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Meanings And Metaphors

Author : Gillian Lazar
ISBN : 0521774365
Genre : Foreign Language Study
File Size : 20. 54 MB
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A lively collection of vocabulary activities which provide opportunities to use language creatively and to engage in cross-cultural comparisons. Meanings and Metaphors contains a lively collection of vocabulary activities which will open up the world of figurative language to students of intermediate level and above. Each of the 34 photocopiable units has a clear step-by-step lesson plan for the busy teacher which includes a useful background information section for extra support. All the words and expressions included in the book have been checked against the Cambridge International Corpus to ensure that they are relevant, up-to-date and useful to the students. This can be used to supplement most course books and is suitable for a wide range of teaching environments.

The Logic Of Metaphor

Author : Eric Steinhart
ISBN : 9789401596541
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 85. 56 MB
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1. Metaphors and Logic Metaphors are among the most vigorous offspring of the creative mind; but their vitality springs from the fact that they are logical organisms in the ecology of l- guage. I aim to use logical techniques to analyze the meanings of metaphors. My goal here is to show how contemporary formal semantics can be extended to handle metaphorical utterances. What distinguishes this work is that it focuses intensely on the logical aspects of metaphors. I stress the role of logic in the generation and int- pretation of metaphors. While I don't presuppose any formal training in logic, some familiarity with philosophical logic (the propositional calculus and the predicate c- culus) is helpful. Since my theory makes great use of the notion of structure, I refer to it as the structural theory of m etaphor (STM). STM is a semant ic theory of m etaphor : if STM is correct, then metaphors are cognitively meaningful and are n- trivially logically linked with truth. I aim to extend possible worlds semantics to handle metaphors. I'll argue that some sentences in natural languages like English have multiple meanings: "Juliet is the sun" has (at least) two meanings: the literal meaning "(Juliet is the sunkIT" and the metaphorical meaning "(Juliet is the sun)MET". Each meaning is a function from (possible) worlds to truth-values. I deny that these functions are identical; I deny that the metaphorical function is necessarily false or necessarily true.

Understanding Figurative Language

Author : Sam Glucksberg
ISBN : 0198027125
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This book examines how people understand utterances that are intended figuratively. Traditionally, figurative language such as metaphors and idioms has been considered derivative from more complex than ostensibly straightforward literal language. Glucksberg argues that figurative language involves the same kinds of linguistic and pragmatic operations that are used for ordinary, literal language. Glucksberg's research in this book is concerned with ordinary language: expressions that are used in daily life, including conversations about everyday matters, newspaper and magazine articles, and the media. Metaphor is the major focus of the book. Idioms, however, are also treated comprehensively, as is the theory of conceptual metaphor in the context of how people understand both conventional and novel figurative expressions. A new theory of metaphor comprehension is put forward, and evaluated with respect to competing theories in linguistics and in psychology. The central tenet of the theory is that ordinary conversational metaphors are used to create new concepts and categories. This process is spontaneous and automatic. Metaphor is special only in the sense that these categories get their names from the best examples of the things they represent, and that these categories get their names from the best examples of those categories. Thus, the literal "shark" can be a metaphor for any vicious and predatory being, from unscrupulous salespeople to a murderous character in The Threepenny Opera. Because the same term, e.g.,"shark," is used both for its literal referent and for the metaphorical category, as in "My lawyer is a shark," we call it the dual-reference theory. The theory is then extended to two other domains: idioms and conceptual metaphors. The book presents the first comprehensive account of how people use and understand metaphors in everyday life.

The Rule Of Metaphor

Author : Paul Ricoeur
ISBN : 9781134381685
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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First Published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Metaphor And Thought

Author : Andrew Ortony
ISBN : 0521405610
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 33. 50 MB
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Metaphor and Thought reflects the surge of interest in and research into the nature and function of metaphor in language and thought. Philosophers, psychologists, linguists, and educators raise serious questions about the viability of the traditional distinction between the literal and the metaphorical, discussing problems ranging from the definition of metaphor to its role in language acquistion, learning, scientific thinking, and the creation of social policy. In the second edition, the contributors have updated their original essays to reflect changes in their fields. The volume also includes six new chapters that present important and influential new ideas about metaphor that have appeared in such fields as the philosophy of language and the philosophy of science, linguistics, cognitive and clinical psychology, education, and artificial intelligence. The book will serve as an excellent graduate-level textbook in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence.

