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Neural Progenitor Cells

Author : Loic P. Deleyrolle
ISBN : 1071617826
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76. 48 MB
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This updated edition collects cutting-edge techniques used to study neural stem and progenitor cells as well as the brain microenvironment. Featuring a wide range of technological advances in the study of neural stem cells, the volume highlights the promises of stem cell-based therapeutic applications for central nervous system ailments. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Neural Progenitor Cells: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition serves as an invaluable resource for the next generation of neuroscientists as they develop innovative experimental paradigms and progress toward therapeutic applications in the field of neurobiology.

Identification And Characterization Of Neural Progenitor Cells In The Adult Mammalian Brain

Author : Sara Gil-Perotín
ISBN : 1282824791
Genre : Brain
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Adult neurogenesis has been questioned for many years. In the early 1900s, a dogma was established that denied new neuron formation in the adult brain. Adult neural stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the adult brain and are capable of dividing and differentiating into glia and new neurons.

The Potential Of Neural Progenitor Cells

Author : Samantha J. Van Hoffelen
ISBN : OCLC:60746126
Genre :
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Neuronal loss within the central nervous system (CNS) has been considered an irreversible process, as cells within the mammalian CNS fail to regenerate after degeneration and trauma. Neural stem (and progenitor) cells have been proposed as a potential source of new neurons. This investigation describes the fate of neural progenitor cells both in vitro and after transplantation. Progenitor cells were isolated from the brains of neonatal green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing mice thereby allowing cells to be easily visualized both in culture and after transplantation. We have shown brain derived progenitor cells (BPCs) can be maintained in defined conditions and are capable of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Cells adopted characteristic morphologies and phenotypes of both neurons and glia as determined by immunocytochemistry. To determine the potential of BPCs to undergo neurogenesis, and specifically retinogenesis we adopted three approaches: 1) transplantation, 2) coculture, and 3) induction/treatment with a developmental cue. We have shown brain progenitor cells can incorporate into the developing retina and adopt characteristic morphologies and phenotypes. Furthermore, using immunocytochemistry we show BPCs expressed proteins typical of surrounding retinal neurons. We further analyzed the potential of BPCs to adopt retinal fates using P1 mouse retina in a coculture system with BPCs. When cocultured with P1 retina but not P7 retina, BPCs expressed rhodopsin, a protein restricted to photoreceptors. Furthermore, rhodopsin expression was induced by a soluble factor and not cell-contact mediated. BPCs have been shown to adopt neuronal fates, yet not synaptic structures. Using cholesterol as a potential differentiation cue and developmental factor, we treated BPCs and analyzed their fates in vitro. Cholesterol induced dramatic morphological differentiation and pre- and post-synaptic protein expression among BPCs. This investigation provides the first description of brain-derived cells undergoing retinalization and illustrates the most dramatic integration of stem/progenitor cells within the CNS. The ability to produce 'neurons' from neural progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo has tremendous implications for treating numerous conditions.

Characterization Of Neural Progenitor Stem Cells Derived From Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Author : Parinya Noisa
ISBN : OCLC:930656381
Genre :
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Human Neural Stem Cells

Author : Leonora Buzanska
ISBN : 9783319934853
Genre : Science
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This book summarizes early pioneering achievements in the field of human neural stem cell (hNSC) research and combines them with the latest advances in stem cell technology, including reprogramming and gene editing. The powerful potential of hNSC to generate and repair the developing and adult CNS has been confirmed by numerous experimental in vitro and in vivo studies. The book presents methods for hNSC derivation and discusses the mechanisms underlying NSC in vitro fate decisions and their in vivo therapeutic mode of action. The long-standing dogma that the human central nervous system (CNS) lacks the ability to regenerate was refuted at the end of the 20th century, when evidence of the presence of neurogenic zones in the adult human brain was found. These neurogenic zones are home to human neural stem cells (hNSCs), which are capable of self-renewing and differentiating into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NSCs isolated from human CNS have a number of clinical advantages, especially the innate potential to differentiate into functional neural cells. Nevertheless, their full clinical exploitation has been hindered by limited access to the tissue and low expansion potential. The search for an alternative to CNS sources of autologous, therapeutically competent hNSCs was the driving force for the many studies proving the in vitro plasticity of different somatic stem cells to generate NSCs and their functional progeny. Now the era of induced pluripotent stem cells has opened entirely new opportunities to achieve research and therapeutic goals with the aid of hNSCs.

