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Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics

Author : Jorge L. Sarmiento
ISBN : 9781400849079
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 91 MB
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Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics provides a broad theoretical framework upon which graduate students and upper-level undergraduates can formulate an understanding of the processes that control the mean concentration and distribution of biologically utilized elements and compounds in the ocean. Though it is written as a textbook, it will also be of interest to more advanced scientists as a wide-ranging synthesis of our present understanding of ocean biogeochemical processes. The first two chapters of the book provide an introductory overview of biogeochemical and physical oceanography. The next four chapters concentrate on processes at the air-sea interface, the production of organic matter in the upper ocean, the remineralization of organic matter in the water column, and the processing of organic matter in the sediments. The focus of these chapters is on analyzing the cycles of organic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients. The next three chapters round out the authors' coverage of ocean biogeochemical cycles with discussions of silica, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity, and CaCO3. The final chapter discusses applications of ocean biogeochemistry to our understanding of the role of the ocean carbon cycle in interannual to decadal variability, paleoclimatology, and the anthropogenic carbon budget. The problem sets included at the end of each chapter encourage students to ask critical questions in this exciting new field. While much of the approach is mathematical, the math is at a level that should be accessible to students with a year or two of college level mathematics and/or physics.

Biogeochemical Dynamics At Major River Coastal Interfaces

Author : Thomas Bianchi
ISBN : 9781107022577
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 88 MB
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State-of-the-art, comprehensive synthesis of biogeochemical dynamics and impact of human alterations at major river-coastal interfaces for advanced students and researchers.

Ocean Dynamics And The Carbon Cycle

Author : Richard G. Williams
ISBN : 9781139496773
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 58 MB
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This textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a multidisciplinary approach to understanding ocean circulation and how it drives and controls marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity at a global scale. Background chapters on ocean physics, chemistry and biology provide students with the tools to examine the range of large-scale physical and dynamic phenomena that control the ocean carbon cycle and its interaction with the atmosphere. Throughout the text observational data is integrated with basic physical theory to address cutting-edge research questions in ocean biogeochemistry. Simple theoretical models, data plots and schematic illustrations summarise key results and connect the physical theory to real observations. Advanced mathematics is provided in boxes and appendices where it can be drawn on to assist with the worked examples and homework exercises available online. Further reading lists for each chapter and a comprehensive glossary provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.

Effects Of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation On Biogeochemical Dynamics In Aquatic Environments

Author : Neil V. Blough
ISBN : UCSD:31822008943052
Genre : Atmospheric chemistry
File Size : 20. 66 MB
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The Biogeochemical Cycle Of Silicon In The Ocean

Author : Bernard Quéguiner
ISBN : 9781848218154
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 13 MB
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In the biogeochemical dynamics of marine ecosystems, silicon is a major element whose role has, for a long time, been underestimated. It is however indispensable to the activity of several biomineralizing marine organisms, some of which play an essential role in the biological pump of oceanic carbon. This book presents notions indispensable to the knowledge on the silicon biogeochemical cycle in ocean systems, first of all describing the main quantitative analysis techniques and examination of the major organisms involved in the cycle. The author then moves on to study the most up-to-date processes to control the use of silicon and its regeneration in natural conditions, before mentioning the central role played by this original element in the control of all the biogeochemical cycles in the global ocean. The available information finally enables the global biogeochemical budget of silicon in the marine environment to be quantified.

Towards A Model Of Ocean Biogeochemical Processes

Author : Geoffrey T. Evans
ISBN : 9783642846021
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 40 MB
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Key biogeochemical events in the ocean take place in less than a second, are studied in experiments lasting a few hours, and determine cycles that last over seasons or even years. Models of the controlling processes thus have to take into account these time scales. This book aims at achieving consensus among these controlling processes at all relevant time scales. It helps understand the global carbon cycle including the production and breakdown of solved organic matter and the production, sinking and breakdown of particles. The emphasis on considering all time scales in submodel formulation is new and of interest to all those working in global ocean models and related fields.

