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Principles Of Pragmatics

Author : Geoffrey N. Leech
ISBN : 9781317869474
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 24. 75 MB
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Over the years, pragmatics - the study of the use and meaning of utterances to their situations - has become a more and more important branch of linguistics, as the inadequacies of a purely formalist, abstract approach to the study of language have become more evident. This book presents a rhetorical model of pragmatics: that is, a model which studies linguistic communication in terms of communicative goals and principles of 'good communicative behaviour'. In this respect, Geoffrey Leech argues for a rapprochement between linguistics and the traditional discipline of rhetoric. He does not reject the Chomskvan revolution of linguistics, but rather maintains that the language system in the abstract - i.e. the 'grammar' broadly in Chomsky's sense - must be studied in relation to a fully developed theory of language use. There is therefore a division of labour between grammar and rhetoric, or (in the study of meaning) between semantics and pragmatics. The book's main focus is thus on the development of a model of pragmatics within an overall functional model of language. In this it builds on the speech avct theory of Austin and Searle, and the theory of conversational implicature of Grice, but at the same time enlarges pragmatics to include politeness, irony, phatic communion, and other social principles of linguistic behaviour.

The Pragmatics Of Politeness

Author : Geoffrey N. Leech
ISBN : 9780195341355
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 30. 49 MB
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This readable book presents a new general theoretical understanding of politeness. It offers an account of a wide range of politeness phenomena in English, illustrated by hundreds of examples of actual language use taken largely from authentic British and American sources. Building on his earlier pioneering work on politeness, Geoffrey Leech takes a pragmatic approach that is based on the controversial notion that politeness is communicative altruism. Leech's 1983 book, Principles of Pragmatics, introduced the now widely-accepted distinction between pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic aspects of politeness; this book returns to the pragmalinguistic side, somewhat neglected in recent work. Drawing on neo-Gricean thinking, Leech rejects the prevalent view that it is impossible to apply the terms 'polite' or 'impolite' to linguistic phenomena.Leech covers all major speech acts that are either positively or negatively associated with politeness, such as requests, apologies, compliments, offers, criticisms, good wishes, condolences, congratulations, agreement, and disagreement. Additional chapters deal with impoliteness and the related phenomena of irony ("mock politeness") and banter ("mock impoliteness"), and with the role of politeness in the learning of English as a second language. A final chapter takes a fascinating look at more than a thousand years of history of politeness in the English language.Readership: Graduate students and researchers in linguistics (especially sociolinguistics) as well those in sociology, social psychology, and anthropology.

Computer Science Project Work

Author : Sally Fincher
ISBN : 9781447137009
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 70. 34 MB
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Ninety percent of any Computing Science academic staff are involved with project work at some stage of their working life. Often they have no previous experience of how to handle it, and there are no written guidelines or reference books at the moment. Knowledge and practical experiences are often only disseminated from one institution to another when staff change jobs. This book is the first reference work to fill that gap in the market. It will be of use to lecturers and course designers who want to improve their handling of project work in specific courses, and to department heads and deans who want to learn about overall strategic issues and experiences from other institutions.

Applied Organizational Communication

Author : Thomas E. Harris
ISBN : 9781135685539
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 35. 33 MB
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Applied Organizational Communication provides a current, in-depth analysis of the theories and practices critical to understanding organizational communication concepts in a global environment. Exploring the diverse communication challenges in today’s organizations, this text: Explains the impact of critical environmental influences on all levels; Provides extensive discussion of teams, leadership, technology, listening, and interpersonal communication; Offers current analysis, utilizing a broad base of information and research; and Establishes links between organizational communication and perceptions, theory, networks, and symbolic behavior. Building on the successful foundation of the previous editions, this third edition has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the most current organizational communication theory and research. Features of this edition include: Extensive real life examples and experiences Grounding in transactional communication and advanced systems approaches Macro and micro analyses of key topics and issues As an accessible and practical examination of organizational communication, this text is intended for use in organizational communication, leadership, organizational development, and organizational intervention courses at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level.

Principles Of Diachronic Syntax

Author : Lightfoot
ISBN : 0521293502
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 28. 81 MB
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This study offers one of the first systematic accounts of syntactic change and will be of interest to a wide range of linguists.