Neural Stem Cells

Author : Jane E. Bottenstein
ISBN : 9780306483561
Genre : Medical
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Neural Stem Cells: Development and Transplantation provides comprehensive, critical and insightful reviews by leading experts in this exciting field of research. This volume will provide the latest data on neural stem cell properties and their therapeutic applications. This volume will be particularly useful for students, basic scientists, and clinicians in the academic or industrial sectors who have an interest in understanding neural development and its application to repairing the nervous system.

The Control Of Neurogenesis And Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression In Neural Progenitor Cells

Author : Hyun-Jung Kim
ISBN : WISC:89095252771
Genre :
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Stem Cells And Cns Development

Author : Mahendra S. Rao
ISBN : 9781592591077
Genre : Medical
File Size : 89. 31 MB
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Stem Cells and CNS Development critically reviews recent findings on stem cells, their involvement in neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and the therapeutic implications of these findings. It defines by consensus the classes of stem cells in the nervous system, compares their similarities and differences, discusses the gains made in identifying human homologs of neural stem cells, and describes how these cells are beginning to be used for therapeutic purposes. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, this book provides all developmental scientists and neurobiologists not only an authoritative account of the current results in neural stem cell research, but also an incisive review of the rapidly emerging therapeutic uses of stem cells.

Neural Stem Cell Assays

Author : Navjot Kaur
ISBN : 9781118308257
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76. 88 MB
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"Including an overview of progress made in the field over the past decade, Neural Stem Cell Assays provides a detailed and comprehensive review of the basic methods for neural stem cell cultures. This one-stop reference for consistent methods and reliable tools spans the entire assay work flow, from isolation or generation of neural stem cells to characterization, manipulation and final application of NSCs in disease paradigms, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and ALS. This is an excellent source of information for academic, pharmaceutic and biotechnology researchers"--Provided by publisher.

Neurospheres And Multipotent Astrocytic Stem Cells

Author : Gregory Paul Marshall
ISBN : OCLC:74810614
Genre :
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ABSTRACT: Thus it is possible that neurogenesis in the adult brain is provided not by an isolatable NSC but rather by neural progenitor cells derived from a migratory adult stem cell residing in the bone marrow.

Neural Development And Stem Cells

Author : Mahendra S. Rao
ISBN : 9781461438014
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 70 MB
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This expanded and updated edition reflects the enormous increase in our knowledge of the development of the nervous system and the use of neural stem cells in clinical applications. Integrating new information about the use of development of neural stem cells for clinical applications, Drs. Rao, Carpenter and Vemuri have added additional chapters on neural transplantation and development of neural stem cells using reprogramming technologies. A new chapter on cancer in nervous system delineates how the fundamental biology of neural stem cells informs our understanding of cancer and tumor formation in the nervous system. Special attention is paid to the derivation of neural cells from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Authoritative and up-to-date, Neural Development and Stem Cells, 3rd Edition provides neuroscientists with a handy guide to stem cells in the nervous system, tracing with great clarity the development of stem cells from differentiation to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.

Neural Development And Stem Cells

Author : Mahendra S. Rao
ISBN : 9781592599141
Genre : Medical
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Developing the second edition of Neural Development and Stem Cells was neces- tated by the rapid increase in our knowledge of the development of the nervous system. It has become increasingly clear that stem cells are a heterogeneous population that changes extensively during development. Perhaps the most important advance in our understanding of stem cell behavior has been the realization that regionalization of stem cells occurs early in development and this bias toward differentiation in phe- types of neurons or cells characteristic of a particular part of the brain appears to persist even after prolonged culture. We have therefore included additional chapters on olf- tory epithelial stem cells and retinal stem cells, both of which differ in their properties from ventricular zone and subventricular zone–derived neural stem cells. It is also now clear from an analysis of mutants and transgenics where the death or self-renewal pa- way is altered that cell death regulates stem cell number. As a consequence, this second edition includes a separate chapter on cell death that summarizes the important changes in the death pathway that occur as stem cells mature. The existing chapters in the book have also been extensively revised and updated by experts who have generously c- tributed their time and expertise. The chapters have been organized along the lines of our understanding of how the nervous system develops (Fig. 1, on p. vi).