Biogeochemistry Of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

Author : Dennis A. Hansell
ISBN : 9780124071537
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 64 MB
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Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM

Indian Ocean Biogeochemical Processes And Ecological Variability

Author : Jerry D. Wiggert
ISBN : 9781118671665
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 29 MB
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 185. Indian Ocean Biogeochemical Processes and Ecological Variability provides a synthesis of current knowledge on Indian Ocean biogeochemistry and ecology and an introduction to new concepts and topical paradigm challenges. It also reports on the development of more extensive/frequent observational capacity being deployed in the Indian Ocean. This represents the first collection of syntheses that emphasize a basin-wide perspective, and the contributing authors include some of the most esteemed oceanographers and Indian Ocean experts in the world. The volume is derived from invited plenary talks that were presented at the initial Sustained Indian Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (SIBER) workshop held at the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) in Goa, India, in October 2006. The volume discusses The overlying physical processes set by monsoonal forcing and how these control biological production and variability Nutrient cycling and limitation Pelagic carbon cycling and air-sea exchange Benthic biogeochemistry and ecology The impact of climate and human activities on biogeochemistry and ecosystems. The readership for this book will consist of academic and governmental researchers interested in exploring how oceanographic, atmospheric, and hydrological processes combine to establish the environmental setting that supports and drives the pelagic system and which are especially relevant to understanding the complex biogeochemical and ecological interactions in the Indian Ocean.

Ocean Biogeochemistry

Author : Michael J.R. Fasham
ISBN : 3540423982
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 12 MB
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Oceans account for 50% of the anthropogenic CO2 released into the atmosphere. During the past 15 years an international programme, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), has been studying the ocean carbon cycle to quantify and model the biological and physical processes whereby CO2 is pumped from the ocean's surface to the depths of the ocean, where it can remain for hundreds of years. This project is one of the largest multi-disciplinary studies of the oceans ever carried out and this book synthesises the results. It covers all aspects of the topic ranging from air-sea exchange with CO2, the role of physical mixing, the uptake of CO2 by marine algae, the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen through the marine food chain to the subsequent export of carbon to the depths of the ocean. Special emphasis is laid on predicting future climatic change.

Marine Microbiology

Author : John H. Paul
ISBN : 0125215444
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 53 MB
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Written by experts in the field, Marine Microbiology presents the latest experimental techniques in the detail required for modern environmental microbiological research. Chapters start with the introduction and background of a particular method, followed by a concise description of the procedures involved. There is also a list of vendors who supply critical components which includes names, addresses, and websites at the end of each chapter. Enumeration of autotrophic picoplankton, bacteria and viruses Fingerprinting Viral Assemblages by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Fluorescence in situ hybridization with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes Detection of phytoplankton by remote sensing Covers both established and novel current methods Historical perspective Coverage of marine pollution microbiology and microbes in extreme environments List of suppliers provided at end of each chapter Colour plate section

Marine Conservation

Author : G. Carleton Ray
ISBN : 9781118714430
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 27 MB
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Providing a guide for marine conservation practice, Marine Conservation takes a whole-systems approach, covering major advances in marine ecosystem understanding. Its premise is that conservation must be informed by the natural histories of organisms together with the hierarchy of scale-related linkages and ecosystem processes. The authors introduce a broad range of overlapping issues and the conservation mechanisms that have been devised to achieve marine conservation goals. The book provides students and conservation practitioners with a framework for thoughtful, critical thinking in order to incite innovation in the 21st century. "Marine Conservation presents a scholarly but eminently readable case for the necessity of a systems approach to conserving the oceans, combining superb introductions to the science, law and policy frameworks with carefully chosen case studies. This superb volume is a must for anyone interested in marine conservation, from students and practitioners to lay readers and policy-makers." —Simon Levin, George M. Moffett Professor of Biology, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University

Dynamics And Characterization Of Marine Organic Matter

Author : N. Handa
ISBN : 9789401713191
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 20 MB
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Over the past decade the scientific activities of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), which focuses on the role of the oceans in controlling climate change via the transport and storage of greenhouse gases and organic matter, have led to an increased interest in the study of the biogeochemistry of organic matter. There is also a growing interest in global climate fluctuations. This, and the need for a precise assessment of the dynamics of carbon and other bio-elements, has led to a demand for an improved understanding of biogeochemical processes and the chemical characteristics of both particulate and dissolved organic matter in the ocean. A large amount of proxy data has been published describing the changes of the oceanic environment, but qualitative and quantitative estimates of the vertical flux of (proxy) organic compounds have not been well documented. There is thus an urgent need to pursue this line of study and, to this end, this book starts with several papers dealing with the primary production of organic matter in the upper ocean. Thereafter, the book goes on to follow the flux and characterization of particulate organic matter, discussed in relation to the primary production in the euphotic zone and resuspension in the deep waters, including the vertical flux of proxy organic compounds. It goes on to explain the decomposition and transformation of organic matter in the ocean environment due to photochemical and biological agents, and the reactivity of bulk and specific organic compounds, including the air-sea interaction of biogenic gases. The 22 papers in the book reflect the interests of JGOFS and will thus serve as a valuable reference source for future biogeochemical investigations of both bio-elements and organic matter in seawater, clarifying the role of the ocean in global climate change.

