merriam webster s advanced learner s english dictionary

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Merriam Webster S Advanced Learner S English Dictionary Stephen J Perrault 2008

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Preface Merriam-Webster[1]s Advanced Learner[1]s English Dictionary is not only an entirely new dictionary created by the editorial staff of America[1]s oldest dictionary publisher it also marks the beginning of a new kind of publishing for this company. Over the past 160 years, Merriam-Webster has produced hundreds of dictionaries and other reference books, and many of those books have been useful to learners of English as a second or foreign language, but this dictionary is the first one that we have produced specifically to meet the needs of those learners. The creation of this dictionary reflects the reality that English has become an international language, and that American English, in particular, is now being used and studied every day by millions of people around the world. We believe that we have a unique opportunity to help students of English in the U.S. and elsewhere to understand our language and to use it more clearly and effectively. This dictionary provides coverage of both American and British English. Its coverage of British English is current and comprehensive. Its coverage of American English is, we believe, unparalleled. The thousands of entries, senses, phrases, forms, and examples that are labeled US in this dictionary will provide learners with a clearer and more precise description of idiomatic American usage than has ever before been available in a dictionary of this kind. The approximately 100,000 entries in this dictionary include a broad selection of words from all major areas of interest, including popular culture, business, sports, science, and technology, among others. Our main focus in choosing entries has been to include the language that people are most likely to need and encounter in their daily lives. The evidence used to make decisions about which words and senses to include was drawn, first of all, from our continually growing database of citation text, now numbering more than 100 million words. That evidence was augmented in essential ways by the resources that are available to us over the Internet, and in particular by the enormous databases of Lexis-Nexis, which provided editors with ready access to vast amounts of material from both American and British sources. Not so long ago dictionary editors had to rely entirely on evidence that had been painstakingly collected over a period of years by a program of reading. That program continues at Merriam-Webster, providing the basis of our citation database, and we continue to find great value in the traditional methods of evidence-gathering, but we also have fully embraced the power of the electronic tools that have become available in recent decades. The use of computers now makes it possible for dictionary editors to examine and describe language at a level of detail that was never before imaginable. The definitions in this dictionary are written in simple language. In many cases, a single use of a word will be given more than one definition. Very often a word will be defined by a quite simple definition, followed by a definition that is perhaps somewhat less simple or that shows how the defined word is related to another word. For example, the verb pioneer is defined both as to help create or develop new ideas, methods, etc. and as to be a pioneer in the development of something . The first definition can certainly stand alone, but the second definition enhances it by underscoring the close connection between the verb pioneer and the noun pioneer a connection that native speakers are unconsciously aware of, but that learners may not sense so strongly. The inclusion of multiple definitions thus helps learners both to expand their vocabularies and to gain a fuller picture of a word[1]s meaning by approaching it from a slightly different direction. Notes of various kinds are also used abundantly throughout the dictionary to clarify and emphasize aspects of usage that cannot be easily captured or expressed in a definition. True fluency in any language, of course, is not acquired by memorizing dictionary definitions, but by hearing and seeing how words are used in combination with each other to express meaning. In writing this book we have devoted a great deal of care and attention to creating simple and accurate definitions, but our feeling throughout has been that the real heart of the dictionary is its examples. We know from experience that dictionary users, whether native speakers or learners, want more examples. They want examples for common words, and they want examples for difficult words. Although not every entry in this dictionary includes an example there is usually very little value in providing an example for, say, a noun like microchip or monoplane the great majority of the entries do, and a large percentage of them include more than one. There are more than 160,000 usage examples in this dictionary. A few of them are quotations taken from well-known works of American and British literature, but most are made-up examples, based on evidence of real English, that have been carefully written to show words being used in appropriate contexts which accurately reflect their uses in actual speech and writing. A large number of the examples in this dictio- 7a JOBNAME: Webster’s Learners D PAGE: 2 SESS: 12 OUTPUT: Mon Jul 14 12:25:33 2008 /data31/webster/dict/mw−learners−dictionary/003−fm−preface nary do not simply illustrate usage, they also explain it and expand upon it in other ways. Many examples include synonymous words or phrases shown within brackets, thus allowing the reader either to learn a new word or to have the connection between the meanings of words reinforced. Examples also often include glosses, so that phrases and compound terms whose meanings are not obvious can be explained clearly and simply. And we have very frequently explained the meaning of entire phrases and sentences by restating them with other, simpler words. Many examples also show how the same word can be used in slightly different ways[1]or how related words can be used in different ways[1]to say the same thing. We believe that such examples are of great value to the learner they are the next best thing to having a native speaker available by your side to help clarify what you are seeing and hearing. Any comprehensive dictionary contains an enormous amount of information, and dictionary editors have typically been required to use a variety of abbreviations and other shortcuts to fit all that information into the limited space available between the covers of a book. Two of our main goals in creating the entries for this dictionary were to keep the use of such shortcuts to a minimum and to employ conventions that are readily understandable. We set out to create a dictionary that could be easily used without frequent reference to explanatory materials. To achieve that, we have minimized the use of abbreviations and symbols although we were not able to eliminate them entirely and we have tried to use labels and notes whose meanings are immediately clear. We have also made every effort to organize entries in a way that allows users