of implicit and explicit learning, to critically evaluate key concepts and methodologies, and to determine future directions to take in this interdisciplinary enterprise. The eighteen chapters in this volume are written in an accessible and engaging fashion; together, they provide the reader with a comprehensive snapshot of the exciting current work on the implicit and explicit learning of languages.

Artificial Languages

Author : Arshavir W. Blackwell
ISBN : UCSD:31822021421524
Genre : Language acquisition
File Size : 74. 33 MB
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Artificial Intelligence In Second Language Learning

Author : Marina Dodigovic
ISBN : 1853598291
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 49. 67 MB
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"The aim of this volume is to cater to a wide range of audiences associated with the field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In a true cross-disciplinary fashion it brings together instances of research in second language acquisition, language awareness, computer assisted language learning, artificial intelligence and natural language processing. It is intended for language teachers, students of applied linguistics and language engineering as well as for applied linguists in general."--BOOK JACKET.

The Usage Based Study Of Language Learning And Multilingualism

Author : Lourdes Ortega
ISBN : 9781626163249
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 37. 53 MB
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Usage-based linguistics, which is currently very popular, bases its understanding of language on two key points: Languages are cognitive-social constructs (i.e., learned vs genetically endowed), and, in order for communication and meaning to happen, speakers must find a way to meet/understand each other, overcoming various differences (lexicon, social, register, etc.) to arrive there. In this book, high-level contributors combine research from various usage-based perspectives to explore these questions: How do proficient speakers accomplish 'mental contact' or communication through the available semiotic linguistic resources they share with other members of their discourse community? How do young children learn to accomplish this? And how do speakers of multiple languages learn to accomplish this across languages?

Cognitive Individual Differences In Second Language Processing And Acquisition

Author : Gisela Granena
ISBN : 9789027266323
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 20. 81 MB
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Cognitive Individual Differences in Second Language Processing and Acquisition contains 14 chapters that focus on the role of cognitive IDs in L2 learning and processing. The book brings together theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of cognitive IDs, as well as empirical studies that investigate the mediating role of cognitive IDs in various linguistic domains. Chapters include contributions from researchers working within second language acquisition (SLA), psycholinguistics, and cognitive psychology, sharing a common interest in the application of cognitive IDs to their respective areas of study. The interdisciplinary understanding of cognitive IDs presented in this book makes the book of interest to a wide readership of graduate students, faculty members, and academic researchers in the fields of SLA, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and education.

Theories In Second Language Acquisition

Author : Bill VanPatten
ISBN : 9780429995538
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 39. 76 MB
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This third edition of the best-selling Theories in Second Language Acquisition surveys the major theories currently used in second language acquisition (SLA) research, serving as an ideal introductory text for undergraduate and graduate students in SLA and language teaching. Designed to provide a consistent and coherent presentation for those seeking a basic understanding of the theories that underlie contemporary SLA research, each chapter focuses on a single theory. Chapters are written by leading scholars in the field and incorporate a basic foundational description of the theory, relevant data or research models used with this theory, common misunderstandings, and a sample study from the field to show the theory in practice. New to this edition is a chapter addressing the relationship between theories and L2 teaching, as well as refreshed coverage of all theories throughout the book. A key work in the study of second language acquisition, this volume will be useful to students of linguistics, language and language teaching, and to researchers as a guide to theoretical work outside their respective domains.

Statistical Learning And Language Acquisition

Author : Patrick Rebuschat
ISBN : 9781934078242
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 55. 71 MB
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Open publication This volume brings together contributors from cognitive psychology, theoretical and applied linguistics, as well as computer science, in order to assess the progress made in statistical learning research and to determine future directions. An important objective is to critically examine the role of statistical learning in language acquisition. While most contributors agree that statistical learning plays a central role in language acquisition, they have differing views. This book will promote the development of the field by fostering discussion and collaborations across disciplinary boundaries.

Frequency Effects In Language Learning And Processing

Author : Stefan Th. Gries
ISBN : 9783110274059
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 42. 41 MB
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The volume contains a collection of studies on how the analysis of corpus and psycholinguistic data reveal how linguistic knowledge is affected by the frequency of linguistic elements/stimuli. The studies explore a wide range of phenomena , from phonological reduction processes and palatalization to morphological productivity, diachronic change, adjective preposition constructions, auxiliary omission, and multi-word units. The languages studied are Spanish and artificial languages, Russian, Dutch, and English. The sister volume focuses on language representation.

The Routledge Encyclopedia Of Second Language Acquisition

Author : Peter Robinson
ISBN : 9780415877510
Genre : Reference
File Size : 24. 61 MB
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The Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition offers a user-friendly, authoritative survey of terms and constructs that are important to understanding research in second language acquisition (SLA) and its applications. The Encyclopedia is designed for use as a reference tool by students, researchers, teachers and professionals with an interest in SLA. The Encyclopedia has the following features: • 252 alphabetized entries written in an accessible style, including cross references to other related entries in the Encyclopedia and suggestions for further reading • Among these, 9 survey entries that cover the foundational areas of SLA in detail: Development in SLA, Discourse and Pragmatics in SLA, Individual Differences in SLA, Instructed SLA, Language and the Lexicon in SLA, Measuring and Researching SLA, Psycholingustics of SLA, Social and Sociocultural Approaches to SLA, Theoretical Constructs in SLA. • The rest of the entries cover all the major subdisciplines, methodologies and concepts of SLA, from “Accommodation” to the “ZISA project.” Written by an international team of specialists, the Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition is an invaluable resource for students and researchers with an academic interest in SLA.