Intelligent Systems Principles Paradigms And Pragmatics

Author : Robert J. Schalkoff
ISBN : 9780763780173
Genre : Computers
File Size : 85. 38 MB
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Artificial Intelligence has changed significantly in recent years and many new resources and approaches are now available to explore and implement this important technology. Intelligent Systems: Principles, Paradigms, and Pragmatics takes a modern, 21st-century approach to the concepts of Artificial Intelligence and includes the latest developments, developmental tools, programming, and approaches related to AI. The author is careful to make the important distinction between theory and practice, and focuses on a broad core of technologies, providing students with an accessible and comprehensive introduction to key AI topics.


Author : Siobhan Chapman
ISBN : 9780230345195
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 84. 23 MB
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'This is a beautifully clear and wide-ranging introduction to pragmatics, dealing even-handedly with a good variety of theories and situating the discipline in its historical and intellectual context' - Professor Noel Burton-Roberts, Newcastle University This accessible and engaging text introduces the field of pragmatics, the study of the relationship between linguistic meaning and context. Assuming no prior knowledge, Siobhan Chapman surveys the development of pragmatics from the very beginning to the present day, and engages with many of the most recent debates in the field, including topics such as experimental pragmatics and (im)politeness theory. This highly-readable text focuses on core theoretical pragmatics, but also considers how pragmatics has been applied to the study of various aspects of language in use, such as literature, language acquisition and clinical linguistics. Each chapter concludes with useful suggestions for further reading, including both primary and secondary sources. Comprehensive and up-to-date, Pragmatics goes beyond an introduction, encouraging readers at all levels to understand and engage with the very latest issues and ideas.

Language In Literature

Author : Geoffrey Leech
ISBN : 9781317899938
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 75. 47 MB
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Over a period of over forty years, Geoffrey Leech has made notable contributions to the field of literary stylistics, using the interplay between linguistic form and literary function as a key to the ‘mystery’ of how a text comes to be invested with artistic potential. In this book, seven earlier papers and articles, read previously only by a restricted audience, have been brought together with four new chapters, the whole volume showing a continuity of approach across a period when all too often literary and linguistic studies have appeared to drift further apart. Leech sets the concept of ‘foregrounding’ (also known as defamiliarization) at the heart of the interplay between form and interpretation. Through practical and insightful examination of how poems, plays and prose works produce special meaning, he counteracts the ‘flight from the text’ that has characterized thinking about language and literature in the last thirty years, when the response of the reader, rather than the characteristics and meaning potential of the text itself, have been given undue prominence. The book provides an enlightening analysis of well-known (as well as less well-known) texts of great writers of the past, including Keats, Shelley, Samuel Johnson, Shaw, Dylan Thomas, and Virginia Woolf.


Author : Stephen C. Levinson
ISBN : 9781107717046
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 23. 42 MB
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Those aspects of language use that are crucial to an understanding of language as a system, and especially to an understanding of meaning, are the acknowledged concern of linguistic pragmatics. This textbook provides a lucid and integrative analysis of the central topics in pragmatics - deixis, implicature, presupposition, speech acts, and conversational structure. A central concern of the book is the relation between pragmatics and semantics, and Dr Levinson shows clearly how a pragmatic approach can resolve some of the problems semantics have been confronting and simplifying semantic analyses. The exposition is always clear and supported by helpful exemplification. The detailed analyses of selected topics give the student a clear view of the empirical rigour demanded by the study of linguistic pragmatics, but Dr Levinson never loses sight of the rich diversity of the subject. An introduction and conclusion relate pragmatics to other fields in linguistics and other disciplines concerned with language usage - psychology, philosophy, anthropology and literature.

