rationality-in-question

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Rationality In Question

Author : Shlomo Bidermann
ISBN : 9004092129
Genre : Religion
File Size : 78. 69 MB
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Cognitive Unconscious And Human Rationality

Author : Laura Macchi
ISBN : 9780262034081
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 44 MB
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Examining the role of implicit, unconscious thinking on reasoning, decision making, problem solving, creativity, and its neurocognitive basis, for a genuinely psychological conception of rationality. This volume contributes to a current debate within the psychology of thought that has wide implications for our ideas about creativity, decision making, and economic behavior. The essays focus on the role of implicit, unconscious thinking in creativity and problem solving, the interaction of intuition and analytic thinking, and the relationship between communicative heuristics and thought. The analyses move beyond the conventional conception of mind informed by extra-psychological theoretical models toward a genuinely psychological conception of rationality—a rationality no longer limited to conscious, explicit thought, but able to exploit the intentional implicit level. The contributors consider a new conception of human rationality that must cope with the uncertainty of the real world; the implications of abandoning the normative model of classic logic and adopting a probabilistic approach instead; the argumentative and linguistic aspects of reasoning; and the role of implicit thought in reasoning, creativity, and its neurological base. Contributors Maria Bagassi, Linden J. Ball, Jean Baratgin, Aron K. Barbey, Tilmann Betsch, Eric Billaut, Jean-François Bonnefon, Pierre Bonnier, Shira Elqayam, Keith Frankish, Gerd Gigerenzer, Ken Gilhooly, Denis Hilton, Anna Lang, Stefanie Lindow, Laura Macchi, Hugo Mercier, Giuseppe Mosconi, Ian R. Newman, Mike Oaksford, David Over, Guy Politzer, Johannes Ritter, Steven A. Sloman, Edward J. N. Stupple, Ron Sun, Nicole H. Therriault, Valerie A. Thompson, Emmanuel Trouche-Raymond, Riccardo Viale

Caveat Emptor

Author : Roger M. Swagler
ISBN : CORNELL:31924000428916
Genre : Consommateurs - Protection
File Size : 82. 14 MB
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The Rational Function Analogue Of A Question Of Schur And Exceptionality Of Permutation Representations

Author : Robert M. Guralnick
ISBN : 9780821832882
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 33. 52 MB
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In 1923 Schur considered the problem of which polynomials $f\in\mathbb{Z}[X]$ induce bijections on the residue fields $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ for infinitely many primes $p$. His conjecture, that such polynomials are compositions of linear and Dickson polynomials, was proved by M. Fried in 1970. Here we investigate the analogous question for rational functions, and also we allow the base field to be any number field. As a result, there are many more rational functions for which the analogous property holds. The new infinite series come from rational isogenies or endomorphisms of elliptic curves. Besides them, there are finitely many sporadic examples which do not fit in any of the series we obtain.The Galois theoretic translation, based on Chebotarev's density theorem, leads to a certain property of permutation groups, called exceptionality. One can reduce to primitive exceptional groups. While it is impossible to describe explicitly all primitive exceptional permutation groups, we provide certain reduction results, and obtain a classification in the almost simple case. The fact that these permutation groups arise as monodromy groups of covers of Riemann spheres $f:\mathbb{P}^1\to\mathbb{P}^1$, where $f$ is the rational function we investigate, provides genus $0$ systems.These are generating systems of permutation groups with a certain combinatorial property. This condition, combined with the classification and reduction results of exceptional permutation groups, eventually gives a precise geometric classification of possible candidates of rational functions which satisfy the arithmetic property from above. Up to this point, we make frequent use of the classification of the finite simple groups. Except for finitely many cases, these remaining candidates are connected to isogenies or endomorphisms of elliptic curves. Thus we use results about elliptic curves, modular curves, complex multiplication, and the techniques used in the inverse regular Galois problem to settle these finer arithmetic questions.