to find the information they want quickly. The most obvious convention we have adopted for this purpose is the use of blue text for examples. The blue text not only highlights the examples, it also makes it much easier to identify the other elements of an entry[1]the definitions, usages notes, and so on[1]and to navigate through long entries to find the particular information that you need. It can sometimes be easy to forget that a large dictionary like this one has to be written word by word and line by line. Each definition, each example, each note that appears in this dictionary is the product of careful and strenuous thought by at least one person, and often by many people, since the nature of the writing and editing process is such that multiple stages of review are required before the work is truly finished. The names of the many people who worked on this book are listed in the following paragraphs. The length of this project has meant that some of the people who were with us when it began had moved on to other parts of their lives by the time it ended. The Merriam-Webster editors credited here include both current and former staff members. Former Director of Defining E. Ward Gilman and former Editor in Chief Frederick C. Mish, both now retired, provided helpful suggestions when the project was in its initial planning stages, as did consultant Robert Ilson. President and Publisher John M. Morse was also involved in the initial planning of the project and provided support and encouragement throughout it. The editors who had the first crack at creating entries included, in no particular order, Karen L. Wilkinson, Susan L. Brady, Thomas F. Pitoniak, Kathleen M. Doherty, Emily A. Brewster, G. James Kossuth, Emily B. Arsenault, Penny L. Couillard-Dix, Emily A. Vezina, Benjamin T. Korzec, Ilya A. Davidovich, Judy Yeh, Rose Martino Bigelow, Kory L. Stamper, Peter A. Sokolowski, Neil S. Serven, Deanna Stathis, Anne Eason, Joanne M. Despres, Rebecca Bryer-Charette, and myself. Dr. Ilson undertook a complete review of the work that was done at that early stage, and he made many valuable corrections and additions. He was particularly helpful in providing good examples and in augmenting our coverage of British English by identifying distinctions often very subtle ones between American and British usage. The pronunciations throughout the dictionary were provided by Joshua S. Guenter. The essential task of checking and re-checking cross-references was handled by Maria Sansalone, Donna L. Rickerby, and Adrienne M. Scholz. The work of copyediting the entries that had been created by the definers was done by editors Wilkinson, Brady, Brewster, Couillard-Dix, Korzec, Yeh, Stamper, Sokolowski, Serven, Eason, Despres, Bryer- Charette, and me. The complexity of this project was such that an additional reviewing stage was added following copyediting. That work was done by editors Bryer-Charette, Korzec, Brewster, Stamper, Brady, Couillard-Dix, Wilkinson, and Madeline L. Novak. The responsibility for final review of the manuscript fell to me. The proofreading of the galleys and page proofs was done by many of the editors mentioned above and by Anne P. Bello and Paul S. Wood. The primary proofreader for the in-house keying of revisions was Kathleen M. Doherty. Specialized editing assistance was provided by editors Wood and Doherty. Most of the illustrations that appear throughout were newly created for this book. The new black-and-white illustrations were drawn by Tim Phelps of Johns Hopkins Univ., and the color illustrations were researched and drawn by Merriam-Webster editor Diane Caswell Christian. Mark A. Stevens oversaw the creation of the new illustrations and planned the black-and-white illustrations along with Lynn Stowe Tomb, who also coordinated work with Mr. Phelps and converted the drawings to electronic form for typesetting. Freelancer Loree Hany and editors Jennifer N. Cislo and Joan I. Narmontas assisted in art research. The selection of the 3,000 entry words that are highlighted as being most important for learners to know was based in large part on initial recommendations provided by James G. Lowe and Madeline L. Novak. Additional research was carried out and final selections were made by John M. Morse. The Geographical Names section was prepared by Daniel J. Hopkins. The other back matter sections were prepared by Mark A. Stevens, C. Roger Davis, and outside contributor Orin Hargraves. Robert D. Copeland arranged for 8a Preface JOBNAME: Webster’s Learners D PAGE: 3 SESS: 12 OUTPUT: Mon Jul 14 12:25:33 2008 /data31/webster/dict/mw−learners−dictionary/003−fm−preface Content Data Solutions, Inc., to convert the dictionary data files to a suitable format before typesetting them. The converted files were checked by Donna L. Rickerby. Daniel B. Brandon keyed revisions into the converted data files and contributed other technical help. Thomas F. Pitoniak directed the book through its typesetting stages. Project coordination and scheduling were handled by Madeline L. Novak, who was also chiefly responsible for the book[1]s typography and page design. Our notions about what this book could and should be continued to develop as we progressed through the different stages of editing, and many of the people named above made useful suggestions that led to changes, both minor and major, in the book[1]s style and content. Further changes were implemented thanks to comments and suggestions from a group of consultants who reviewed a selection of entries at a fairly late stage in the project. We gratefully acknowledge the important contributions of those consultants, whose names are listed below. We want first of all to express our thanks to Jerome C. Su, President of the Taiwan Association of Translation and Interpretation and Chair of Bookman Books, Taipei, Taiwan, for all of his advice and good suggestions at the reviewing stage and throughout the project. Our other consultants, all of whom provided us with carefully considered and valuable feedback, were Virginia G. Allen, author and educator, Ohio State Univ. James H. Miller, ESL teacher Elizabeth Niergarth, ESL instructor consultant, Harvard Univ. Susan Despres Prior, ESL teacher Caroline Wilcox Reul, lexicographer and ESL teacher Maggie Sokolik, Director, Technical Communication Program, College of Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley Yukio Takahashi, English teacher, Sendai Shirayuri Gakuen High School, Sendai, Japan Gregory Trzebiatowski, Headmaster, Thomas Jefferson School, Concepción, Chile and his students Felipe Opazo, Paula Reyes, and Carolina Sanhueza and Rob Waring, author and educator, Notre Dame Seishin Univ., Okayama, Japan. All of the editors who worked on this book have of course had the experience of studying a foreign language, with varying degrees of success. This project has given us renewed opportunities to understand what it is like to approach Englishwith all its complexities, subtleties, and apparent inconsistenciesas a learner rather than as a native speaker, and that experience has reminded us again of just how challenging the task of learning a new language truly is. We hope and believe that Merriam-Webster[1]s Advanced Learner[1]s English Dictionary is a resource that will make that task easier for students of English. Stephen J. Perrault Editor