Cognitive Pragmatics

Author : Hans-Jörg Schmid
ISBN : 9783110214215
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 55. 29 MB
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Speakers tend to compose their utterances in such a way that the message they want to get across is hardly ever fully encoded by the meanings of the words and the grammar they use. Instead speakers rely on hearers adding conceptual and emotive content while interpreting the contextually appropriate meanings and intentions behind utterances. This insight, which is of course particularly relevant in all kinds of indirect, figurative or humorous talk, lies at the heart of the linguistic discipline of pragmatics. If pragmatics is the study of meaning-in-context, then cognitive pragmatics can be broadly defined as encompassing the study of the cognitive principles and processes involved in the construal of meaning-in-context. While it would seem only natural that pragmatics as such should have addressed such cognitive issues anyway, it has mainly been due to the historical rooting of this discipline in the philosophy of language that psychological aspects have not been in the pragmatic limelight to date. Being part of the 9-volume-series Handbooks of Pragmatics, this volume is the first to systematically survey this terrain from a wide range of perspectives. It collects state-of-the-art contributions by leading experts from the fields of pragmatics, psycholinguistics, cognitive linguistics, clinical linguistics and historical linguistics. The volume is divided into four parts which tackle the following questions: Part I: The cognitive principles of pragmatic competence What are the general cognitive principles underlying pragmatic competence, i.e. the skill to arrive at context-dependent meanings of utterances? What are the cognitive underpinnings of language users' ability to compute or infer intended meanings in the role of hearers and to give hints as to how to decode intended meanings in the role of speakers? Part II: The psychology of pragmatics What are the actual cognitive processes taking place during online construal of meaning-in-context on the basis of encoded messages? How is pragmatic competence acquired in childhood? What are the types, sources and effects of pragmatic disorders, i.e. impairments of pragmatic competence? Part III: The construal of non-explicit and non-literal meaning-in-context What are the cognitive principles and processes involved in the construal of meanings of non-explicit and indirect utterances? How do we process figurative meanings, humour and gestures? Part IV: The emergence of linguistic structures from meaning-in-context What are the repercussions of the (repeated) construal of context-dependent meanings on linguistic structures and the linguistic system? How does the system change under the influence of the construal of meanings in social situations? Reduced series price (print) available! [email protected]

Teaching Learning And Investigating Pragmatics

Author : Sara Gesuato
ISBN : 9781443883320
Genre : Pragmatics
File Size : 71. 85 MB
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This volume presents a collection of research papers investigating how to foster the learning and teaching of pragmatic phenomena, as well as how to administer tests that assess pragmatic competence in second/foreign language education with regards to several target languages. The topics investigated include: speech acts; computer-mediated communication; conversation analysis; pragmatic, intercultural, and emotional competence; native and non-native performance; data collection and instructional methods; needs analysis; and syllabus design and materials development. The contributions will be of particular interest to linguists, language learners and teachers, teacher trainers, and communication experts.

Pragmatics For Language Educators

Author : Virginia LoCastro
ISBN : 9781136965906
Genre : Education
File Size : 59. 93 MB
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Making pragmatics accessible to a wide range of students and instructors without dumbing down the content of the field, this text for language professionals: raises awareness and increases knowledge and understanding of how human beings use language in real situations to engage in social action fosters the ability to think critically about language data and use helps readers develop the ability to "do pragmatics" The book features careful explanations of topics and concepts that are often difficult for uninitiated readers, a wealth of examples, mostly of natural speech from collected data sources, and attention to the needs of readers who are non-native speakers of English, with non-Western perspectives offered when possible. Suggested Readings, Tasks, Discussion Questions, and Data Analysis sections involve readers in extending and applying what they are reading. The exercises push readers to recall and synthesize the content, elicit relevant personal experiences and other sources of information, and engage in changing their own interactional strategies. The activities go beyond a predictable framework to invite readers to carry out real life observations and experiment to make doing pragmatics a nonjudgmental everyday practice.

Linguistic Politeness Across Boundaries

Author : Ar?n Bayraktaro?lu
ISBN : 9789027251077
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 45. 78 MB
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This volume includes 14 papers investigating politeness phenomena in Greece and Turkey, the cultural cross-roads of Europe, Asia and the Middle East. It reflects current research and provides observations of and findings in patterns of linguistic politeness in a geographical area other than the much studied English speaking ones. The book appeals to professionals and students interested in a broader perspective of language use in its social context. Articles in the collection are empirically rather than theoretically oriented and examine realisations of politeness in relation to social parameters. The chapters have been arranged in pairs (Greek/Turkish), treating the following related issues: firstly a more general ethnographic picture of the two societies, the variables of power/status in classroom and other interaction, solidarity in advice-giving and the use of approbatory expressions, service encounters and the differential use of language by males and females, the use of interruptions in television talk, and finally compliments.