Rational Interaction

Author : Reinhard Selten
ISBN : 9783662096642
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 41. 41 MB
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The unifying theme of the 23 contributions to this book is the social interaction of rational individuals. The work of John C. Harsanyi on game theory, social choice, and the philosophy of science finds an echo in these essays. Contributions by well known game theorists and economists present a great variety of stimulating theoretical investigations. Part I contains six papers on non-cooperative game theory written by Maschler, Owen, Myerson, Peleg, Rosenmüller, Hart and Mas-Collel. Part II with three contributions by Kalei, Samet, van Damme, d'Aspremont, and Gérard-Varet is devoted to the use of non-cooperative game theory in the analysis of problems of mechanism design. Basic questions of non-cooperative game theory are discussed in three essays by Güth, Hardin, and Sugden in Part III. Applied game models are discussed in three papers by Friedman, Selten, and Shubik in Part IV. Problems of social choice are investigated in Part V which deals with utilitarianism and related topics in five contributions by Hammond, Binmore, Arrow, Roemer, and Broome. Finally, Part VI contains three papers: an interdisciplinary comparison of physics and economics by Samuelson, a methodological essay by Brock, and an appraisal of the work of John C. Harsanyi.

Corporate Reputation Decoded

Author : Asha Kaul
ISBN : 9789351500469
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 34. 31 MB
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Corporate Reputation Decoded is the first book of its kind that traces the journey of Indian companies in building corporate reputation (CR). The book addresses CR in the Indian context and is in response to the growing interest of companies in this area. The book explains the process of building, maintaining and strategising for CR. It also discusses various aspects of CR—company’s stakeholders, situations demanding CR interventions, and the impact of a company’s culture, ethics and leadership on its CR. The book expounds on these using Indian cases (Tata, Infosys, HUL, Reliance, Aditya Birla Group, HDFC, among others), which enhance the understanding of CR in India as well as benchmark CR best practices in India. The book is of major significance to CR practitioners, scholars, teachers, students and C-Suite professionals who will also find the techniques proposed in the book interesting as they can assess, evaluate, adopt and adapt strategies followed by other companies for reputation enhancement.

Paradoxes Of Rationality And Cooperation

Author : Richmond Campbell
ISBN : 9780774802154
Genre : Choice (Psychology).
File Size : 52. 12 MB
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This anthology, the first to bring together the most important philosophical essays on the paradoxes, analyses the concepts underlying the Prisoner's Dilemma and Newcomb's Problem and evaluates the proposed solutions.

Rationality And Irrationality In Economics

Author : Maurice Godelier
ISBN : 9781781680254
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 88. 95 MB
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This book is the result of a research project begun by the author in 1958 with the aim of answering two questions: First, what is the rationality of the economic systems that appear and disappear throughout history—in other words, what is their hidden logic and the underlying necessity for them to exist, or to have existed? Second, what are the conditions for a rational understanding of these systems—in other words, for a fully developed comparative economic science? The field of investigation opened up by these two questions is vast, touching on the foundations of social reality and on how to understand them. The author, being a Marxist, sought the answers, as he writes, ‘not in philosophy or by philosophical means, but in and through examining the knowledge accumulated by the sciences.’ The stages of his journey from philosophy to economics and then to anthropology are indicated by the divisions of his book. Godelier rejects, at the outset, any attempt to tackle the question of rationality or irrationality of economic science and of economic realities from the angle of an a priori idea, a speculative definition of what is rational. Such an approach can yield only, he feels, an ideological result. Rather, he treats the appearance and disappearance of social and economic systems in history as being governed by a necessity ‘wholly internal to the concrete structures of social life.

