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Particles In The Dark Universe

Author : Yann Mambrini
ISBN : 9783030781392
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 12 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of particle physics in the early universe, in a logical way. It starts from the thermal history of the universe by investigating some of the main arguments such as Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the inflation, before treating in details the direct and indirect detection of dark matter and then some aspects of the physics of neutrino. Following, it describes possible candidates for dark matter and its interactions. The book is targeted at theoretical physicists who deal with particle physics in the universe, dark matter detection and astrophysical constraints, and at particle physicists who are interested in models of inflation or reheating. This book offers also material for astrophysicists who work with quantum field theory computations. All that is useful to compute any physical process is included: mathematical tables, all the needed functions for the thermodynamics of early universe and Feynman rules. In light of this, this book acts as a crossroad between astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology.

Fireworks In A Dark Universe

Author : Levinson Amir
ISBN : 9781786345134
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 18 MB
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This popular science book offers a glimpse into a plethora of extreme cosmic phenomena in which the theories of modern physics, particularly quantum mechanics and general relativity, play a key role. Despite their vastly different appearances, these cosmic phenomena have much in common: they are all powered by exotic stars -- black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs -- collectively called compact objects. The book describes, in accessible language, the physics underlying these phenomena, the historical background that led to their discovery, and the various observational techniques used by astronomers for their exposure. The book contains many spectacular photographs taken with modern telescopes around the world and satellites of different space agencies, as well as illustrations specially prepared by the author to enhance the reading experience. Contents: IntroductionFirst Episode: The Universe and All That Is In It: The History of the UniverseThe Genesis of Galaxies and the Birth of Giant Black HolesStellar Evolution -- From Dust Cloud to Black HoleSecond Episode: Physics and Astronomy in the 21st Century: Matter, Force, and Symmetry in NaturePrinciples of Modern AstronomyElectromagnetic Radiation: Kinds and ClassesThe Elusive NeutrinoGravitational Waves: Spacetime VibrationsCosmic Rays -- A Shower of Energetic Particles from the UniverseThird Episode: A Menagerie of Extreme Phenomena: White Dwarfs and the Quantum TheoryNeurton Stars -- The Largest Atomic Nuclei in the UniverseQuark Stars and Strange MatterLighthouses in the UniverseMagnetars -- The Universe's Largest MagnetsBlack Holes -- The Crown Jewel of Einstein's TheoryThe Black Holes' Magic ShowDeath and Birth -- The Tale of Cosmic ExplosionsMighty Bursts from Deep SpaceEpilogue Readership: Non-professional readers interested in science in general, and physics and astronomy in particular. Keywords: Astronomy;Black Holes;Gravitational Waves;Cosmic Rays;Popular ScienceReview:0

The Light Dark Universe

Author : James Martin Overduin
ISBN : 9789812834416
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 17 MB
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To the eyes of the average person and the trained scientist, the night sky is dark, even though the universe is populated by myriads of bright galaxies. Why this happens is a question commonly called Olbers' Paradox, and dates from at least 1823. How dark is the night sky is a question which preoccupies astrophysicists at the present. The answer to both questions tells us about the origin of the universe and the nature of its contents ? luminous galaxies like the Milky Way, plus the dark matter between them and the mysterious dark energy which appears to be pushing everything apart. In this book, the fascinating history of Olbers' Paradox is reviewed, and the intricate physics of the light/dark universe is examined in detail. The fact that the night sky is dark (a basic astronomical observation that anybody can make) turns out to be connected with the finite age of the universe, thereby confirming some event like the Big Bang. But the space between the galaxies is not perfectly black, and data on its murkiness at various wavelengths can be used to constrain and identify its unseen constituents.

The Light Dark Universe

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ISBN : 9789814470001
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Why String Theory?

Author : Joseph Conlon
ISBN : 9781482242492
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 24. 93 MB
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Physics World's 'Book of the Year' for 2016 An Entertaining and Enlightening Guide to the Who, What, and Why of String Theory, now also available in an updated reflowable electronic format compatible with mobile devices and e-readers. During the last 50 years, numerous physicists have tried to unravel the secrets of string theory. Yet why do these scientists work on a theory lacking experimental confirmation? Why String Theory? provides the answer, offering a highly readable and accessible panorama of the who, what, and why of this large aspect of modern theoretical physics. The author, a theoretical physics professor at the University of Oxford and a leading string theorist, explains what string theory is and where it originated. He describes how string theory fits into physics and why so many physicists and mathematicians find it appealing when working on topics from M-theory to monsters and from cosmology to superconductors.