Biogeochemical Processes At The Land Sea Boundary

Author : P. Lasserre
ISBN : 0080870813
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 84 MB
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There is an intuitive belief among scientists that each estuary or lagoon is unique and different. Similarities do exist, however, and this book attempts to highlight some common properties and perhaps some innovative views on biogeochemical processes, and biological fluxes which are of central concern in the understanding of the land-sea boundary. The contents are based upon lectures given at a Seminar organised as the scientific component of the 17th General Meeting of SCOR, held at the Station Biologique de Roscoff, France, on 22-24 October 1984. The original lectures have been substantially extended and revised in order to give a fuller treatment of the subject. The contributions identify important processes influencing (I) Behaviour of chemical species, (II) Nutrient cycling and mechanisms of organic transformations and (III) Uptake of trace elements by living systems. The connection between terrestrial and oceanic systems is a functional one and the consequences of this linkage on the very large variety of coastal systems are profound. It is widely recognized that many of the major processes which influence the biological properties and chemical forms of elements, and their biogeochemical cycles in the ocean occur at the land-sea boundary, especially in estuaries, coastal lagoons, the coastline and the shelf. Over 80% of living systems and their fisheries take place in near shore waters and the consequential production of organic matter produced triggers off the high level of activity. Over the last fifteen years, there has been considerable stimulus to provide framework to evaluate the interactions and effects of human activities. The rich assemblage of tables and figures and of literature citations contained in the chapters provides an excellent basis for in-depth investigations. Oceanographers, limnologists, aquatic chemists, marine biologists, and environmental specialists will find this book highly valuable reading for advanced research and training purposes.

Remote Sensing Of Coastal Aquatic Environments

Author : Richard L. Miller
ISBN : 9781402031007
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 44. 94 MB
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This book provides extensive insight on remote sensing of coastal waters from aircraft and space-based platforms. The primary focus of the book is optical remote sensing using passive instruments, to measure and analyze the coastal aquatic environment. The authors have gathered information from a variety of sources, to help non-specialists grasp new techniques and technology, to quickly produce useful data

2000 Ocean Sciences Meeting

Author :
ISBN : CHI:76859419
Genre : Aquatic sciences
File Size : 85. 36 MB
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Global Environment

Author : Elizabeth Kay Berner
ISBN : 9781400842766
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 88 MB
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This newly revised edition of Global Environment discusses the major elements of the geochemical cycles and global fluxes found in the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, as well as the human effects on these fluxes. Retaining the strengths of the original edition while incorporating the latest discoveries, this textbook takes an integrated, multidisciplinary, and global approach to geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces fundamental concepts of meteorology, surficial geology (weathering, erosion, and sedimentation), biogeochemistry, limnology, and oceanography. New concepts and information in this updated edition include changes of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geologic time, major advances in the study of chemical weathering of rocks, ocean acidification, and important environmental problems, such as the amelioration of the acid rain problem due to reduction in sulfur deposition, problems with nitrification of soils and lakes, and eutrophication of rivers and estuaries. An expanded chapter explores atmospheric chemistry and changing climate, with the most up-to-date statistics on CO2, the carbon cycle, other greenhouse gases, and the ozone hole. Only requiring a fundamental understanding in elementary chemistry, yet taking into account extensive and current data, this text is ideal for students in environmental geochemistry, environmental geology, global change, biogeochemistry, water pollution, geochemical cycles, chemical oceanography, and geohydrology, and serves as a valuable reference for researchers working on global geochemical and environmental issues. Revised edition takes a close look at global fluxes involving the atmosphere, land, lakes, rivers, biota, and oceans, and the human effects on these fluxes Detailed discussion of basic concepts including meteorology, surficial geology (weathering, erosion, and sedimentation), biogeochemistry, limnology, and oceanography An expanded up-to-date chapter on atmospheric chemistry and changing climate, including CO2, other greenhouse gases, and ozone Presentation of major advances in the study of chemical weathering Discussion of current environmental topics Global coverage of environmental problems involving water Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.