Logics Of Dislocation

Author : Trevor J. Barnes
ISBN : 1572300337
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44. 34 MB
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Forward-thinking economists and geographers increasingly recognize the value of poststructural approaches to their respective disciplines. Systematically applying a postmodern sensibility to economic geography, Trevor J. Barnes integrates a comprehensive review of economic geography's recent past with innovative work in philosophy and the sociology of science. In so doing, he clarifies key poststructuralist ideas and demonstrates their relevance to the field. The volume draws upon the work of a number of poststructuralist writers, including Derrida and Rorty, as well as that of influential economists such as McCloskey, Mirowski, Resnick, and Wolff, and is enriched by the author's use of case studies linking together historical context, biography, and theory. In its critique of the rationalism and essentialism that characterize prevailing models, and its exploration of alternative conceptualizations, Logics of Dislocation offers both a novel reconstruction of economic geography's past and a basis for a reconceived future.

Metaphor And Its Moorings

Author : M. Elaine Botha
ISBN : 3039104578
Genre : Philosophy
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Human knowledge and language reflect the 'metaphorical' nature of the human experiential and conceptual system. The author shows that metaphor and its underlying analogical structure are significant keys to the understanding of the metaphorical nature of reality and cognition and provide a better understanding of the relationship between science and religion. This study builds critically on the insights of Lakoff and Johnson by introducing a new angle to the discussions concerning conceptual metaphor and its basis in human embodiment. In her proposed alternative to the traditional view of knowledge the author argues that the distinction between literal and metaphorical language ought to be revisited and replaced with a view in which the idea of proper analogy and necessary metaphors are acknowledged. The insights gained in this respect are also applied to the changing views concerning theory and observation in scientific theorizing. A case study on the relationship between religion and science in the work of Michael Faraday illustrates that scientific observation is impregnated with theoretical convictions and that metaphors play a decisive role in the models developed to understand reality.

The Concise Thesaurus Of Traditional English Metaphors

Author : Peter Richard Wilkinson
ISBN : 9780415430845
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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Originally published: 2nd ed. London: Thesaurus of traditional English metaphor, 2002.

New Age Globalization

Author : A. Ahmad
ISBN : 9781137319494
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 33. 39 MB
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Using the frameworks of systems theory, modernization, and the world system, New Age Globalization presents a composite multilevel, multidirectional picture of globalization informed by eight different but interdependent subsystems.

Metaphor And Meaning In Psychotherapy

Author : Ellen Y. Siegelman
ISBN : 0898620147
Genre : Psychology
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When therapists hear patients talk of feeling "imprisoned," "burning with rage," "trapped," or "unequipped," they are witnessing manifestations of the symbolic attitude, the hallmark of all depth psychology. Most clinicians naturally respond to and use metaphors, but they often fail to understand the full potential of metaphoric images. This volume, in addressing the transforming power of metaphor, demonstrates how clinicians can deepen the therapeutic encounter.

Metaphors And Meanings

Author : Garth Boomer
ISBN : 0909955824
Genre : Education
File Size : 62. 91 MB
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Researching And Applying Metaphor In The Real World

Author : Graham Low
ISBN : 9789027223807
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 79. 82 MB
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It has become increasingly clear that metaphor needs to be explored in terms of the social and discourse context in which it is used, especially where the aim is to address real-world problems. The notion of 'real world' metaphor research has been developed to describe this important area of investigation. This book starts by describing the nature and scope of real world metaphor research and then illustrates, through 17 detailed, mainly empirically-based studies, the different areas it can apply to, and different methodologies that can be employed. Research problems are explored in areas such as artificial intelligence, language teaching and learning, reconciliation dialogue, university lecture discourse, poetry and wine description. Methods include corpus analysis, experimentation, discourse analysis, cross-cultural analysis and genre analysis. In each case the empirical studies refer back to Gibbs's opening overview of real-world research. The result is an invaluable and cross-referenced collection of papers addressing real-world problems.

Language From The Body

Author : Sarah F. Taub
ISBN : 1139428225
Genre : Psychology
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What is the role of meaning in linguistic theory? Generative linguists have severely limited the influence of meaning, claiming that language is not affected by other cognitive processes and that semantics does not influence linguistic form. Conversely, cognitivist and functionalist linguists believe that meaning pervades and motivates all levels of linguistic structure. This dispute can be resolved conclusively by evidence from signed languages. Signed languages are full of iconic linguistic items: words, inflections, and even syntactic constructions with structural similarities between their physical form and their referents' form. Iconic items can have concrete meanings and also abstract meanings through conceptual metaphors. Language from the Body rebuts the generativist linguistic theories which separate form and meaning and asserts that iconicity can only be described in a cognitivist framework where meaning can influence form.