Particles And Astrophysics

Author : Maurizio Spurio
ISBN : 9783319080512
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 84 MB
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This book is an introduction to “multi-messenger” astrophysics. It covers the many different aspects connecting particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology and introduces astrophysics using numerous experimental findings recently obtained through the study of high-energy particles. Taking a systematic approach, it comprehensively presents experimental aspects from the most advanced laboratories and detectors, as well as the theoretical background. The book is aimed at graduate students and post-graduate researchers with a basic understanding of particle and nuclear physics. It will also be of interest to particle physicists working in accelerator/collider physics who are keen to understand the mechanisms of the largest accelerators in the Universe. The book draws on the extensive lecturing experience of Professor Maurizio Spurio from the University of Bologna.

New Worlds In Astroparticle Physics Proceedings Of The International Workshop

Author : Mourao Ana Maria
ISBN : 9789814545136
Genre :
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The proceedings of the first meeting on “New Worlds in Astroparticle Physics” focus on the joint field of particle physics and astrophysics. This is a field widely open to both theory and experiment. Important questions of particle physics — from the role of the Higgs scalar to the deconfined QCD phase, the developments beyond the Standard Model and the subtle behavior of neutrinos — are discussed. The same is true for the relevant questions in astrophysics and cosmology — from the fluctuations in the photon background radiation to large scale structure formation, dark matter searches and the origin of cosmic rays at very high energies. The two viewpoints, from the small sizes or from the large scales, are convergent and reveal the same universe: the universe of astroparticle physics.

Exploring The Invisible Universe

Author : Belal E Baaquie
ISBN : 9789814618694
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 16 MB
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"Why"? Why is the world, the Universe the way it is? Is space infinitely large? How small is small? What happens when one continues to divide matter into ever smaller pieces? Indeed, what is matter? Is there anything else besides what can be seen? Pursuing the questions employing the leading notions of physics, one soon finds that the tangible and visible world dissolves — rather unexpectedly — into invisible things and domains that are beyond direct perception. A remarkable feature of our Universe is that most of its constituents turn out to be invisible, and this fact is brought out with great force by this book. Exploring the Invisible Universe covers the gamut of topics in advanced modern physics and provides extensive and well substantiated answers to these questions and many more. Discussed in a non-technical, yet also non-trivial manner, are topics dominated by invisible things — such as Black Holes and Superstrings as well as Fields, Gravitation, the Standard Model, Cosmology, Relativity, the Origin of Elements, Stars and Planetary Evolution, and more. Just giving the answer, as so many books do, is really not telling anything at all. To truly answer the "why" questions of nature, one needs to follow the chain of reasoning that scientists have used to come to the conclusions they have. This book does not shy away from difficult-to-explain topics by reducing them to one-line answers and power phrases suitable for a popular talk show. The explanations are rigorous and straight to the point. This book is rarely mathematical without being afraid, however, to use elementary mathematics when called for. In order to achieve this, a large number of detailed figures, specially developed for this book and found nowhere else, convey insights that otherwise might either be inaccessible or need lengthy and difficult-to-follow explanations. After Exploring the Invisible Universe, a reader will have a deeper insight into our current understanding of the foundations of Nature and be able to answer all the questions above and then some. To understand Nature and the cutting edge ideas of contemporary physics, this is the book to have. Contents:SynopsisFieldsThe Geometry of SpaceGravityBlack HolesCosmologyDark UniverseGalaxies, Stars and PlanetsThe Life of StarsThe Origin of the ElementsElementary ParticlesFundamental InteractionsThe Standard ModelSuperstring UnificationSuperstring GravityEpilogue Readership: Students and general public with knowledge of high school level physics and mathematics, who are interested in theoretical physics including cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. Key Features:Breadth, depth, rigor (without being mathematical)Keywords:Geometry;Gravity;Elementary Particles;Fundamental Forces;Star and Planetary Formation;Stellar Nucleosynthesis

Particle Physics At The Year Of 150th Anniversary Of The Mendeleev S Periodic Table Of Chemical Elements Proceedings Of The Nineteenth Lomonosov Conference On Elementary Particle Physics

Author : Alexander I Studenikin
ISBN : 9789811233920
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 17 MB
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The volume of these proceedings is devoted to a wide variety of items, both in theory and experiment, of particle physics such as electroweak theory, fundamental symmetries, tests of standard model and beyond, neutrino and astroparticle physics, hadron physics, gravitation and cosmology, physics at the present and future accelerators.

