prisons-in-the-united-states-a-reference-handbook

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Prisons In The United States A Reference Handbook

Author : Cyndi Banks
ISBN : 9781440844386
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 23. 46 MB
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Offering perspectives from a range of experts, both academic and nonacademic, this reference book examines the development of prisons in the United States and addresses the principal contemporary issues and controversies of our prisons and prison systems. • Presents a comprehensive yet succinct history of the development of men's and women's prisons in the United States • Offers a range of author perspectives that identify and explore the principal issues associated with prisons and imprisonment • Documents the shift from an intent to reform inmates in prisons to retribution and an attempt to remove all criminals from society, using prisons for "warehousing" of undesired elements • Provides a complete reference guide for the understanding of prisons and imprisonment as a punishment

Stds In The United States A Reference Handbook

Author : David E. Newton
ISBN : 9781440858581
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 78. 15 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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STDs in the United States: A Reference Handbook provides information about sexually transmitted diseases and infections and their impact on both an individual and a societal level. • Deals in detail with a number of topics not normally covered in competitor books, such as the nature of STDs in ancient periods, the Middle Ages, and early modern times • Considers in detail diseases not generally discussed to such an extent in other books, such as chlamydia and various emerging sexual diseases • Discusses the possibilities of vaccines for various STDs and inhibiting factors in their development, their possible benefits, and prospects for such vaccines • Outlines educational approaches that have been or could be used for mitigating the spread of STDs

Religious Freedom In America A Reference Handbook

Author : Michael C. LeMay
ISBN : 9781440851056
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 61. 54 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book provides the answers to controversial questions about religious liberties in the United States and connected issues through balanced, thorough, and nonjudgmental coverage of the issues in a reference format. • Ideally suited for students and general readers who want to learn more about the history and current events concerning religious freedom in an easy-to-understand fashion • Includes a Perspectives chapter that allows readers to "hear" opposing voices from individuals who are concerned with religious freedom in America • Presents the facts about religious freedom so that readers can reach their own conclusions • Highlights the challenge of reaching an agreement on the line of church/state separation that exempts some individuals from obeying laws because of their religious beliefs in an increasingly pluralistic society comprising members of diverse faiths

Robots A Reference Handbook

Author : David E. Newton
ISBN : 9781440858628
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 90. 41 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Robots: A Reference Handbook differs from most other books on robotics in the variety of resources that it provides to readers of all ages. • Walks the reader through the surprisingly rich history of robotics • Details how robots have developed across the globe • Introduces the reader to a variety of technical, social, political, ethical, and economic issues related to the widespread use of robots today • Provides a variety of resources that can be used in further study of robotics

Homeland Security A Reference Handbook

Author : Michael C. LeMay
ISBN : 9781440854101
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 76. 59 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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This book provides a comprehensive summary of the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and efforts to protect the United States from international terrorism. • Provides readers with an objective, nonpartisan perspective on the complexity of enacting and implementing homeland security policy so that readers may better understand how difficult it is to combat terrorism • Illuminates how "lone-wolf" terrorists become radicalized and why they are so difficult for the government to protect against • Suggests more than a dozen proposed solutions to the vexing problems associated with protecting the United States from international terrorism • Details how immigration and homeland security are inherently related, and why Arab- and Muslim-American minorities suffer the brunt of the negative effects of the nation's border security crackdown • Explains why unauthorized immigration from Mexico and Central America has risen exponentially since 1970 and why policy to deal with illegal immigration poses such a conundrum

Profiling And Criminal Justice In America A Reference Handbook 2nd Edition

Author : Jeff Bumgarner
ISBN : 9781610698528
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 66. 7 MB
Format : PDF
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An unbiased examination of profiling in the criminal justice system—one of the most hotly contested public policy issues—on the streets, in the courts, and in the jails and prisons of America. • Presents essays from scholars in the field on both sides of the debate to provide fair and objective information that allow readers to consider the interests of equality and fairness on one side versus public safety and crime fighting on the other • Examines profiling along a wide range of variables—race, religion, gender, and sexual orientation—rather than addressing only racial profiling • Covers more recent events in profiling such as Arizona SB 1070, the "Stop and Frisk" policy in New York City, and the TSA's profiling of Muslims as well as older cases such as Whren vs. United States • Provides summaries and analyses of key court cases relating to the permissibility and impermissibility of profiling