Merriam Webster S Advanced Learners English Dictionary Study Guide

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Provides a study guide to accompany an English language dictionary for ESL students.

Merriam Webster S Advanced Learner S English Dictionary

Author : Merriam-Webster
ISBN : 0877795509
Genre : Foreign Language Study
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Contains definitions of 100,000 words and phrases for advanced learners of English, and includes pronunciation guides, as well as over 160,000 example sentences.

Advanced Learner S English Dictionary

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ISBN : 8808720888
Genre : Reference
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Lexicography In The 21st Century

Author : Sandro Nielsen
ISBN : 9789027289018
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This is a state-of-the-art volume on lexicography at the beginning of the 21st century. It also offers proposals for future theoretical and practical work. The contributions, inspired by the ground-breaking work of Henning Bergenholtz, address topics such as dictionary functions; dictionary users; access routes; dictionary structures; dictionary reviewing; subject-field classifications; data retrieval; corpus lexicography; and collocations and phraseology. The contributors, all highly regarded international scholars in the field of lexicography, show how the theory of lexicographical functions can extend the forefront of the discipline by focusing on dictionary functions and how these meet the needs of users in various types of user situations. Thereby echoing Bergenholtz’s idea that a dictionary is a tool that can help users solve problems encountered in communicative, cognitive and operative situations. This volume is not only of interest to practical and theoretical lexicographers but to anyone interested in lexicography.

Dictionaries An International Encyclopedia Of Lexicography

Author : Rufus Gouws
ISBN : 9783110238136
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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The basis for this additional volume are the three volumes of the handbooks Dictionaries. An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography (HSK 5.1–5.3), published between 1989 and 1991. An updating has been perceived as an important desideratum for a considerable time. In the present Supplementary Volume the premises and subjects of HSK 5.1–5.3 are complemented by new articles that take account of the practice-internal and theoretical developments of the last 15 years. Special attention has been given to the following topics: the status and function of lexicographic reference works, the history of lexicography, the theory of lexicography, lexicographic processes, lexicographic training and lexicographic institutions, new metalexicographic methods, electronic and, especially, computer-assisted lexicography.

Encyclopedic Learners Dictionaries

Author : Martin Stark
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Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This book describes and evaluates the usefulness of a recently developed lexicographical hybrid: the encyclopedic learner's dictionary (ELD). First, the ELD is analysed from a typological perspective. Two encyclopedic learners' dictionaries are dissected and compared, and a checklist of ELD design features is drawn up. A survey of previous user-based studies is then provided, followed by a description of the questionnaire-based methodology used in this user-centred investigation. Next, a critical analysis of each ELD design feature is provided. Finally, the implications of this research for the future production of ELDs are presented as a checklist of recommendations.

