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The Size Origins And Character Of Mongolia S Informal Sector During The Transition

Author : James Horton Anderson
ISBN :
Genre : Datos estadisticos
File Size : 33. 11 MB
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May 1998 Mongolia's informal sector has expanded far more quickly during the transition than its formal sector, largely because of greater ease of entry into the informal sector. Current policy discourages entry into the formal sector. The explosion of informal entrepreneurial activity during Mongolia's transition to a market economy represents one of the most visible signs of change in this expansive but sparsely populated Asian country. To deepen our understanding of Mongolia's informal sector during the transition, Anderson merges anecdotal experience from qualitative interviews with hard data from a survey of 770 informals in Ulaanbaatar, from a national household survey, and from official employment statistics. Using varied sources, Anderson generates rudimentary estimates of the magnitude of, and trends in, informal activity in Mongolia, estimates that are surprisingly consistent with each other. He evaluates four types of reasons for the burst of informal activity in Mongolia since 1990: * The crisis of the early and mid-1990s, during which large pools of labor were released from formal employment. * Rural to urban migration. * The market's reallocation of resources toward areas neglected under the old system: services such as distribution and transportation. * The institutional environments faced by the formal and informal sectors: hindering growth of the formal sector, facilitating entry for the informal sector. Formal labor markets haven't absorbed the labor made available by the crisis and by migration and haven't fully responded to the demand for new services. The relative ease of entering the informal market explains that market's great expansion. The relative difficulty of entering formal markets is not random but is driven by policy. Improving policies in the formal sector could afford the same ease of entry there as is currently being experienced in the informal sector. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group and the South East Asia and Mongolia Country Unit, East Asia and Pacific-is part of a larger program of research on the impact of institutional changes in Mongolia, and on the rule of law in transition economies. The author may be contacted at [email protected]

Mongolia In The Twentieth Century

Author : Stephen Kotkin
ISBN : 0765605368
Genre : History
File Size : 58. 98 MB
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This volume examines Mongol history over the twentieth century, embracing not only Mongolia proper but also Mongol communities in Russia and China. The contributions are by authors from Japan, Russia, Taiwan, Great Britain and the United States.

Mongolia

Author : Michael Dillon
ISBN : 9781788316965
Genre : History
File Size : 86. 61 MB
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Mongolia remains a beautiful barren land of spectacularly clothed horse-riders, nomadic romance and windswept landscape. But modern Mongolia is now caught between two giants: China and Russia; and known to be home to enormous mineral resources they are keen to exploit. China is expanding economically into the region, buying up mining interests and strengthening its control over Inner Mongolia. Michael Dillon, one of the foremost experts on the region, seeks to tell the modern history of this fascinating country. He investigates its history of repression, the slaughter of the country's Buddhists, its painful experiences under Soviet rule and dictatorship, and its history of corruption. But there is hope for its future, and it now has a functioning parliamentary democracy which is broadly representative of Mongolia's ethnic mix. How long that can last is another question. Short, sharp and authoritative, Mongolia will become the standard text on the region as it becomes begins to shape world affairs.

Mongolia

Author : International Monetary Fund
ISBN : 9781451826807
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 88. 62 MB
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This 2002 Article IV Consultation highlights that Mongolia’s domestic economic performance was mixed during 2000–01 and in the first half of 2002. The severe winters of 2000–01 took a heavy toll on output and rural incomes. Real GDP growth is officially estimated to have declined to about 1 percent a year in 2000–01. Inflation rose to 111⁄2 percent in 2000, as the effects of weather-related decreases in food supplies and higher public utility tariffs were compounded by a 25 percent general increase in civil service wages.

Mongolia

Author : International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
ISBN : 9781513547893
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 27. 78 MB
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This paper discusses Mongolia’s Request for Purchase Under the Rapid Financing Instrument (RFI). The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has taken a large toll on economic activity in Mongolia, giving rise to urgent budget and balance of payments needs. The authorities have already taken several measures to limit the economic contraction and help the most vulnerable. Recent revisions to the budget allow for higher health and social spending as well as tax relief to affected households and businesses. In addition, the Bank of Mongolia has eased monetary and financial policies to help prevent a disorderly contraction in bank lending to the private sector. Emergency financing under the IMF’s RFI will provide much needed support to respond to the urgent balance of payments and budgetary needs. Additional assistance from development partners will be required to support the authorities’ efforts and close the financing gap. The authorities’ commitment to high standards of transparency and governance in the management of financial assistance is welcome.