The American Political Party System A Reference Handbook

Author : Michael C. LeMay
ISBN : 9781440854125
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 48. 26 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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What historical factors transformed American politics into the institution we know today? This in-depth look at America's party system traces its efficacy, sustainability, and popularity through six influential presidencies spanning 1790 to the present day. • Theorizes how the presidencies of Jefferson, Jackson, Lincoln, McKinley, FDR, and Ronald Reagan marked the beginning of a new political party system at the time and considers how Obama's election might signal the latest transformation • Contains essays that explain how political beliefs affect party identification, examine each party's platform on national security issues, and identify the effects the Trump campaign has on the Republican Party • Features 15 primary documents including excerpts from the Federalist Papers and relevant sections of the U.S. Constitution • Includes maps, bar and line graphs, and pie charts to illustrate key elements of the party system

21st Century Criminology A Reference Handbook

Author : J. Mitchell Miller
ISBN : 9781412960199
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 34. 53 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook provides straightforward and definitive overviews of 100 key topics comprising traditional criminology and its modern outgrowths. The individual chapters have been designed to serve as a "first-look" reference source for most criminological inquires. Both connected to the sociological origins of criminology (i.e., theory and research methods) and the justice systems' response to crime and related social problems, as well as coverage of major crime types, this two-volume set offers a comprehensive overview of the current state of criminology. From student term papers and masters theses to researchers commencing literature reviews, 21st Century Criminology is a ready source from which to quickly access authoritative knowledge on a range of key issues and topics central to contemporary criminology.

Juvenile Justice A Reference Handbook 2nd Edition

Author : Donald J. Shoemaker
ISBN : 9781440840753
Genre : Law
File Size : 89. 46 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Authoritative, current, and easy to use, this book is an outstanding resource for readers looking to gain an accurate and thorough understanding of American juvenile justice. • Presents historical and contemporary data in an easy-to-understand fashion that survey the complex history of the juvenile justice system and allow readers to better comprehend the key issues • Includes a perspectives chapter that enables readers to hear voices from individuals with different backgrounds who are concerned with juvenile justice • Provides an ideal resource for general readers who want to learn more about the history and current events concerning juvenile justice as well as students without previous background knowledge of the subject • Contains a chronology of key moments in the history of juvenile justice in the United States as well as a glossary of key terms and definitions to guide the reader

Modern Homelessness A Reference Handbook

Author : Mary Ellen Hombs
ISBN : 9781598845372
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 71. 94 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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This in-depth examination reviews fundamental changes of the past decade that have reduced homelessness in the United States and other Western democracies. • A chronology of relevant key events of the last decade in the United States, England, Canada, and Australia • A glossary • A bibliography of print and nonprint resources, including electronic resources

Marijuana A Reference Handbook

Author : David E. Newton
ISBN : 9781610691505
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66. 85 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The debate over the use of marijuana for recreational or medical purposes is not just a recent hot topic in America—it's been an ongoing issue and argument for centuries. This book examines the controversy from all angles.

Women In Prison

Author : Cyndi Banks
ISBN : 9781576079294
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 27. 40 MB
Format : PDF
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A concise survey of the treatment of jailed women in America since the early 1800s, their unique problems, the effect on their families, and the state of prisons today. * Includes an abundance of resources for further research including extensive statistics on the number of women in state and federal prisons by race, the proportion of women jailed for violent offenses, and characteristics of female state prison inmates * An annotated bibliography of print and nonprint resources such as Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, Corrections Today, and Women, Crime, and Justice

The Death Penalty

Author : Joseph Anthony Melusky
ISBN : 9781440845505
Genre : SOCIAL SCIENCE
File Size : 34. 46 MB
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Does the possibility of being put to death deter crime? Do the methods of execution matter? Is it possible for a state-ordered execution to be botched? Are innocent people ever sent to death row? Are there racial biases or other prejudices associated with the death penalty? This book examines the history of capital punishment in the United States; describes the significant issues, events, and cases; and addresses the controversies and legal issues surrounding capital punishment, making this important topic accessible to a wide range of readers. The book presents both sides of the argument on whether capital punishment should continue or be abolished, looking at the evidence regarding whether it is necessary for carrying out justice and deterring violent crime or whether the practice is inhumane, ineffective, biased in its application, and costly. Readers will gain insights into how capital punishment should be used, if at all; whether effective safeguards are in place to ensure that only the guilty receive the death penalty; what crimes deserve this sentence; whether juveniles or individuals with diminished mental capacity should ever be sentenced to death; potentially viable alternatives to the death penalty; and the hidden costs involved in our capital punishment system that make it so expensive. The book also contains primary documents relevant to capital punishment, such as excerpts from documents like the U.S. Constitution, the Hittite case laws, and the Code of Hammurabi, as well as descriptions of and excerpts from key cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court.

