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On Human Nature

Author : Edward O. Wilson
ISBN : 0674016386
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 69 MB
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Preface 1 Dilemma 2 Heredity 3 Development 4 Emergence 5 Aggression 6 Sex 7 Altruism 8 Religion 9 Hope Glossary Notes Index.

On Human Nature

Author : Roger Scruton
ISBN : 9780691183039
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 63. 62 MB
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In this short book, acclaimed writer and philosopher Roger Scruton presents an original and radical defense of human uniqueness. Confronting the views of evolutionary psychologists, utilitarian moralists, and philosophical materialists such as Richard Dawkins and Daniel Dennett, Scruton argues that human beings cannot be understood simply as biological objects. We are not only human animals; we are also persons, in essential relation with other persons, and bound to them by obligations and rights. Scruton develops and defends his account of human nature by ranging widely across intellectual history, from Plato and Averroës to Darwin and Wittgenstein. The book begins with Kant’s suggestion that we are distinguished by our ability to say “I”—by our sense of ourselves as the centers of self-conscious reflection. This fact is manifested in our emotions, interests, and relations. It is the foundation of the moral sense, as well as of the aesthetic and religious conceptions through which we shape the human world and endow it with meaning. And it lies outside the scope of modern materialist philosophy, even though it is a natural and not a supernatural fact. Ultimately, Scruton offers a new way of understanding how self-consciousness affects the question of how we should live. The result is a rich view of human nature that challenges some of today’s most fashionable ideas about our species.

On Human Nature

Author : Michel Tibayrenc
ISBN : 9780127999159
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 80 MB
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On Human Nature: Biology, Psychology, Ethics, Politics, and Religion covers the present state of knowledge on human diversity and its adaptative significance through a broad and eclectic selection of representative chapters. This transdisciplinary work brings together specialists from various fields who rarely interact, including geneticists, evolutionists, physicians, ethologists, psychoanalysts, anthropologists, sociologists, theologians, historians, linguists, and philosophers. Genomic diversity is covered in several chapters dealing with biology, including the differences in men and apes and the genetic diversity of mankind. Top specialists, known for their open mind and broad knowledge have been carefully selected to cover each topic. The book is therefore at the crossroads between biology and human sciences, going beyond classical science in the Popperian sense. The book is accessible not only to specialists, but also to students, professors, and the educated public. Glossaries of specialized terms and general public references help nonspecialists understand complex notions, with contributions avoiding technical jargon. Provides greater understanding of diversity and population structure and history, with crucial foundational knowledge needed to conduct research in a variety of fields, such as genetics and disease Includes three robust sections on biological, psychological, and ethical aspects, with cross-fertilization and reciprocal references between the three sections Contains contributions by leading experts in their respective fields working under the guidance of internationally recognized and highly respected editors

On Human Nature

Author : Thomas Aquinas
ISBN : 0872204545
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 86. 8 MB
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This volume begins with excerpts from Aquinas' commentary on De Anima, excerpts that proceed from a general consideration of soul as common to all living things to a consideration of the animal soul and, finally, to what is peculiar to the human soul. These are followed by the Treatise on Man, Aquinas' most famous discussion of human nature, but one whose organization is dictated by theological concerns and whose philosophical importance is thus best appreciated when seen as presented here: within the historical philosophical framework of which it constitutes a development. Aquinas' discussions of the will and the passions follow, providing fruitful points of comparison with other philosophers.

Nature Human Nature And God

Author : Ian G. Barbour
ISBN : 1451409850
Genre : Religion
File Size : 66. 53 MB
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Ian Barbour offers analyses of the shape and import of evolutionary theory, indeterminacy, neuroscience, information theory, and artificial intelligence. He also addresses deeper philosophical issues and the idea of nature itself. Then Barbour advances to the interconnected religious questions at the core of contemporary debate: Are humans free? Does religion itself evolve? Are we immortal? Is God omnipotent? How does God act in nature? Barbour's work offers hope that newer religious insights and imperatives occasioned by deep interaction with science can address the environmental and global challenges posed by the relentless advance of science.

Marx And Human Nature

Author : Norman Geras
ISBN : 0860917673
Genre : Communism
File Size : 56. 19 MB
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'Marx did not reject the idea of human nature. He was right not to do so.' That is the conclusion of this passionate and polemical new work by Norman Geras. In it, he places the sixth of Marx's These on Feuerbach under rigorous scrutiny. He argues that this ambiguous statement - widely cited as evidence that Marx broke with all concepts of human nature in 1845 - must be read in the context of Marx's work as a whole. His later writings are formed by an idea of a specifically human nature that fulfils both explanatory and normative functions. The belief that Marx's historical materialism entailed a denial of the conception of human nature is, Geras writes, 'an old fixation, which the Althusserian influence in this matter has fed upon...Because this fixation still exists and is misguided, it is still necessary to challenge it.' One hundred years after Marx's death, this timely essay - combing the strengths of analytical philosophy and classical Marxism - rediscovers a central part of his heritage.