Dark Matter In Astrophysics And Particle Physics

Author : Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
ISBN : 9789814293792
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 69 MB
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Dark matter and dark energy are one of the central mysteries in modern physics, although modern astrophysical and cosmological observations and particle physics experiments can and will provide vital clues in uncovering its true nature. The DARK 2009 Conference brought together World's leading researchers in both astrophysics and particle physics, providing an opportunity and platform to present their latest results to the community. The topics covered are wide-ranging, from terrestrial underground experiments to space experimental efforts to search for dark matter, and on the theoretical aspects, from the generating of a fifth family as origin of dark matter, extra dimensions and dark matter to non-standard Wigner classes and dark matter. One of the new highlights was certainly a possible connection between a neutrino mass as observed by nuclear double beta decay and the dark energy. Highly important and relevant in its field, the book presents a vital snapshot of the sometimes seemingly disparate areas of dark matter research and offers an exciting overview of current ideas and future directions.

Dark Matter In Astrophysics And Particle Physics

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ISBN : 9789814465748
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The Neutrino Story One Tiny Particle S Grand Role In The Cosmos

Author : Rabindra N. Mohapatra
ISBN : 9783030518462
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 89 MB
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Every second of every day, we are exposed to billions of neutrinos emitted by the Sun, and yet they seem to pass straight through us with no apparent effect at all. Tiny and weakly interacting this subatomic particle may be, but this book will show you just how crucial a role it has played in the evolution of the elements in the universe, and eventually, ourselves. We first start with an introduction to the basics of subatomic physics, including brief backgrounds on the discoveries that set the stage for major 20th century advances. The author, a distinguished theoretical physicist who has researched neutrinos for over thirty years, next explains in nontechnical language how and why the neutrino fits into the wider story of elementary particles. Finally, the reader will learn about the latest discoveries in the past half century of neutrino studies. This semi-popular science book will appeal to any physics students or non-specialist physicists who wish to know more about the neutrino and its role in the evolution of our universe.

Particle And Astroparticle Physics

Author : Alessandro De Angelis
ISBN : 9783030731168
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 62 MB
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This book presents more than 200 problems, with detailed guided solutions, spanning key areas of particle physics and astrophysics. The selected examples enable students to gain a deeper understanding of these fields and also offer valuable support in the preparation for written examinations. The book is an ideal companion to Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics: Multimessenger Astronomy and its Particle Physics Foundations, written by Alessandro De Angelis and Mário Pimenta and published in its second edition in Springer’s Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics series in 2018. It can, however, also be used independently. The present book is organized into 11 chapters that match exactly those in the companion textbook, and each of the exercises is given a title to facilitate identification of the subject within that book. Some new exercises have been added because they are considered helpful on the basis of the experience gained by teachers while using the textbook. Beyond students on relevant courses, exercises and solutions in particle and astroparticle physics are of value for physics teachers and to all who seek aid to self-training.

Light Scalar Fields In A Dark Universe

Author : Gabriel Zsembinszki
ISBN : 3659273457
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The most successful scientific theory today about the origin and evolution of the universe is known as the standard Big Bang model, which is one of the most ambitious intellectual constructions of the humanity. It is based on two consolidated branches of theoretical physics, namely, the theory of General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics, and is able to make robust predictions, some of them being already confirmed by very precise observations. However, this model is not able to explain some questions raised by observational evidence, such as early inflation of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. This book makes an overview of some of the features of the standard cosmology, and also includes a few original models proposed to solve some of the shortcomings of the standard cosmology, as possible extensions of the Big Bang model. The models, published as articles in scientific journals, introduce new symmetries, fields and particles in order to explain inflation, dark energy and dark matter, separately or in a unified description. The book is addressed especially to PhD students, but also to anyone who is interested in cosmology and astroparticle theory.

Introduction To Particle And Astroparticle Physics

Author : Alessandro De Angelis
ISBN : 9783319781815
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 54 MB
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This book introduces particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Starting from an experimental perspective, it provides a unified view of these fields that reflects the very rapid advances being made. This new edition has a number of improvements and has been updated to describe the recent discovery of gravitational waves and astrophysical neutrinos, which started the new era of multimessenger astrophysics; it also includes new results on the Higgs particle. Astroparticle and particle physics share a common problem: we still don’t have a description of the main ingredients of the Universe from the point of view of its energy budget. Addressing these fascinating issues, and offering a balanced introduction to particle and astroparticle physics that requires only a basic understanding of quantum and classical physics, this book is a valuable resource, particularly for advanced undergraduate students and for those embarking on graduate courses. It includes exercises that offer readers practical insights. It can be used equally well as a self-study book, a reference and a textbook.