Dictionary Skills Booklet Pnu College Of Languages 2017

Author : PNU College of Languages
Genre : Business & Economics
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This chapter answers the following questions: What is a dictionary? What are the different types of dictionaries? How can we describe a dictionary? What are the elements of a dictionary? What are the different kinds of information dictionaries provide? What is a dictionary? This is the first question one encounters when learning about dictionary skills or reading any book on lexicography (the art of compiling dictionaries). Defining the term "dictionary" is important to distinguish it from other reference books, which may look similar, like encyclopedias. Etymologically, the word "dictionary" comes from the Middle Latin word "dictionarium," which means "collection of words and phrases". This definition relates to the basic function of dictionaries which is listing the words of a language or a particular field of knowledge. This simple fact is the basis of all the definitions proposed for a dictionary. A dictionary is a book used as a reference source which contains lists of words arranged alphabetically or thematically, with explanations of their meanings (semantic information in monolingual dictionaries) or with their equivalents (in bi-, tri-, or multilingual dictionaries). They may also include more information related to orthography (spelling, alternate spellings), morphology (syllabification, word inflections, derivative forms, morphological paradigm), phonology (pronunciation, stress pattern), etymology (word history and origin), syntax (part of speech, verb type, noun type, etc), pragmatics (usage, frequency of use, style, context), and other semantic information (related words such as synonyms, antonyms). A dictionary may variously be referred to as: word book, lexicon, thesaurus, vocabulary, glossary, and concordance. However, each one of these is slightly different in scope. For example, a thesaurus (also from Latin, and which means a treasury or a storehouse) presents synonyms and antonyms; a glossary usually gives a list of terms confined to a particular domain of knowledge with definitions. What distinguishes a dictionary from these different types is that none of them provides all the different kinds of linguistic information a dictionary provides. Types of dictionaries: Dictionaries vary in coverage, size, and scope. They can be classified on the basis of different criteria. Knowing the types of dictionaries available is very important to decide which ones to buy or use. The following criteria are used to classify dictionaries: 1) Number of languages: Monolingual dictionaries are written in one language only. Each word is followed by its meaning or various meanings and probably other information related to pronunciation, grammar, or word history. 2 Bilingual dictionaries are written in two languages. Each word is followed by its equivalent or possible equivalents in another language. Bilingual dictionaries could be uni- or mono-directional; that is, they go in one direction only, from English to Arabic or vise versa. They could also be bidirectional; that is, the dictionary is divided into two parts; the first part is from Language 1 to Language 2, and the second one is from Language 2 to Language 1. Trilingual dictionaries are written in three languages. Multilingual language are written in more than two languages. 2) Age of the users: School dictionaries are intended for school students and they are graded according to children's age: elementary, middle, and high school students. They are simplified versions of adult references. They may also be referred to as "children's dictionaries" if they are intended for very young children. Adult dictionaries, on the other hand, are intended for adults and these are the ones that translators use and they include a variety of dictionary types such as college dictionaries, current language dictionaries, and unabridged dictionaries. 3) Size of the dictionary: This has to do with how fully a dictionary covers the lexicon of a particular language. The number of words is a measure of its relative size compared with other dictionaries in the same language. According to this criteria, dictionaries can be classified into the following. a) Unabridged dictionaries which are believed to include all the words of the English language (400,000 to 600,000 words). They give full coverage to the lexicon in general use and to specialized lexicon, with examples and all other information any dictionary could give. In other words, they provide complete and authoritative linguistic information. They are impractical for desk use because of their size and expense, but they are available in libraries and are important reference sources. Examples: Webster's Third New International Dictionary (NID3), and Oxford English dictionary (OED) which has 20 volumes. Semiunabridged dictionaries are those which include about 315,000 words such as the Random House Dictionary. b) College dictionaries include from 150,000 to 170,000 words (almost 200,000 words). Examples: The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Random House College Dictionary, Webster's New World Dictionary of American English. They are called college dictionaries because they are often used by college students. c) Desk dictionaries include from 60,000 to 100,000 words. Examples: The American heritage dictionary, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. They are called desk dictionaries because they are often kept on desks for frequent reference. College and desk dictionaries are often abridged versions of larger dictionaries. 