A Treatise Of Human Nature

Author : David Hume
ISBN : STANFORD:36105020064528
Genre : Knowledge, Theory of
File Size : 63. 64 MB
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Crime Human Nature

Author : James Q. Wilson
ISBN : 9780684852669
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 72. 58 MB
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The authors have systematically surveyed the research in wide-reanging fields to assemble new scientific evidence on who commits crime and why.

A Treatise Of Human Nature

Author : David Hume
ISBN : 9783736807648
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 84. 99 MB
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A Treatise of Human Nature is a book by philosopher David Hume. The introduction presents the idea of placing all science and philosophy on a novel foundation: namely, an empirical investigation into human psychology. It is evident, that all the sciences have a relation, greater or less, to human nature: and that however wide any of them may seem to run from it, they still return back by one passage or another. Even. Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Natural Religion, are in some measure dependent on the science of MAN; since the lie under the cognizance of men, and are judged of by their powers and faculties. It is impossible to tell what changes and improvements we might make in these sciences were we thoroughly acquainted with the extent and force of human understanding, and could explain the nature of the ideas we employ, and of the operations we perform in our reasonings. And these improvements are the more to be hoped for in natural religion, as it is not content with instructing us in the nature of superior powers, but carries its views farther, to their disposition towards us, and our duties towards them; and consequently we ourselves are not only the beings, that reason, but also one of the objects, concerning which we reason. If therefore the sciences of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Natural Religion, have such a dependence on the knowledge of man, what may be expected in the other sciences, whose connexion with human nature is more close and intimate? The sole end of logic is to explain the principles and operations of our reasoning faculty, and the nature of our ideas: morals and criticism regard our tastes and sentiments: and politics consider men as united in society, and dependent on each other. In these four sciences of Logic, Morals, Criticism, and Politics, is comprehended almost everything, which it can any way import us to be acquainted with, or which can tend either to the improvement or ornament of the human mind.

Hutcheson Two Texts On Human Nature

Author : Francis Hutcheson
ISBN : 9780521430890
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 28. 12 MB
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Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746) was the first major philosopher of the Scottish Enlightenment, and one of the great thinkers in the history of British moral philosophy. He firmly rejected the reductionist view, common then as now, that morality is nothing more than the prudent pursuit of self-interest, arguing in favour of a theory of a moral sense. The two texts presented here are the most eloquent expressions of this theory. The Reflections on our Common Systems of Morality insists on the connection between moral philosophy and moral improvement, and was a preview of his first major work, the Inquiry of 1725. The lecture On the Social Nature of Man, arguing against the psychological egoism of Hobbes, appears here in an English translation for the first time. Thomas Mautner's introduction and editorial apparatus provide a mass of new information, helping to give the reader a sense of the intellectual climate in which Hutcheson lived.

Conversations On Human Nature

Author : Agustín Fuentes
ISBN : 9781315431529
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 22. 96 MB
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Recent empirical and philosophical research into the evolutionary history of Homo sapiens, the origins of the mind/brain, and the development of human culture has sparked heated debates about what it means to be human and how knowledge about humans from the sciences and humanities should be understood. Conversations on Human Nature, featuring 20 interviews with leading scholars in biology, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and theology, brings these debates to life for teachers, students, and general readers. The book-outlines the basic scientific, philosophical and theological issues involved in understanding human nature;-organizes material from the various disciplines under four broad headings: (1) evolution, brains and human nature; (2) biocultural human nature; (3) persons, minds and human nature, (4) religion, theology and human nature; -concludes with Fuentes and Visala's discussion of what researchers into human nature agree on, what they disagree on, and what we need to learn to resolve those differences.

Powers And Prospects

Author : Noam Chomsky
ISBN : 089608535X
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 82. 30 MB
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World politics, international relations, representative government. Author's works in demand.

Why We Disagree About Human Nature

Author : Elizabeth Hannon
ISBN : 9780198823650
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 84. 55 MB
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Is human nature something that the natural and social sciences aim to describe, or is it a pernicious fiction? What role, if any, does 'human nature' play in directing and informing scientific work? Can we talk about human nature without invoking-either implicitly or explicitly-a contrast with human culture? It might be tempting to think that the respectability of 'human nature' is an issue that divides natural and social scientists along disciplinary boundaries, but the truth is more complex. The contributors to this collection take very different stances with regard to the idea of human nature. They come from the fields of psychology, the philosophy of science, social and biological anthropology, evolutionary theory, and the study of animal cognition. Some of them are 'human nature' enthusiasts, some are sceptics, and some say that human nature is a concept with many faces, each of which plays a role in its own investigative niche. Some want to eliminate the notion altogether, some think it unproblematic, others want to retain it with reforming modifications. Some say that human nature is a target for investigation that the human sciences cannot do without, others argue that the term does far more harm than good. The diverse perspectives articulated in this book help to explain why we disagree about human nature, and what, if anything, might resolve that disagreement.