Introduction To Pragmatics

Author : Betty J. Birner
ISBN : 9781118348307
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 71. 36 MB
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Introduction to Pragmatics guides students throughtraditional and new approaches in the field, focusing particularlyon phenomena at the elusive semantics/pragmatics boundary toexplore the role of context in linguistic communication. Offers students an accessible introduction and an up-to-datesurvey of the field, encompassing both established and newapproaches to pragmatics Addresses the traditional range of topics – such asimplicature, reference, presupposition, and speech acts – aswell as newer areas of research, including neo-Gricean theories,Relevance Theory, information structure, inference, and dynamicapproaches to meaning Explores the relationship and boundaries between semantics andpragmatics Ideal for students coming to pragmatics for the first time

Semantics And Pragmatics

Author : Katarzyna Jaszczolt
ISBN : 0582418909
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 85. 53 MB
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Semantics is a core topic on the majority of undergraduate linguistic degree courses: it is the study of meaning in language, both in terms of definition and the way meanings are conveyed and vary within everyday situations. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to approaches to meaning and presents the most popular and successful theories in a way that makes them accessible for undergraduates. It also explores how the boundry between semantics and pragmatics may be drawn and sums up a coherent picture of meaning in language system and in language use.

Corpus Pragmatics

Author : Karin Aijmer
ISBN : 9781107015043
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 56. 77 MB
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The first handbook to survey and expand the burgeoning field of corpus pragmatics, the intersection of pragmatics and corpus linguistics.

Computation Of Language

Author : Roland Hausser
ISBN : 9783642745645
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 34. 16 MB
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The study of linguistics has been forever changed by the advent of the computer. Not only does the machine permit the processing of enormous quantities of text thereby securing a better empirical foundation for conclusions-but also, since it is a modelling device, the machine allows the implementation of theories of grammar and other kinds of language processing. Models can have very unexpected properties both good and bad-and it is only through extensive tests that the value of a model can be properly assessed. The computer revolution has been going on for many years, and its importance for linguistics was recognized early on, but the more recent spread of personal workstations has made it a reality that can no longer be ignored by anyone in the subject. The present essay, in particular, could never have been written without the aid of the computer. I know personally from conversations and consultations with the author over many months how the book has changed. If he did not have at his command a powerful typesetting program, he would not have been able to see how his writing looked and exactly how it had to be revised and amplified. Even more significant for the evolution of the linguistic theory is the easy testing of examples made possible by the implementation of the parser and the computer-held lexicon. Indeed, the rule set and lexicon grew substantially after the successes of the early implementations created the desire to incorporate more linguistic phenomena.

Cooperative Principle

Author : Timoteus Elmo
ISBN : 6139760585
Genre : Education
File Size : 89. 83 MB
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. In social science generally and linguistics specifically, the cooperative principle describes how people interact with one another. As phrased by Paul Grice, who introduced it, it states, "Make your contribution such as it is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged." Though phrased as a prescriptive command, the principle is intended as a description of how people normally behave in conversation. Listeners and speakers must speak cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way. The cooperative principle describes how effective communication in conversation is achieved in common social situations. The cooperative principle can be divided into four maxims, called the Gricean maxims, describing specific rational principles observed by people who obey the cooperative principle; these principles enable effective communication. Grice proposed four conversational maxims that arise from the pragmatics of natural language. The Gricean Maxims are a way to explain the link between utterances and what is understood from them.

Semiotics And Pragmatics

Author : Gérard Deledalle
ISBN : 9789027278470
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 85. 8 MB
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This collective volume contains carefully selected papers presented at the international semiotics conference ‘Semiotique et pragmatique’ that took place in Perpignan on 17 to 19 November, 1983. The volume starts of with four debate papers by Searle, Apel, Greimas and Landowski, and is followed then by the main section which is subdivided by a historical, a theoretical and a practical section.

Language In Use

Author : Janine Lacombe
ISBN : 9783656723899
Genre : Literary Collections
File Size : 57. 5 MB
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Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of Koblenz-Landau (Anglistik), course: Pragmatics - Language in Use, language: English, abstract: Pragmatics-Portfolio assignments concerning pragmatic principles in spoken language. Includes study questions with complete answers.

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