Metaphors Of The Web 2 0

Author : Alexander Tokar
ISBN : 3631586647
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This study is an attempt to semantically decompose the most popular metaphorical expressions associated with two particular Web 2.0 practices: social networks and folksonomies. What is a friend on a social networking Web site like MySpace and StudiVZ? Is it polite to poke strangers on Facebook and give them fives on hi5? How can we subscribe to RSS feeds, if we don't pay subscription fees? Do we really broadcast ourselves on our YouTube channels? These and other similar questions are dealt with from the perspective of the referential and the conceptual approaches to meaning, i.e., what these words stand for (referential/extensional approach) and which concepts they signify (conceptual/intensional approach). Thus, from the referential point of view, a friend on MySpace is only a hyperlink directing to a profile page of another MySpace user. But from the intensional point of view, a friend is a subscriber to the content generated by the profile owner.

Embodied Metaphors In Film Television And Video Games

Author : Kathrin Fahlenbrach
ISBN : 9781317531210
Genre : Social Science
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In cognitive research, metaphors have been shown to help us imagine complex, abstract, or invisible ideas, concepts, or emotions. Contributors to this book argue that metaphors occur not only in language, but in audio visual media well. This is all the more evident in entertainment media, which strategically "sell" their products by addressing their viewers’ immediate, reflexive understanding through pictures, sounds, and language. This volume applies cognitive metaphor theory (CMT) to film, television, and video games in order to analyze the embodied aesthetics and meanings of those moving images.

Metaphor And Meaning In D H Lawrence S Later Novels

Author : John B. Humma
ISBN : 0826207421
Genre : Literary Criticism
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Although D. H. Lawrence's later novels have been the subject of much discussion by critics, few scholars have recognized or dealt with his sense of craft. By examining Lawrence's careful and finely orchestrated strategies with language, especially metaphor, Humma argues that a number of the longer works—from Aaron's Rod on and including the posthumously published The Virgin and the Gipsy—are small masterpieces. Different in kind from Women in Love or The Rainbow, these fictions are very important in their own way. Humma maintains that the early and middle novels work largely through powerful symbols. Those of the last decade, though, develop through an intricate interlacing of metaphor and symbolic detail. Humma devotes a chapter to each to Aaron's Rod, The Ladybird, Kangaroo, St.Mawr, The Plumed Serpent, The Virgin and the Gipsy, Lady Chatterley's Lover and The Escaped Cock. Aaron's Rod, as a transitional work, reveals much about Lawrence's narrative method and its dependence upon combinations of images. The Plumed Serpent, Humma suggests, is Lawrence's most ambitious failure. Other critics have faulted plot, character, and meaning, but Humma sees incoherent metaphors as the basis for those other problems. Because Lawrence's metaphors shape myths essential to central actions and meanings, the reader cannot fully appreciate the strategic function of metaphor in them. When Lawrence's method is successful, as it is in Lady Chatterley's Lover, for example, figures of speech overlap each other, crossing boundaries in a web of “interpenetrating metaphors” that provide both structural integrity and thematic resonance. Paying close attention to the texts, Metaphor and Meaning in D. H. Lawrence's Later Novels shows that Lawrence was far from the indifferent craftsman in his later fiction that he has frequently been considered. In fact, Lawrence was acutely aware that language and meaning are inseparable, that technique, as Mark Schorer said, is discovery. John Humma's fresh perspective upon the art and meaning of Lawrence's later work provides a major revaluation of this last phase in the writer's career.

Introducing Metaphor

Author : Murray Knowles
ISBN : 9781134470921
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the book provides a thorough grounding in metaphor and word meaning, theories on the processing and understanding of metaphorical language, and metaphor in other languages and translation. Rosamund Moon and Murray Knowles, draw on a wide selection of material to explore metaphor in relation to text, discourse and society. Linguistic metaphor and literary metaphor are examined across a range of contexts, such as politics, sport and advertising, whilst literary metaphor is demonstrated through authentic extracts from fiction and poetry. A final section covering non-verbal metaphor looks at metaphor in art, cinema and music.

Figuratively Speaking

Author : Robert J. Fogelin
ISBN : 9780199739998
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 52. 46 MB
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In this book, the author examines figures of speech that concern meaning--irony, hyperbole, understatement, similes, metaphors, and others--to show how they work and to explain their attraction. The author contends that figurative language derives its power from the insistence that the reader participate in the text, looking beyond the literal meaning of the figurative language to the meanings that are implied. He demonstrates that the intellectual and aesthetic force of figurative language is derived from the opportunity it provides for unlimited elaboration.

Interpreting Figurative Meaning

Author : Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr
ISBN : 9781107024359
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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Interpreting Figurative Meaning explores interdisciplinary debates on the ways in which humans comprehend figurative language in everyday life.

Foundations Of Meaning

Author : Joseph Edward Grady
ISBN : OCLC:156076246
Genre : Literature
File Size : 49. 89 MB
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