On Human Nature

Author : Thomas F. Wall
ISBN : 0534624782
Genre : Education
File Size : 65. 93 MB
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Enhance your understanding of the theories of human nature with ON HUMAN NATURE: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY! Organized in a historical format that draws from sources including Ancient Asian sources, classical thinkers, medieval thinkers, modern thinkers, and contemporary minds, this philosophy text provides you with an introduction to age-old debate that is as crucial now in our technological and scientific age as it has ever been. Study questions provided for each reading and the book-specific website provide you with the opportunity to practice what you have learned.

Human Nature Fact And Fiction

Author : Robin Headlam Wells
ISBN : 0826485456
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 89. 13 MB
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War And Human Nature

Author : Stephen Peter Rosen
ISBN : 9781400826360
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 88. 68 MB
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Why did President John F. Kennedy choose a strategy of confrontation during the Cuban missile crisis even though his secretary of defense stated that the presence of missiles in Cuba made no difference? Why did large numbers of Iraqi troops surrender during the Gulf War even though they had been ordered to fight and were capable of doing so? Why did Hitler declare war on the United States knowing full well the power of that country? War and Human Nature argues that new findings about the way humans are shaped by their inherited biology may help provide answers to such questions. This seminal work by former Defense Department official Stephen Peter Rosen contends that human evolutionary history has affected the way we process the information we use to make decisions. The result is that human choices and calculations may be very different from those predicted by standard models of rational behavior. This notion is particularly true in the area of war and peace, Rosen contends. Human emotional arousal affects how people learn the lessons of history. For example, stress and distress influence people's views of the future, and testosterone levels play a role in human social conflict. This thought-provoking and timely work explores the mind that has emerged from the biological sciences over the last generation. In doing so, it helps shed new light on many persistent puzzles in the study of war.

On Human Nature

Author : Jonathan H. Turner
ISBN : 9781000213751
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50. 82 MB
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In this book, Jonathan H. Turner combines sociology, evolutionary biology, cladistic analysis from biology, and comparative neuroanatomy to examine human nature as inherited from common ancestors shared by humans and present-day great apes. Selection pressures altered this inherited legacy for the ancestors of humans—termed hominins for being bipedal—and forced greater organization than extant great apes when the hominins moved into open-country terrestrial habitats. The effects of these selection pressures increased hominin ancestors’ emotional capacities through greater social and group orientation. This shift, in turn, enabled further selection for a larger brain, articulated speech, and culture along the human line. Turner elaborates human nature as a series of overlapping complexes that are the outcome of the inherited legacy of great apes being fed through the transforming effects of a larger brain, speech, and culture. These complexes, he shows, can be understood as the cognitive complex, the psychological complex, the emotions complex, the interaction complex, and the community complex.

Education Society And Human Nature

Author : Anthony O'Hear
ISBN : 9780415698221
Genre : Education
File Size : 53. 12 MB
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Intended primarily for education students this book provides an introduction to the philosophy of education that tackles educational problems and at the same time relates them to the mainstream of philosophical analysis. Among the educational topics the book discusses are the aims of education, the two cultures debate, moral education, equality as an ideal and academic elitism. It examines the limitations of a purely technological education, and suggests the shape of a balanced curriculum. It critically analyses important educational theses in the work of Rousseau, Dewey, R S Peters, P H Hirst, F R Leavis, Ronald Dworkin and G H Bantock, among many others, and considers the philosophical copics of relativism, the nature of knowledge, the basis of moral choice, the value of democracy and the status of religious claims.

Human Nature

Author : Joel J. Kupperman
ISBN : 1603847456
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 29. 50 MB
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This anthology provides a set of distinctive, influential views that explore the mysteries of human nature from a variety of perspectives. It can be read on its own, or in conjunction with Joel Kupperman's text, Theories of Human Nature.

David Hartley On Human Nature

Author : Richard Allen
ISBN : 0791442349
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 38. 2 MB
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In this first complete account of Hartley's thought, Richard C. Allen explains Hartley's theories of physiology, perception and action, language and cognition, emotional development and transformation, and spiritual transcendence. By drawing a biographical portrait of its subject, the book explores the relationship of mind and body in Hartley's system, and surveys Hartley's influence upon later scientists and social reformers, particularly Joseph Priestley.

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