3 Some publishing houses use the term college to refer to both college dictionaries and desk dictionaries. Some other houses use the term concise to refer to desk dictionaries; e.g. Concise Oxford Dictionary, Longman Concise English Dictionary. d) Pocket size dictionaries, which include from 40,000 to 60,000 words; e.g. Pocket Oxford Dictionary. 4) Scope of coverage by subject: Subject-field dictionaries are confined to a special subject, such as law or medicine. Special-purpose dictionaries are limited to one aspect of language: collocations, slang, pronunciation, etymology, synonyms, usage, offensive and taboo words, spelling, dialect, neologisms, etc. A functional classification of dictionaries: For the purpose of the present course, which ultimately aims at training students to use dictionaries as professional translators, we will adopt the following classification that is based on the functions of dictionaries. Dictionaries are divided into two types: traditional and electronic dictionaries. I. Traditional (or regular) dictionaries: Traditional dictionaries are printed dictionaries (paper /print dictionaries). They are divided into four main categories: linguistic, visual, picture, and encyclopedic dictionaries. 1) Linguistic dictionaries are dictionaries that are concerned with words and provide linguistic information and may contain some pictures or illustrations. They are further divided into four types: general, learner, children, and specialized dictionaries. a) General-purpose dictionaries deal with the common words of a language and are compiled by language experts. They may be mono- or bilingual. They may be explanatory and help readers to understand a word meaning, its pronunciation, spelling, usage, etc. They may be translation dictionaries providing word equivalents. Explanatory and translation dictionaries may be unabridged, college, desk, concise, or pocket dictionaries. General-purpose dictionaries could also be production dictionaries (alternatively called activators) which are very useful in writing; they guide you as to which words or expressions to use to express similar or different ideas. They focus on use or meaning in context and on oral usage, rather than explaining their meanings. The first production dictionary is: Longman Language Activator: The World's First Production Dictionary (1993), Longman Essential Activator (intermediate level). The lexical information is organized around approximately 1000 key terms that serve as focal points for crucial sets of concepts. 4 b) Learners' dictionaries are aimed at students learning a language. Examples: Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. c) Children dictionaries are very simplified versions specifically written for children. d) Specialized dictionaries are divided into two types: subject field dictionaries and special purpose dictionaries. Subject field dictionaries are limited to the vocabulary of specific scholarly areas or fields of knowledge such as medicine, law, religion, business and commerce, literature, military affairs and politics, etc. The rapid growth and development, and specifications in all the fields of knowledge has resulted in generating of new words or specialized terms for which the general dictionaries do not provide adequate information. Therefore, it became necessary to compile subject dictionaries which are devoted completely to specific subject fields. As a result many subject dictionaries and glossaries in Humanities, Social Sciences and Science & Technology are coming out day-by-day. They are compiled by the experts in the different subject fields. Special purpose dictionaries deal with different aspects of language such as collocations, slang, idioms, phrasal verbs, neologisms, abbreviations, language varieties and dialects, synonyms and antonyms, pronunciation, etymology, usage, grammar, word frequencies, etc. 2) Visual dictionaries tend to be complete dictionaries and rely on illustrations and photos or pictures; e.g. Merriam-Webster's Visual Dictionary Online. 3) Picture dictionaries are often organized by topic instead of being an alphabetic list of words. They include only a small corpus of words because they are often intended for children. They may be mono-, bi-, or multilingual. 4) Encyclopedic dictionaries has encyclopedic features; their concern is not the words of a language but rather with facts about things, objects, or people; e.g. The Hutchinson Concise Encyclopedic Dictionary. II. Electronic dictionaries: An electronic dictionary is an electronic reference resource that contains a library of words and their meanings, spellings, and etymologies. They can be 1) portable (or handheld), battery-operated devices; 2) dictionary programs (on CDs) , or software running on PDAs or computers and which allow words or phrases to be input and translated; or 3) web based dictionaries accessible via the internet. Electronic dictionaries are more convenient than paper dictionaries and much faster to search. Examples of some online dictionaries: AskOxford Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English, Cambridge Dictionaries Online Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Unabridged v. 1.1 and American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Ed, Longman Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Merriam-Webster OnLine Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, Oxford University Press Oxford

