punishment and democracy three strikes and you re out in california studies in crime and public policy

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Punishment And Democracy

Author : Franklin E. Zimring
ISBN : 0195350375
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 73. 32 MB
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"Getting tough on crime" has been one of the favorite rallying cries of American politicians in the last two decades, and "getting tough" on repeat offenders has been particularly popular. "Three strikes and you're out" laws, which effectively impose a 25-years-to-life sentence at the moment of a third felony conviction, have been passed in 26 states. California's version of the "three strikes" law, enacted in 1994, was broader and more severe than measures considered or passed in any other state. Punishment and Democracy is the first examination of the actual impact this law has had. Franklin Zimring, Sam Kamin, and Gordon Hawkins look at the origins of the law in California, compare it to other crackdown laws, and analyze the data collected on crime rates in Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Francisco in the year before and the two years after the law went into effect. They show that the "three strikes" law was a significant development in criminal justice policy making, not only at the state level, but also at the national level. They conclude with an examination of the trend toward populist initiatives driving penal policy. The importance of the subject and the stature of the authors make this book required reading for policy analysts, criminal justice scholars, elected officials, and indeed any American seeking to know more about "get-tough" criminal sentencing.

The Punishment Imperative

Author : Todd R. Clear
ISBN : 9781479851690
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 69. 68 MB
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Over the last 40 years, the US penal system has grown at an unprecedented rate—five times larger than in the past and grossly out of scale with the rest of the world. In The Punishment Imperative, eminent criminologists Todd R. Clear and Natasha A. Frost argue that America’s move to mass incarceration from the 1960s to the early 2000s was more than just a response to crime or a collection of policies adopted in isolation; it was a grand social experiment. Tracing a wide array of trends related to the criminal justice system, this book charts the rise of penal severity in America and speculates that a variety of forces—fiscal, political, and evidentiary—have finally come together to bring this great social experiment to an end. The authors stress that while the doubling of the crime rate in the late 1960s represented one of the most pressing social problems at the time, it was instead the way crime posed a political problem—and thereby offered a political opportunity—that became the basis for the great rise in punishment. Clear and Frost contend that the public’s growing realization that the severe policies themselves, not growing crime rates, were the main cause of increased incarceration eventually led to a surge of interest in taking a more rehabilitative, pragmatic, and cooperative approach to dealing with criminal offenders that still continues to this day. Part historical study, part forward-looking policy analysis, The Punishment Imperative is a compelling study of a generation of crime and punishment in America.

Making Crime Pay

Author : Katherine Beckett
ISBN : 0195350472
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 29. 13 MB
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Most Americans are not aware that the US prison population has tripled over the past two decades, nor that the US has the highest rate of incarceration in the industrialized world. Despite these facts, politicians from across the ideological spectrum continue to campaign on "law and order" platforms and to propose "three strikes"--and even "two strikes"--sentencing laws. Why is this the case? How have crime, drugs, and delinquency come to be such salient political issues, and why have enhanced punishment and social control been defined as the most appropriate responses to these complex social problems? Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics provides original, fascinating, and persuasive answers to these questions. According to conventional wisdom, the worsening of the crime and drug problems has led the public to become more punitive, and "tough" anti-crime policies are politicians' collective response to this popular sentiment. Katherine Beckett challenges this interpretation, arguing instead that the origins of the punitive shift in crime control policy lie in the political rather than the penal realm--particularly in the tumultuous period of the 1960s.

Unjust Sentencing And The California Three Strikes Law

Author : Douglas W. Kieso
ISBN : 1593320949
Genre : Law
File Size : 32. 41 MB
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Hughes seeks to understand how, within a youth gang context, factors and processes operating at the micro-social level contribute to the occurrence of disputes and impact the decision made by disputants to engage in violence or to back down.Hughes analyzes the occurrence and resolution of dispute-related incidents involving black and white youth street gangs in Chicago. Quantitative analysis involves assessing situational variables suggested by the literature as relevant to the occurrence of violence. When possible, interaction sequences also are examined. Qualitative analysis emphasizes themes related to the conditions under which disputes are likely to emerge and either escalate into violence or be "squashed." The result is a conceptual scheme that is useful for understanding how factors and processes operating at the micro-social level contribute to the occurrence of disputes and impact the decision to engage in violence or to back down.