The Functional Integration Of Adult Neural Progenitor Cells Into Intact And Compromised Primary Neural Networks In A Microelectrode Array Co Culture System

Author : Crystal Lynn Stephens
ISBN : OCLC:864880605
Genre :
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Neural stem/progenitor cell research is on the cusp of achieving real strategies for central nervous system repair. Recent studies provide evidence that grafts can survive, functionally integrate, and ultimately augment damaged neural networks. However, understanding the impact of functional integration on existing brain circuitry is an understudied area of research. This dissertation employs microelectrode arrays (MEAs), which facilitate real-time optical and electrophysiological data collection across entire neural networks, to first determine the faculty for adult hippocampal neural progenitor cell (NPC) derivatives to produce spontaneous action potentials and network bursts when cultured alone, and then to investigate the effects of adult NPC addition to intact or damaged primary neural networks. MEA-plated primary cultures transition through high frequency "superbursting" that is ultimately refined into mature, regular burst patterns. When plated alone, adult NPC-progeny fail to establish synchronized bursting that primary and embryonic stem cell-derived cultures readily form.

Neural Stem Cells

Author : Luca Bonfanti
ISBN : 9789535110699
Genre : Science
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Twenty years after the discovery of neural stem cells, the question whether the central nervous system can be considered among regenerative tissues is still open. On one side, deep characterization of neural stem and progenitor cells, their niches, and their progeny in brain neurogenic sites overtly showed that new neurons can be generated in the brain of adult mammals, including humans. On the other side, many problems arise when stem cells encounter the mature brain parenchyma, still hampering the development of efficacious therapeutic approaches with endogenous or exogenously-delivered neural stem cells. This book tries to make the point on these extremely promising, yet unresolved, issues.

Neural Progenitor Cells In The Intact And Injured Spinal Cord Role Of Nogo A In Neural Progenitor Cells During Development

Author : Aileen Schröter
ISBN : OCLC:729999630
Genre :
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A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles

Author : Kendall Robyn Branham
ISBN : OCLC:1154403704
Genre : Xenopus laevis
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Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its nuclear protein matrin-3 may be affecting this process. Overexpression of this gene through the introduction of plasmid DNA in vivo is expected to maintain the pool of progenitor cells for an extended period of time in the brains of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Whole brain electroporation and live imaging studies will hopefully reveal the effects of this gene’s overexpression on radial glial progenitor cells within the X. laevis optic tectum and would allow for an increase in the knowledge of how matr3 potentially plays a role in human brain development .

Expression Of Chondroitin Sulf

Author : Mei-Ki Wong
ISBN : 1361025271
Genre : Medical
File Size : 90. 63 MB
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This dissertation, "Expression of Chondroitin Sulfotransferases in Neural Progenitor Cells: Impacts on Cell Motility" by Mei-ki, Wong, 黃美錡, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: The specific order by which functional neural circuits are established relies on the timely migration of newly specified neurons to target sites where they complete the differentiation program and form synapses. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are well-positioned in the extracellular matrix of developing neural tissue for roles in cell proliferation, migration, growth cone guidance and axon fasciculation. In this study, we hypothesize that the newly born neurons tune into chemotactic signals in the environment by modulating the sulfation pattern of perineuronal chondroitins. We chose to study the migration of such neurons in hindbrain explants (E11.5+ 1 day-in-vitro, Sprague Dawley rats) using time lapse microscopy. In control cultures, neurons advanced along exiting neurites that radiated from the explant. In test cultures treated with chondroitinase ABC, neurons lost directional migration but retained motility; immunocytochemistry confirmed loss of the CS-56 epitope in the chondroitinase ABC-treated cultures. Re-examination of the control culture revealed that the migrating neurons close to the explant core engaged in more active forward movements compared to those in the periphery (near the distal end of neurites). The regrowth of CS-56 epitope positive CS moieties not only rescued the somal migration previously halted by ChABC treatment but also enhanced the advancement of migrating neurons. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for mRNAs of CS-sulfotransferases revealed that the migratory neurons largely expressed chondroitin-6-sulfotransferase-1, chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-2, N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferaseand uronal-2-sulfotransferase whereas those remaining in the explant core signals largely expressed chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-1. CS-56 epitopes were detectable in nestin-and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive-neural precursors derived from human bone marrow stromal cells as well. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization for mRNAs of CS-sulfotransferases revealed that the mRNA expression of chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-2remained high while chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-1 and chondroitin-6-sulfotransferase-1 showed sudden changes during the days of active progenitor migration as shown in time-lapse video recordings. Our results suggest a new mechanism by which tuning sulfation of perineuronal chondroitins confers sensitivity of early hindbrain motor neuron progenitors to directional cues in the extracellular environment and that the sulfation patterns of cell surface CS on neurons are modified to overcome the inhibition imposed by the environmental CS deposited. Our preliminary data also suggest the roles of 4-and 6-O-sulfated CS by modified by chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-2and chondroitin-6-sulfotransferase-1 in migrating neural precursors. Subjects: Proteoglycan Neural stem cells