Merriam Webster S Collegiate Dictionary

Author : Merriam-Webster
ISBN : 0877798095
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Presents concise definitions, pronunciations, abbreviations, some illustrations, usage examples, and synonyms with ten thousand new words and meanings.

The Oxford Guide To Practical Lexicography

Author : B. T. Sue Atkins
ISBN : 9780191557217
Genre : Reference
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This is a down-to-earth, 'how to do it' textbook on the making of dictionaries. Written by professional lexicographers with over seventy years' experience between them, the book presents a step-by-step course for the training of lexicographers in all settings, including publishing houses, colleges, and universities world-wide, and for the teaching of lexicography as an academic discipline. It takes readers through the processes of designing, collecting, and annotating a corpus of texts; shows how to analyse the data in order to extract the relevant information; and demonstrates how these findings are drawn together in the semantic, grammatical, and pedagogic components that make up an entry. The authors explain the relevance and application of recent linguistic theories, such as prototype theory and frame semantics, and describe the role of software in the manipulation of data and the compilation of entries. They provide practical exercises at every stage. The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography draws on materials developed by the authors over more than twenty years of teaching courses for publishing houses and universities in the US, Japan, Hong Kong and China, South Africa, Australia, the UK, and Europe. It will be welcomed everywhere by lexicographers, teachers of lexicography, and their students. It is also fascinating reading for all those interested in discovering how dictionaries are made.

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