William L Rowe On Philosophy Of Religion

Author : William L. Rowe
ISBN : 9781351872812
Genre : Religion
File Size : 24. 23 MB
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William Rowe is one of the leading thinkers in contemporary philosophy of religion. Although he is best known for his contributions to the problem of evil, he has produced innovative and influential work across a wide array of subjects at the interface between philosophy and religion. He has, for example, written extensively on the existentialist theologian, Paul Tillich, on the challenging problem of divine freedom, and on the traditional arguments in support of the existence of God. His work in these areas is distinguished by its clarity, rigour, originality, and sensitivity towards the claims of his theistic opponents. Indeed, Rowe's work has played a pivotal role in the remarkable revival of analytic philosophy of religion since the 1970s. The present collection brings together for the first time Rowe's most significant contributions to the philosophy of religion. This diverse but representative selection of Rowe's writings will provide students, professional scholars as well as general readers with stimulating and accessible discussions on such topics as the philosophical theology of Paul Tillich, the problem of evil, divine freedom, arguments for the existence of God, religious experience, life after death, and religious pluralism.

The Next Public Administration

Author : B Guy Peters
ISBN : 9781473993938
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86. 13 MB
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Written by two of the leading scholars in the field, this book explores public administration in the past, present and future, critically reviewing the modernization of public management reform. It reasserts public administration as an integral component of democratic governance and fostering a state-citizen relationship. Wide-ranging in scope, The Next Public Administration: Extends basic public administration to consider issues associated with management, governance and democracy Covers core public administration concepts and their evolution through time Draws on an international spread of examples, bringing theoretical discussions to life Includes lists of further reading Essential reading for students of public management and public administration.

Instrumental Rationality And Moral Philosophy

Author : B. Verbeek
ISBN : 9789401599825
Genre : Philosophy
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Many academic authors incur debts in the production of their work, many of which are intellectual. I am no exception. One of my intellectual debts is to three remarkable books, which formed the starting point for my thinking about norms. The first of these books is well known among philosophers: David Lewis' Convention. In vintage Lewisian prose, the book gives a lucid and convincing conventionalist analysis of semantic norms. The second 1985 dissertation Wederkerige book is Govert den Hartogh's Verwachtingen (Mutual Expectations). Partly because it was written in Dutch - my native tongue -partly because of the occasionally impenetrable style, it never got the attention it deserves. In that book, Den Hartogh extends Lewis' analysis of semantic norms to moral norms. Den Hartogh introduced the notion of cooperative virtues that is the focus of much of this book. The third book is a book on economics, largely ignored by economists, which only lately has started to receive some recognition among philosophers: Robert Sugden's The Economics of Rights, Co operation and Welfare. Sugden's book explains the emergence and stability of norms in terms of social evolution. Though all three books develop a of norms, their arguments and constructions are conventionalist account very different. Lewis and Den Hartogh take the picture of rational man deliberating about his course of action very serious; Sugden rejects this picture as unrealistic and unnecessary.

Rationality Rules And Structure

Author : Julian Nida-Rümelin
ISBN : 0792363264
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 29. 98 MB
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It is an obvious fact that human agency is constrained and structured by many kinds of rules: rules that are constitutive for communication, morality, persons, and society, and juridical rules. So the question is: what roles are played by social rules and the structural traits of human agency in rational decision making? What bearing does this have on the theory of practical rationality? These issues can only be discussed within an interdisciplinary setting, with researchers drawn from philosophy, decision theory and the economic and social sciences. The problem is of profound, fundamental concern to the social scientist and has attracted a great deal of intellectual effort. Contributors include distinguished researchers in their respective fields and the book thus presents state-of-the-art theory. It can also be used as a textbook in advanced philosophy, economics and social science classes.

Inside Ethics

Author : Alice Crary
ISBN : 9780674967816
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 22. 21 MB
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Alice Crary offers a transformative account of moral thought about human beings and animals. Instead of assuming that the world places no demands on our moral imagination, she underscores the urgency of treating the exercise of moral imagination as necessary for arriving at an adequate world-guided understanding of human beings and animals.

Adorno And Modern Theatre

Author : K. Gritzner
ISBN : 9781137534477
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 43. 57 MB
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Adorno and Modern Theatre explores the drama of Edward Bond, David Rudkin, Howard Barker and Sarah Kane in the context of the work of leading philosopher Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969). The book engages with key principles of Adorno's aesthetic theory and cultural critique and examines their influence on a generation of seminal post-war dramatists.

