ocean circulation and climate

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Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Gerold Siedler
ISBN : 0126413517
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 48 MB
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This book presents the views of leading scientists on the knowledge of the global ocean circulation following the completion of the observational phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. WOCE's in situ physical and chemical measurements together with satellite altimetry have produced a data set which provides for development of ocean and coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models used for understanding ocean and climate variability and projecting climate change. This book guides the reader through the analysis, interpretation, modelling and synthesis of this data.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Stefan Rahmstorf
ISBN : 9780128058510
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 63 MB
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The oceans play a crucial role in the Earth’s climate system due largely to their ability to store and transport heat. The instrumental record, spanning an order of magnitude of 100 years, is short compared with some of the important timescales of climate variability. To understand the oceans’ role in these long-term changes, proxy data from sediments, ice cores, and corals must be used. Using these proxy data, we examine the evidence for past ocean circulation and sea-level changes before instrumental oceanographic measurements began. We discuss what paleoclimatic data can tell us about past ocean states and what can be learned from ocean and climate models. Particular foci of the chapter are the ocean circulation and sea-level changes during the Quaternary and the Cretaceous, two particularly interesting periods in Earth’s history. The Quaternary covers the past 2.5 million years and is characterized by periodic glaciations, while the Cretaceous, reaching back around 100 million years, had a warm greenhouse climate with a weak temperature gradient between the tropics and the poles.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Christoph Heinze
ISBN : 9780128058756
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 49 MB
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Biogeochemical ocean general circulation models are important tools for quantifying the marine carbon cycle and its feedback to the climate system. These models simulate the inorganic carbon cycle and also the organic carbon cycle through a series of simplified process parameterizations. This chapter presents an overview of the major concepts and methods in marine biogeochemical modeling including the combination of models with observations. Because of the climatic relevance of the carbon cycle, major emphasis is placed on it, but some other related matter cycles are also touched upon. New developments in ocean biogeochemistry during the last decade are described including the marine anthropogenic carbon uptake and ocean acidification. The chapter tries to acquaint scientists from other disciplines with marine biogeochemical modeling and provides key literature resources for further in-depth studies.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Sybren S. Drijfhout
ISBN : 9780128058602
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 99 MB
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Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline circulation, and their transient behavior. While our conceptual understanding of the time-mean wind-driven circulation is now fairly mature, basic questions remain regarding the thermohaline circulation, for example, surrounding its overall strength and stability. Similarly, basic questions remain regarding the transient adjustment and internal variability of the ocean circulation.

Ice Drift Ocean Circulation And Climate Change

Author : Jens Bischof
ISBN : 185233648X
Genre : Nature
File Size : 78. 55 MB
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The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author :
ISBN : 9780123918536
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 28 MB
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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Peter R. Gent
ISBN : 9780128058725
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 42 MB
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Coupled climate models consist of atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components. Most climate models now do not need to use flux adjustments to maintain the present-day climate in a control run, when the forcings have a repeating annual cycle or are constant in time. A control run must simulate well-known important large-scale phenomena, such as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic overturning circulation. Climate models are used to simulate the climate of the twentieth century, and to make projections of the future climate. The uses and limitations of climate models are then described, and several cutting edge issues are discussed.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Stephen R. Rintoul
ISBN : 9780128058671
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 83 MB
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The Southern Ocean circulation connects the ocean basins as well as the upper and deep layers of the ocean. As a result, the region has a profound influence on the global ocean circulation and climate. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the overturning circulation are dynamically linked through interactions between the mean flow, eddies, topography, air–sea forcing, and mixing and stirring by small- and mesoscale processes. A new dynamical paradigm is emerging that emphasizes the fully three-dimensional nature of the circulation, including the localization of meridional and vertical exchange of momentum, vorticity, and tracers by interactions between the flow and topography. Changes observed in the Southern Ocean in recent decades have implications for global climate and provide insight into the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to changes in forcing.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Mojib Latif
ISBN : 9780128058749
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 6 MB
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An inherent feature of the climate is its strong variability on a vast range of timescales, from seasonal to multimillennial and beyond. Decadal variability, which is the topic of this chapter, has large implications for society, as its consequences can be experienced by individuals during their own lifetime. Examples of decadal variability include the Dust Bowl drought of the 1930s in the American and Canadian prairie lands, the Sahel drought of the 1970s and 1980s, the ongoing drought which started in 2000 in the southwestern United States, and the multidecadal variability in Atlantic hurricane activity during the twentieth century. Furthermore, it is the decadal to multidecadal variability that makes the detection of anthropogenic climate change a challenge, since global warming evolves on a similar timescale. The detection problem specifically applies to the regional scale, where natural variability is the strongest. It is a central challenge of climate science to understand and possibly predict such regional-scale climate variability and change over timescales of decades.

Ocean Currents

Author : John H. Steele
ISBN : 9780080964867
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 31 MB
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Ocean Currents is a derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition and serves as an important reference on current ocean current knowledge and expertise in one convenient and accessible source. Its selection of articles—all written by experts in their field—focuses on key ocean current concepts. Its topics include ocean currents, the circulation of deep water, the contrasting circulations of the seas, the circulation in fjords, estuaries and the effects of rivers, and the intermittency and variability of the oceans. Ocean Currents serves as an ideal reference for topical research. References related articles on ocean currents to facilitate further research Richly illustrated with figures and tables that aid in understanding key concepts Includes an introductory overview of ocean currents and then explores each topic in detail, making it useful to experts and graduate-level researchers Topical arrangement makes it the perfect desk reference

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