Illegal Immigration A Reference Handbook 2nd Edition

Author : Michael C. LeMay
ISBN : 9781440840135
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 32. 56 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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A valuable resource for high school, college, and general readers, this book provides an up-to-date, comprehensive examination of illegal immigration in America, addressing its complex history, comparing its occurrence today with the past, and explaining why a solution is so difficult to enact. • Discusses in detail all of the proposed solutions to the illegal immigration problem in the United States • Enables the reader, on an objective and factual basis, to compare illegal immigration of today with the immigration of the past, and to assess for themselves whether today's immigrants are any more or less likely to be able to successfully assimilate into American society and economy • Provides perspective essays by a range of scholars, "think-tank" subject experts, and advocacy activists that give voice to various sides of the issue in a contrasting point/counterpoint fashion • Documents how the U.S. federal system of three levels and three branches of government complicates any effort and approach to resolving the illegal immigration problem • Includes an extensive, annotated bibliography of print and nonprint resources that directs readers toward further reading on the topic

A Reference Handbook Of The Medical Sciences

Author : Albert Henry Buck
ISBN : UOM:39015072194718
Genre : Medicine
File Size : 50. 4 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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A Reference Handbook Of The Medical Sciences Embracing The Entire Range Of Scientific And Allied Sciences

Author : Albert Henry Buck
ISBN : UCAL:C3101435
Genre : Medicine
File Size : 32. 9 MB
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Global Security Watch Egypt A Reference Handbook

Author : Denis J. Sullivan
ISBN : 9781567207569
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 59. 46 MB
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Despite the appearance of political and military stability, Egypt may be standing at the edge of a precipice as the state remains grounded in rigid authoritarianism while the population, including a struggling civil society, readies itself to make the leap to democratization. This characterization has far-reaching implications for relations between citizens and the government, as well as Egypt's foreign affairs posture, particularly in the Middle East. State repression of civil, political, and religious actors; the ineffectual provision of social services; and two religious divides, between Coptic Christianity and Islam on the one hand, and secular and conservative Islamic traditions on the other, make for an incendiary domestic environment. The resulting over-reliance on security services to quash dissent could result in a population more amenable to less democratic methods of regime change and/or the development of stronger linkages between regional Islamist groups, whether they be political, militant, or some combination thereof. Global Security Watch—Egypt explores the historical background that created the current realities in Egypt and examines the players and events influencing the nation today. It concludes with a series of recommendations for the Egyptian political establishment, and for the American government, in the belief that meaningful political and policy changes in Egypt can lead to an improvement in human rights, democracy, justice, stability, and security for Egypt, and an improved partnership between Egypt and the United States.

Hate Crimes A Reference Handbook 3rd Edition

Author : Donald Altschiller
ISBN : 9781610699471
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 49. 57 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Hate crime is a disturbing phenomenon that is the subject of constant debate, discussion, and legislation. This book helps readers understand the complex issue and see how the government and activists are proactively combating hate crime. •Presents a unique listing of audio-visual sources, including the most comprehensive annotated entries of magazine articles and other books on the topic •Provides the most comprehensive source for U.S. congressional hearings and legislation on hate crimes •Supplies a wide range of viewpoints on the philosophical and legal arguments both in support of and in opposition to hate crime legislation

Modern Sports Ethics A Reference Handbook

Author : Angela Lumpkin
ISBN : 9781598841985
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 81. 54 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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An examination of both ethical and unethical behaviors in sports designed to help readers analyze the notion that participating in sports builds character. • Biographical sketches of individuals who have made significant contributions in shaping sports ethics, including John Wooden, Arthur Ashe, and James Naismith • A data and documents chapter that provides context for the examination of specific challenges in sports, such as those faced by young athletes and female athletes

Gay And Lesbian Rights A Reference Handbook 2nd Edition

Author : David E. Newton
ISBN : 9781598843071
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 85. 18 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This thoroughly updated edition provides readers with the background and resources needed to understand one of the greatest civil rights issues of our time. • Includes selections from laws and court cases relating to various aspects of the gay/lesbian civil rights movement • Chronicles an exhaustive list of important events in the gay and lesbian civil rights movement in the United States and Europe

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