The Politics Of Imprisonment

Author : Vanessa Barker
ISBN : 9780199888078
Genre : Law
File Size : 31. 99 MB
Format : PDF
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The attention devoted to the unprecedented levels of imprisonment in the United States obscure an obvious but understudied aspect of criminal justice: there is no consistent punishment policy across the U.S. It is up to individual states to administer their criminal justice systems, and the differences among them are vast. For example, while some states enforce mandatory minimum sentencing, some even implementing harsh and degrading practices, others rely on community sanctions. What accounts for these differences? The Politics of Imprisonment seeks to document and explain variation in American penal sanctioning, drawing out the larger lessons for America's overreliance on imprisonment. Grounding her study in a comparison of how California, Washington, and New York each developed distinctive penal regimes in the late 1960s and early 1970s--a critical period in the history of crime control policy and a time of unsettling social change--Vanessa Barker concretely demonstrates that subtle but crucial differences in political institutions, democratic traditions, and social trust shape the way American states punish offenders. Barker argues that the apparent link between public participation, punitiveness, and harsh justice is not universal but dependent upon the varying institutional contexts and patterns of civic engagement within the U.S. and across liberal democracies. A bracing examination of the relationship between punishment and democracy, The Politics of Imprisonment not only suggests that increased public participation in the political process can support and sustain less coercive penal regimes, but also warns that it is precisely a lack of civic engagement that may underpin mass incarceration in the United States.

Crime And Justice

Author : Michael H. Tonry
ISBN : UVA:X030158662
Genre : Law
File Size : 38. 1 MB
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Since 1979, the Crime and Justice series has presented international crime-related research to enrich the work of sociologists, psychologists, criminal lawyers, justice scholars, and political scientists. Volume 34 covers criminal justice issues with a careful balance of research, theory, and practice. It offers an interdisciplinary approach to core issues in criminology, with perspectives from biology, law, psychology, ethics, history, and sociology.

Sentencing Law And Policy

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105063715440
Genre : Law
File Size : 81. 28 MB
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Four leading sentencing scholars have produced the first and only text with enough up-to-date material to support a full course or seminar on sentencing. Other texts offer only partial coverage or out-of-date examples. the chapters in Sentencing Law and Policy: Cases, Statutes, and Guidelines present examples from three distinct types of sentencing guideline-determinate, and capital. the materials draw on the full spectrum of legal institutions, from the U.S. Supreme Court to the state court level, with close consideration of the role of legislatures and sentencing commissions. The only current, full-course text on sentencing, this new title offers: an 'intuitive', conceptually-based organization that looks at the essential substantative components and procedural steps following the sequence of decisions that typically occurs in every criminal sentencing examples covering three distinct areas of sentencing, with chapter materials based on guideline-determinate, indeterminate, and capital sentencing materials from a range of institutions, including decision from the U.S. Supreme Court, state high courts, federal appellate courts, and some foreign jurisdictions - along with statutes and guideline provisions, and reports from various sentencing commissions and agencies in-text notes on sentencing policies that explain common practices in U.S. jurisdictions, then ask students to compare different institutional practices and consider the relationship between sentencing rules, politics, and the broader aims of criminal justice

Encyclopedia Of American Civil Rights And Liberties H R

Author : Otis H. Stephens
ISBN : 0313327602
Genre : Civil rights
File Size : 46. 86 MB
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Contains entries that discuss aspects of civil rights and liberties, covering major historical developments and social movements, key legislation, Supreme Court decisions, influential individuals, Constitutional provisions, and groups and organizations; arranged alphabetically from H to R.

Criminal Law And Procedure

Author : Ronald N. Boyce
ISBN : STANFORD:36105063234145
Genre : Law
File Size : 37. 3 MB
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Representing what is best in traditional legal education, Criminal Law and Procedure provides an overview and introduction to the definitions and elements of the various crimes and defenses, integrating both the common law and Model Penal Code. The expert authors cover offenses against the person, habitation and occupancy, property, and more. The book reviews imputability, responsibility in general, limitations in criminal capacity, modifying circumstances, and special defenses. Updated both to include new constitutional, legislative, and judicial developments in the law and to reflect the increasingly theoretical direction of legal education, Criminal Law and Procedure contains revised information on criminal sanction, sexual assault, and criminal law statutes in general.

Taking Sides

Author : Thomas J. Hickey
ISBN : PSU:000058305782
Genre : Law
File Size : 38. 57 MB
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This debate-style reader introduces students to current controversies in the field of criminal justice. The readings are written by scholars and experts in the field and reflect a variety of viewpoints presented in a pro/con format. Topics include: gun control, continued criminalization of drug use, the Miranda ruling, police lineups, plea bargaining, jury nullification, the three strikes rule, and prisoner rights.

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