Mongolia

Author : Henrietta Toth
ISBN : 9781502641298
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 37. 91 MB
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Mongolia, a landlocked country in East Asia, is one of the largest countries in the world, as well as one of the most sparsely populated. Mongolia is known as the home of Genghis Khan, who ruled over nomadic horsemen and founded the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, and the nation's people are still largely nomadic. This book takes readers on a journey through Mongolia, exploring its geography, history, culture, and people. Special sidebars, vivid photographs, and maps accompany this informative text.

Forests And Forest Management In Mongolia

Author : A. Enkhbat
ISBN : IND:30000057008132
Genre : Forest management
File Size : 74. 72 MB
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Transforming Inner Mongolia

Author : Yi Wang
ISBN : 9781538146088
Genre : Borderlands
File Size : 57. 89 MB
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This book analyzes the social, economic, and political impact of Han Chinese migration into the borderlands that became Inner Mongolia during the Qing period. Linking local history to global movements, Yi Wang traces Inner Mongolia's integration into what would become the nation-state of China and from there into a global capitalist economy.

Area Handbook For Mongolia

Author : Historical Evaluation and Research Organization, Washington, D. C.
ISBN : UIUC:30112020293624
Genre : Mongolia
File Size : 38. 76 MB
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Mongolia Business Law Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information And Basic Laws

Author : IBP, Inc.
ISBN : 9781438770536
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 34. 6 MB
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Mongolia Business Law Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Basic Laws

Dateline Mongolia

Author : Michael Kohn
ISBN : 1571431551
Genre : Travel
File Size : 52. 97 MB
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Michael Kohn, editor of the Mongol Messenger, is one steppe ahead of the journalistic posse in this epic Western set in the Far East. Kohn's book is an irresistible account of a nation where falcon poachers, cattle rustlers, exiled Buddhist leaders, death-defying child jockeys and political assassins vie for page one. The turf war between lamas, shamans, Mormon elders and ministers provides the spiritual backdrop in this nation recently liberated from Soviet orthodoxy. From the reincarnated Bogd Khaan and his press spokesman to vodka-fueled racing entrepreneurs and political leaders unclear on the concept of freedom of the press, Kohn explores one of Asia's most fascinating, mysterious and misunderstood lands.

Modern History Mongolia Hb

Author : Bawden
ISBN : 9781136188220
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24. 19 MB
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First published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Among Herders Of Inner Mongolia

Author : Christel Braae
ISBN : 9788771844979
Genre : Religion
File Size : 60. 80 MB
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This is a study of a unique collection of Inner Mongolian artifacts at the National Museum of Denmark. They are described, analyzed and presented in a catalogue of more than 800 items, documenting the daily life of pastoral society in and around the tent, in the herding of the animals, in caravan trade and in hunting, crafts, sports and games, and in ritual life. Information about the objects was obtained during two expeditions to Inner Mongolia in the 1930s led by the Danish author Henning Haslund-Christensen, who had many years' experience of travel and expedition life in Mongolia. This is also a detailed account of the expeditions; of the routes, means and measures, as well as the worries and hopes of the participants; of their struggles with scientific aspirations; and of the conditions for collecting against the backdrop of the Chinese civil war and the Japanese occupation. The First and Second Danish Expeditions to Central Asia took place in 1936-1937 and 1938-1939 respectively. These expeditions were the sole foreign parties with access to the area at the time, and therefore their members were among the few observers of Inner Mongolian pastoral society at a time and place for which information was, and still is, scant and fragmented. Hence, the material objects and data obtained are of great scientific importance in the documentation of the life and material culture of Inner Mongolian herders in the 1930s - the main subject of the present book.