The Knowledge Book

Author : Steve Fuller
ISBN : 9781317493273
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 88. 40 MB
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"The Knowledge Book" is a unique interdisciplinary reference work for students and researchers concerned with the nature of knowledge. It is the first work of its kind to be organized on the assumption that whatever else knowledge might be, it is intrinsically social. The book consists of 42 alphabetically arranged entries on key concepts at the intersection of philosophy and sociology - what used to be called "sociology of knowledge" but is now increasingly called "social epistemology". The entries include concepts common to disciplines that in recent years have devoted more of their attention to knowledge: cultural studies, communication studies, information science, education, policy studies and business studies. Special attention is given to concepts from the emerging field of science and technology studies. Each entry presents a short, self-contained essay providing an overview of a concept and concludes with suggestions for further reading. All the entries are fully cross-referenced, allowing readers to both make connections and follow their own interests.

Philosophical Analysis

Author : D.S. Austin
ISBN : 9789400929098
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 23. 17 MB
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Analytic philosophy is alive and in good health, as this collection of twenty, previously unpublished essays most ably demonstrates. The reader will find here assembled some of the finest writings of modern analytic philosophers at the top of their form. Matthews discusses Plato's attempt to deal with the problem of false belief about identities. Parson evaluates Russell's early theory of denoting phrases. Chisholm exhibits the utility of thirteen epistemic categories. Plantinga criticizes Chisholm's account of justification. Conee argues that solving the Gettier Problem is important, and Ginet proposes a solution to it. Lehrer criticizes an argument based on the simplicity of our belief in material objects and other minds. R. Feldman defends an account of having evidence. F. Feldman defends a propositional account of pleasure. Van Fraassen criticizes Garber's solution to the problem of old evidence. Castañeda investigates the nature of negation. McKay argues that de se analyses of belief do not account for belief de re. Richard argues that no Fregean semantics for belief attribution will succeed. Ryckman suggests that the Millian theory of names has little to do with the theory of belief is no threat to God's omniscience. Dunn investigates constraints imposed on non-classical modal logics by extensionality. Fitch argues that singular propositions perform important functions in modal logic. Jubien evaluates arguments for and against possible worlds. Ratzsch argues that there must be a deeper source of nomicality than ordinary subjunctives, and Stalnaker argues that there is room for determinancy of identity and indeterminacy in reference.

Omega

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015004808393
Genre : Bereavement
File Size : 65. 72 MB
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Realistic Decision Theory

Author : Paul Weirich
ISBN : 9780190291112
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78. 5 MB
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Within traditional decision theory, common decision principles -- e.g. the principle to maximize utility -- generally invoke idealization; they govern ideal agents in ideal circumstances. In Realistic Decision Theory, Paul Weirch adds practicality to decision theory by formulating principles applying to nonideal agents in nonideal circumstances, such as real people coping with complex decisions. Bridging the gap between normative demands and psychological resources, Realistic Decision Theory is essential reading for theorists seeking precise normative decision principles that acknowledge the limits and difficulties of human decision-making.

Foundations Of Economic Method

Author : Lawrence Boland
ISBN : 9781134498093
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 26. 18 MB
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This updated edition is radically changed from the original and will be much appreciated by thinkers within economics. Boland is back.

Environmental Problem Solving

Author : Alan Miller
ISBN : 9781461214403
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 72 MB
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Human influences create both environmental problems and barriers to effective policy aimed at addressing those problems. In effect, environmental managers manage people as much as they manage the environment. Therefore, they must gain an understanding of the psychological and sociopolitical dimensions of environmental problems that they are attempting to resolve. In Environmental Problem Solving, Alan Miller reappraises conventional analyses of environmental problems using lessons from the psychosocial disciplines. He combines the disciplines of ecology, political sociology and psychology to produce a more adaptive approach to problem-solving that is specifically geared toward the environmetal field. Numerous case studies demonstrate the practical application of theory in a way that is useful to technical and scientific professionals as well as to policy makers and planners. Alan Miller is Professor of Psychology at the University of New Brunswick.

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