An Introduction To Particle Dark Matter

Author : Stefano Profumo
ISBN : 9781786340030
Genre :
File Size : 77. 32 MB
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What is the dark matter that fills the Universe and binds together galaxies? How was it produced? What are its interactions and particle properties? The paradigm of dark matter is one of the key developments at the interface of cosmology and elementary particle physics. It is also one of the foundations of the standard cosmological model. This book presents the state of the art in building and testing particle models for dark matter. Each chapter gives an analysis of questions, research directions, and methods within the field. More than 200 problems are included to challenge and stimulate the reader's knowledge and provide guidance in the practical implementation of the numerous "tools of the trade" presented. Appendices summarize the basics of cosmology and particle physics needed for any quantitative understanding of particle models for dark matter. This interdisciplinary textbook is essential reading for anyone interested in the microscopic nature of dark matter as it manifests itself in particle physics experiments, cosmological observations, and high-energy astrophysical phenomena: from graduate students and advanced undergraduates to cosmologists and astrophysicists interested in particle models for dark matter and particle physicists interested in early-universe cosmology and high-energy astrophysics. Request Inspection Copy

The Large Hadron Collider

Author : Andrew J Millington
ISBN : 9781786341396
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 20 MB
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When the discovery of the Higgs Boson at CERN hit the headlines in 2012, the world was stunned by this achievement of modern science. Less well appreciated, however, were the many ways in which this benefited wider society. The Large Hadron Collider — The Greatest Adventure in Town charts a path through the cultural, economic and medical gains of modern particle physics. It illustrates these messages through the ATLAS experiment at CERN, one of the two big experiments which found the Higgs particle. Moving clear of in-depth physics analysis, it draws on the unparalleled curiosity about particle physics aroused by the Higgs discovery, and relates it to developments familiar in the modern world, including the Internet, its successor "The Grid", and the latest cancer treatments. In this book, advances made from developing the 27 kilometre particle accelerator and its detectors are presented with the benefit of first hand interviews and are extensively illustrated throughout. Interviewees are leading physicists including successive heads of ATLAS, a top historian of science, a highly original economic strategist, a Nobel Prize-winning geneticist and President of the Royal Society in London, and experts in many other fields. These informative and entertaining insights provide both specialists and non-specialists alike with a unique window into the world of modern international research and its often surprising consequences, as exemplified by the ATLAS experiment. The narrative reveals the extent and style of international collaboration necessary to achieve success, and how big companies as well as start-ups enhance their products in the process.

Progress In Dark Matter Research

Author : J. Val Blain
ISBN : 1594542430
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 75 MB
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It is generally believed that most of the matter in the universe is dark, i.e. cannot be detected from the light which it emits (or fails to emit). Its presence is inferred indirectly from the motions of astronomical objects, specifically stellar, galactic, and galaxy cluster/supercluster observations. It is also required in order to enable gravity to amplify the small fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background enough to form the large-scale structures that we see in the universe today. For each of the stellar, galactic, and galaxy cluster/supercluster observations the basic principle is that if we measure velocities in some region, then there has to be enough mass there for gravity to stop all the objects flying apart. Dark matter has important consequences for the evolution of the Universe and the structure within it. According to general relativity, the Universe must conform to one of three possible types: open, flat, or closed. The total amount of mass and energy in the universe determines which of the three possibilities applies to the Universe. In the case of an open Universe, the total mass and energy density (denoted by the Greek letter Omega) is less than unity. If the Universe is closed, Omega is greater than unity. For the case where Omega is exactly equal to one the Universe is "flat". This book details leading-edge research from around the globe.

Cosmic Origins

Author : M. Mitchell Waldrop
ISBN : 9783030982140
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 38 MB
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Cosmic Origins tells the story of how physicists and astronomers have struggled for more than a century to understand the beginnings of our universe, from its origins in the Big Bang to the modern day. The book will introduce the science as a narrative, by telling the story of the scientists who made each major discovery. It will also address and explain aspects of our theories that some cosmologists are still hesitant to accept, as well as gaps in our knowledge and even apparent inconsistencies in our measurements. Clearly written by a master of scientific exposition, this book will fascinate the curious general reader as well as providing essential background reading for college-level courses on physics and astronomy.

Physics Beyond The Standard Models Of Particles Cosmology And Astrophysics

Author : Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
ISBN : 9789814340854
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 78 MB
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This book contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Physics Beyond the Standard Models of Particle Physics, Cosmology and Astrophysics. It presents a brilliant overview of the status and future potential and trends in experimental and theoretical particle physics, cosmology and astrophysics, in the complimentary sectors of accelerator, non-accelerator and space physics.

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