The State Popular Mobilisation And Gold Mining In Mongolia

Author : Dulam Bumochir
ISBN : 9781787351837
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 66. 74 MB
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Mongolia’s mining sector, along with its environmental and social costs, have been the subject of prolonged and heated debate. This debate has often cast the country as either a victim of the ‘resource curse’ or guilty of ‘resource nationalism’. In The State, Popular Mobilisation and Gold Mining in Mongolia, Dulam Bumochir aims to avoid the pitfalls of this debate by adopting an alternative theoretical approach. He focuses on the indigenous representations of nature, environment, economy, state and sovereignty that have triggered nationalist and statist responses to the mining boom. In doing so, he explores the ways in which these responses have shaped the apparently ‘neo-liberal’ policies of twenty-first century Mongolia, and the economy that has emerged from them, in the face of competing mining companies, protest movements, international donor organizations, economic downturn, and local and central government policies.

Mongolia In Transition

Author : Ole Bruun
ISBN : 0700704418
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 15 MB
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Provides easily accessible information for developers, planners, consultants, scholars, students and others with an interest in contemporary Mongolia. Prefaced by a general overview of the land and society. Chapters, all written by international experts, cover a wide range of topics.

Change In Democratic Mongolia

Author : Julian Dierkes
ISBN : 9789004224346
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81. 25 MB
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The contributions in this book represent analyses from around the world across the social sciences and form a substantial part of the state of the art of research on contemporary Mongolia.

Nationalism And Hybridity In Mongolia

Author : Uradyn Erden Bulag
ISBN : 0198233574
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 66. 76 MB
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Uradyn Bulag presents a unique study of what it means to be Mongolian today. Mongolian nationalism, emerging from a Soviet-dominated past and facing a Chinese-threatened future, has led its adherents to stress purity in an effort to curb the outside influences on Mongolian culture andidentity. This sort of nationalism views the Halh (the 'indigenous' Mongols) as 'pure' Mongols, and other Mongol groups as 'impure'. This Halh-centrism excites and exploits fears that Mongolia will be swallowed by China; it stands in opposition to pan-Mongolism, the view that links between Mongolsof all kinds should be strengthened. Bulag draws on an abundance of illuminating research findings to argue that Mongols are facing a choice between a purist, racialized nationalism, inherited from Soviet discourses of nationalism, and a more open, adaptive nationalism which accepts diversity,hybridity, and multiculturalism. He calls into question the idea of Mongolia as a homogeneous place and people, and urges that unity should be sought through acknowledgement of diversity.

Travel Guide Of Inner Mongolia

Author : Ni Hao
ISBN :
Genre : Travel
File Size : 89. 37 MB
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This book is the volume of ''Travel Guide of Inner Mongolia'' among a series of travel books (''Travelling in China''). Its content is detailed and vivid.

Mongolia Society Bulletin

Author : Mongolia Society
ISBN : UVA:X000775148
Genre : Mongolia
File Size : 61. 88 MB
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Growth Diagnostics For A Resource Rich Transition Economy The Case Of Mongolia

Author : Elena Ianchovichina
ISBN :
Genre :
File Size : 80. 46 MB
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This paper uses a growth diagnostics approach à la Hausmann, Rodrik, and Velasco (HRV) to identify the most 'binding' constraints to private sector growth in Mongolia - a small, low-income, mineral-rich, transition economy. The approach of applying the HRV methodology is useful in those cases where a lack of data prevents us from estimating shadow prices to identify the most 'binding' constraint to growth. We find that although Mongolia is not liquidity constrained and has grown rapidly in recent years, economic growth has been narrowly based. Investment has flowed mainly into a small number of firms operating in mining and construction. The low level of private investment in sectors outside mining and construction has been due to low returns - a result of costly and unreliable transportation services; lengthy and complex transit procedures, including customs and trade rules; distortionary taxes; coordination failures, at both domestic and international levels; and growing corruption. Poor financial intermediation is also a problem that has kept the cost of finance high, although lower than in previous years. Alleviating these binding constraints will ensure that Mongolia maintains the path towards sustained, broad-based growth.

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