Semantic Perception

Author : Jody Azzouni
ISBN : 9780190275549
Genre : Meaning (Philosophy)
File Size : 57. 24 MB
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Jody Azzouni argues that we involuntarily experience certain physical items, certain products of human actions, and certain human actions themselves as having meaning-properties. We understand these items as possessing meaning or as having (or being capable of having) truth values. For example, a sign on a door reading "Drinks Inside" strikes native English speakers as referring to liquids in the room behind the door. The sign has a truth value--if no drinks are found in the room, the sign is misleading. Someone pointing in a direction has the same effect: we experience her gesture as significant. Azzouni does not suggest that we don't recognize the expectations or intentions of speakers (including ourselves); we do recognize that the person pointing in a certain direction intends for us to understand her gesture's significance. Nevertheless, Azzouni asserts that we experience that gesture as having significance independent of her intentions. The gesture is meaningful on its own. The same is true of language, both spoken and written. We experience the meanings of language artifacts as independent of their makers' intentions in the same way that we experience an object's shape as a property independent of the object's color. There is a distinctive phenomenology to the experience of understanding language, and Semantic Perception shows how this phenomenology can be brought to bear as evidence for and against competing theories of language.

The Pragmeme Of Accommodation The Case Of Interaction Around The Event Of Death

Author : Vahid Parvaresh
ISBN : 9783319557595
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 55. 1 MB
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This volume brings together a wide array of papers which explore, among other things, to what extent languages and cultures are variable with respect to the interactions around the event of death. Motivated by J. L. Mey’s idea of the pragmeme, a situated speech act, the volume has both theoretical and practical implications for scholars working in different fields of enquiry. As the papers in this volume reveal, despite the terminological differences between various disciplines, the interactions around the event of death serve to provide solace, not only to the dying, but also to the family and friends of the deceased, thus helping them to “accommodate” to the new state of affairs.

Programming Languages Series 2

Author : John Brown
ISBN : 1802262377
Genre :
File Size : 71. 2 MB
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55 % discount for bookstores ! Now At $30.99 instead of $ 48.03 $ Your customers will never stop reading this guide !!! PYTHON PROGRAMMING Would you like to learn the hard core of Python coding? You are the type of genius the great eBook in the next few lines is dedicated to, check it out. Learning the complex processes of Python Programming is a tough task most people don't want to try. Even Computer, Engineering, Tech and related fields do not want to, to even imagine the interest of a non-tech related fan. It can be very frustrating too. That's why you know many people who learnt the basics of python programming and stopped halfway. But if you are good at it, it can offer you the most thrilling experience you will ever have. Coding with python can become your only profession and as well, the most exciting thing on earth. It is full of amazing drills and challenges. If is fun and sort of crazy. Python coding has a way of helping people develop their creativity too. HTML HTML and XHTML: The Definitive Guide, fourth Edition, helps both: the creators cover each component of HTML/XHTML in detail, clarifying how every component works and how it collaborates with different components. Numerous clues about HTML/XHTML style smooth the route for composing records that range from straightforward online documentation to complex introductions. With many models, the book gives web writers models for composing their own compelling site pages and for dominating progressed highlights, similar to templates and casings. Buy it Now and let your customers get addicted to this amazing book !!

Variability And Stability In Foreign And Second Language Learning Contexts

Author : Ewa Piechurska-Kuciel
ISBN : 9781443836005
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 65. 30 MB
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This book contains a wide spectrum of topics organized within a relatively fixed framework of Applied Linguistics theory and practice, revolving around the concepts of stability and variability that capture the dynamic nature of the phenomena characterizing language, learning and teaching. The primary strength of individual chapters lies in the fact that the vast majority report original empirical studies carried out in diverse second/foreign language learning contexts – investigating interesting issues across various nationalities, ages, educational and professional groups of language learners, and teachers. The issues under scrutiny entail the ‘classic’ recurrent topics related to language learning and teaching, such as communicative competence, input, orality and literacy, learner characteristics and strategies, and teacher development – to mention just a few. In addition, ‘recent arrivals,’ to borrow a marketing metaphor, are also present, as the authors consider learning and teaching implications resulting from the status of English as a language of international communication, and discuss related concepts of intercultural competence along with language learners’ identity and creativity. The multilingual and multicultural contributors to the present volume are researchers – foreign and second language learners and teachers themselves – who offer the reader a range of methodological designs that have been successfully used in Applied Linguistics research. The framework of stability and variability suggests that changes leading to progress and development derive from stable foundations that account for the sense of continuity and belonging in applied linguists’ communities of practice.

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