Therapeutic Potential Of Neural Progenitor Cell Transplantation In A Rat Model Of Huntington S Disease

Author : Elena Maria Vazey
ISBN : OCLC:426456831
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Huntington's disease [HD] is a debilitating adult onset inherited neurodegenerative disorder with primary degeneration in the striatum and widespread secondary degeneration throughout the brain. There are currently no clinical treatments to prevent onset, delay progression or replace lost neurons. Striatal cell transplantation strategies under clinical evaluation appear viable and effective for the treatment of HD. However, the future of regenerative medicine lies in developing renewable, expandable multipotent neural cell sources for transplantation. This Thesis has investigated a range of novel developments for enhancing the therapeutic potential of neural progenitor cell transplantation in a quinolinic acid [QA] lesion rat model of HD using two cell sources, adult neural progenitor cells and human embryonic stem cell [hESC] derived neural progenitor cells. Chapter Three identified a novel method for in vitro lithium priming of adult neural progenitor cells which enhances their neurogenic potential at the expense of glial formation. Chapter Four demonstrated that lithium priming of adult neural progenitor cells altered their phenotypic fate in vivo after transplantation, enhancing regional specific differentiation and efferent projection formation. The therapeutic potential of this strategy was demonstrated by accelerated acquisition of motor function benefits in the QA model. Chapter Five then demonstrated the ability for post transplantation environmental enrichment to modify therapeutic functional outcomes in the QA lesion model, and through lithium priming and enrichment demonstrated that adult neural progenitors are amenable to combinatorial interventions which can alter their phenotypic fate and enhance anatomical integration. Chapter Six investigated the in vivo effects of in vitro noggin priming of hESC derived neural progenitor cells and identified enhanced safety and neuronal differentiation in the QA lesioned striatum after noggin priming. Furthermore Chapter Seven provided evidence for functional reconstruction and therapeutic functional benefits from transplantation of noggin primed hESC derived neural progenitor cells and also highlighted the need for systematic evaluations of hESC derived transplants to optimise their safety in vivo. These results are beneficial in demonstrating the realistic therapeutic potential held by these two cell sources. They demonstrate how transient interventions can enhance therapeutic outcomes of neural progenitor cell transplantation for HD and have developed the understanding of neural progenitor cell transplantation as a therapeutic tool, bringing transplantation from different cell sources closer to eventual translation for HD sufferers.

Neural Stem Cells And Therapy

Author : Tao Sun
ISBN : 9789533079585
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 71 MB
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This book is a collective work of international experts in the neural stem cell field. The book incorporates the characterization of embryonic and adult neural stem cells in both invertebrates and vertebrates. It highlights the history and the most advanced discoveries in neural stem cells, and summarizes the mechanisms of neural stem cell development. In particular, this book provides strategies and discusses the challenges of utilizing neural stem cells for therapy of neurological disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. It is suitable for general readers, students, doctors and researchers who are interested in understanding the principles of and new discoveries in neural stem cells and therapy.

Neural Progenitor Cells In The Huntington S Disease Human Brain

Author : Maurice A. Curtis
ISBN : OCLC:156736356
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