ocean circulation and climate

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Ocean Circulation And Climate

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ISBN : 9780123918536
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 24 MB
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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Gerold Siedler
ISBN : 0126413517
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 98 MB
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This book presents the views of leading scientists on the knowledge of the global ocean circulation following the completion of the observational phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. WOCE's in situ physical and chemical measurements together with satellite altimetry have produced a data set which provides for development of ocean and coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models used for understanding ocean and climate variability and projecting climate change. This book guides the reader through the analysis, interpretation, modelling and synthesis of this data.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Carl Wunsch
ISBN : 9780128058701
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 87 MB
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The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Stephen M. Griffies
ISBN : 9780128058695
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 20 MB
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This chapter focuses on numerical models used to understand and predict large-scale circulation, such as the circulation comprising basin and global scales. It is organized according to two themes. The first addresses physical and numerical topics forming a foundation for ocean models. We focus here on the science of ocean models, in which we ask questions about fundamental processes and develop the mathematical equations for ocean thermo-hydrodynamics. We also touch upon various methods used to represent the continuum ocean fluid with a discrete computer model, raising such topics as the finite volume formulation of the ocean equations; the choice for vertical coordinate; the complementary issues related to horizontal gridding; and the pervasive questions of subgrid scale parameterizations. The second theme of this chapter concerns the applications of ocean models, in particular how to design an experiment and how to analyze results. This material forms the basis for ocean modelling, with the aim being to mechanistically describe, interpret, understand, and predict emergent features of the simulated, and ultimately the observed, ocean.

A Consortium For Ocean Circulation And Climate Estimation

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ISBN : OCLC:318693518
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This project aims to advance ocean data assimilation into a quasi-operational tool for studying ocean circulation. Observing the complete state of the ocean is difficult owing to its turbulent nature and to the sparseness and limitation of extant measurements. This project will establish a routine description of the global ocean by optimally combining available observations using a general circulation model to monitor, assess, and understand ocean circulation. The effort further aims to demonstrate the practical utility of ocean observing systems by developing applications of such syntheses. The project's central technical goal is to establish a complete global ocean state estimation over the 16-plus year period from 1985 to present at 1/4 degree resolution with complete error descriptions, combining all available large-scale data sets with a state-of-the-art general circulation model. Of particular interest is understanding processes underlying the recent 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina event and the possible shift in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in 1999. Tools necessary for such a synthesis will be advanced, including improvements in models and assimilation techniques, with an emphasis on devising practical solutions in marshaling diverse data sets and large numerical models on a routine basis. The effort will exploit existing and ongoing oceanographic experiments (e.g., WOCE) and satellite missions (e.g., Jason-1) and will support planned experiments, including the Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) and the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE).

Ice Drift Ocean Circulation And Climate Change

Author : Jens Bischof
ISBN : 185233648X
Genre : Nature
File Size : 26. 90 MB
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The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Peter R. Gent
ISBN : 9780128058725
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 99 MB
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Coupled climate models consist of atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components. Most climate models now do not need to use flux adjustments to maintain the present-day climate in a control run, when the forcings have a repeating annual cycle or are constant in time. A control run must simulate well-known important large-scale phenomena, such as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic overturning circulation. Climate models are used to simulate the climate of the twentieth century, and to make projections of the future climate. The uses and limitations of climate models are then described, and several cutting edge issues are discussed.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Stephen R. Rintoul
ISBN : 9780128058671
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 11 MB
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The Southern Ocean circulation connects the ocean basins as well as the upper and deep layers of the ocean. As a result, the region has a profound influence on the global ocean circulation and climate. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the overturning circulation are dynamically linked through interactions between the mean flow, eddies, topography, air–sea forcing, and mixing and stirring by small- and mesoscale processes. A new dynamical paradigm is emerging that emphasizes the fully three-dimensional nature of the circulation, including the localization of meridional and vertical exchange of momentum, vorticity, and tracers by interactions between the flow and topography. Changes observed in the Southern Ocean in recent decades have implications for global climate and provide insight into the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to changes in forcing.

Ocean Circulation And Climate

Author : Mojib Latif
ISBN : 9780128058749
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 47 MB
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An inherent feature of the climate is its strong variability on a vast range of timescales, from seasonal to multimillennial and beyond. Decadal variability, which is the topic of this chapter, has large implications for society, as its consequences can be experienced by individuals during their own lifetime. Examples of decadal variability include the Dust Bowl drought of the 1930s in the American and Canadian prairie lands, the Sahel drought of the 1970s and 1980s, the ongoing drought which started in 2000 in the southwestern United States, and the multidecadal variability in Atlantic hurricane activity during the twentieth century. Furthermore, it is the decadal to multidecadal variability that makes the detection of anthropogenic climate change a challenge, since global warming evolves on a similar timescale. The detection problem specifically applies to the regional scale, where natural variability is the strongest. It is a central challenge of climate science to understand and possibly predict such regional-scale climate variability and change over timescales of decades.

Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation And Climate Experiment Spice

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ISBN : OCLC:154318557
Genre : Climatic changes
File Size : 49. 88 MB
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