Kuroshio Current

Author : Takeyoshi Nagai
ISBN : 9781119428343
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 89 MB
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An interdisciplinary study of the Kuroshio nutrient stream The surface water of the Kuroshio, a western boundary current in the North Pacific Ocean, is nutrient-depleted and has relatively low primary productivity, yet abundant fish populations are supported in the region. This is called the “Kuroshio Paradox”. Kuroshio Current: Physical, Biogeochemical and Ecosystem Dynamics presents research from a multidisciplinary team that conducted observational and modeling studies to investigate this contradiction. This timely and important contribution to the ocean sciences literature provides a comprehensive analysis of the Kuroshio. Volume highlights include: New insights into the role of the Kuroshio as a nutrient stream The first interdisciplinary examination of the Kuroshio Paradox Reflections on the influence of the Kuroshio on Japanese culture Research results on both the lower and higher trophic levels in the Kuroshio ecosystem Comparisons of nutrient dynamics in the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream Predictions of ecosystem responses to future climate variability

Lagrangian Analysis And Prediction Of Coastal And Ocean Dynamics

Author : Annalisa Griffa
ISBN : 9781139463089
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 33 MB
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Written by a group of international experts in their field, this book is a review of Lagrangian observation, analysis and assimilation methods in physical and biological oceanography. This multidisciplinary text presents new results on nonlinear analysis of Lagrangian dynamics, the prediction of particle trajectories, and Lagrangian stochastic models. It includes historical information, up-to-date developments, and speculation on future developments in Lagrangian-based observations, analysis, and modeling of physical and biological systems. Containing contributions from experimentalists, theoreticians, and modellers in the fields of physical oceanography, marine biology, mathematics, and meteorology, this book will be of great interest to researchers and graduate students looking for both practical applications and information on the theory of transport and dispersion in physical systems, biological modelling, and data assimilation.

Upper Ocean Physical And Ecological Dynamics In The Ross Sea Antarctica

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:bx376fq2382
Genre :
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This dissertation examines several aspects of the unique physical-biological system that controls biogeochemical cycling in the Ross Sea, the largest continental shelf sea along the Antarctic margin and the most biologically productive region in the Southern Ocean. The core component of the research involves interpretation of data from two oceanographic cruises to the region, one during Summer of 2005--2006 and another in Spring of 2006--2007. Four key research questions are addressed. (1) What physical mechanisms force spatial and temporal variability in mixing depths? (2) How does the dynamic physical environment characteristic of Antarctic continental shelf seas structure distributions of biomass and chemical tracers of production? (3) What key physical and physiological mechanisms control the 13C/12C ratio of organic and inorganic carbon in waters on the Ross Sea continental shelf? and (4) How do physiological variables interact with environmental variability to control phytoplankton taxonomic zonation? Chapter 1 presents an introduction to ocean carbon biogeochemistry and the oceanography of the Southern Ocean and the Ross Sea. Chapter 2 examines the mechanisms effecting early season stratification in the Ross Sea. Lateral advection in the region of upper ocean fronts is shown to be an important mechanism setting early season stratification. Chapter 3 examines several tracer-based methods for estimating upper ocean net community production in the Ross Sea, with explicit recognition of the complexities associated with control volume assumptions and high rates of temporal change. Chapter 4 considers the environmental controls on the distribution of 13C/12C ratios in the Ross Sea. It is shown quantitatively that the two dominant phytoplankton taxa in the Ross Sea have different intrinsic fractionation factors, likely as a result of differing carbon-acquisition physiologies. Air-sea exchange is shown to occur with very noisy fractionation. Finally, Chapter 5 examines the interaction of algal physiology with environmental variability, addressing the key physiological-environmental controls on the taxonomic distribution of phytoplankton in the Ross Sea. While it is difficult to draw concrete conclusions, the most compelling line of evidence suggests that differing photoprotective capacities is the most important physiological characteristic structuring taxonomic distributions. An appendix presents a design for an infrared absorbance-based instrument for the determination of total dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater.

The Oceans And Human Health

Author :
ISBN : UCSD:31822033847609
Genre : Marine microbiology
File Size : 46. 55 MB
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