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Recursion And Human Language

Author : Harry van der Hulst
ISBN : 9783110219241
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 53. 5 MB
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In this volume, the issue of recursion is tackled from a variety of angles. Some articles cover formal issues regarding the proper characterization or definition of recursion, while others focus on empirical issues by examining the kinds of structure in languages that suggest recursive mechanism in the grammar. Most articles discuss syntactic phenomena, but several involve morphology, the lexicon and phonology. In addition, we find discussions that involve evolutionary notions and language disorders, and the broader cognitive context of recursion.

The Recursive Mind

Author : Michael C. Corballis
ISBN : 9780691160948
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 46. 16 MB
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The Recursive Mind challenges the commonly held notion that language is what makes us uniquely human. In this compelling book, Michael Corballis argues that what distinguishes us in the animal kingdom is our capacity for recursion: the ability to embed our thoughts within other thoughts. "I think, therefore I am," is an example of recursive thought, because the thinker has inserted himself into his thought. Recursion enables us to conceive of our own minds and the minds of others. It also gives us the power of mental "time travel"--the ability to insert past experiences, or imagined future ones, into present consciousness. Drawing on neuroscience, psychology, animal behavior, anthropology, and archaeology, Corballis demonstrates how these recursive structures led to the emergence of language and speech, which ultimately enabled us to share our thoughts, plan with others, and reshape our environment to better reflect our creative imaginations. He shows how the recursive mind was critical to survival in the harsh conditions of the Pleistocene epoch, and how it evolved to foster social cohesion. He traces how language itself adapted to recursive thinking, first through manual gestures, then later, with the emergence of Homo sapiens, vocally. Toolmaking and manufacture arose, and the application of recursive principles to these activities in turn led to the complexities of human civilization, the extinction of fellow large-brained hominins like the Neandertals, and our species' supremacy over the physical world.

Recursive Syntax

Author : Joseph Galasso
ISBN : 3862889882
Genre :
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Language And Recursion

Author : Francis Lowenthal
ISBN : 9781461494140
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 81. 11 MB
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As humans, our many levels of language use distinguish us from the rest of the animal world. For many scholars, it is the recursive aspect of human speech that makes it truly human. But linguists continue to argue about what recursion actually is, leading to the central dilemma: is full recursion, as defined by mathematicians, really necessary for human language? Language and Recursion defines the elusive construct with the goal of furthering research into language and cognition. An up-to-date literature review surveys extensive findings based on non-verbal communication devices and neuroimaging techniques. Comparing human and non-human primate communication, the book’s contributors examine meaning in chimpanzee calls, and consider the possibility of a specific brain structure for recursion. The implications are then extended to formal grammars associated with artificial intelligence, and to the question of whether recursion is a valid concept at all. Among the topics covered: • The pragmatic origins of recursion. • Recursive cognition as a prelude to language. • Computer simulations of recursive exercises for a non-verbal communication device. • Early rule learning ability and language acquisition. • Computational language related to recursion, incursion, and fractals • Why there may be no recursion in language. Regardless of where one stands in the debate, Language and Recursion has much to offer the science community, particularly cognitive psychologists and researchers in the science of language. By presenting these multiple viewpoints, the book makes a solid case for eventual reconciliation.

Natural Language Computing

Author : Ray C. Dougherty
ISBN : 9781134784776
Genre : Psychology
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This book's main goal is to show readers how to use the linguistic theory of Noam Chomsky, called Universal Grammar, to represent English, French, and German on a computer using the Prolog computer language. In so doing, it presents a follow-the-dots approach to natural language processing, linguistic theory, artificial intelligence, and expert systems. The basic idea is to introduce meaningful answers to significant problems involved in representing human language data on a computer. The book offers a hands-on approach to anyone who wishes to gain a perspective on natural language processing -- the computational analysis of human language data. All of the examples are illustrated using computer programs. The optimal way for a person to get started is to run these existing programs to gain an understanding of how they work. After gaining familiarity, readers can begin to modify the programs, and eventually write their own. The first six chapters take a reader who has never heard of non-procedural, backtracking, declarative languages like Prolog and, using 29 full page diagrams and 75 programs, detail how to represent a lexicon of English on a computer. A bibliography is programmed into a Prolog database to show how linguists can manipulate the symbols used in formal representations, including braces and brackets. The next three chapters use 74 full page diagrams and 38 programs to show how data structures (subcategorization, selection, phrase marker) and processes (top-down, bottom-up, parsing, recursion) crucial in Chomsky's theory can be explicitly formulated into a constraint-based grammar and implemented in Prolog. The Prolog interpreters provided with the book are basically identical to the high priced Prologs, but they lack the speed and memory capacities. They are ideal since anything learned about these Prologs carries over unmodified to C-Prolog and Quintas on the mainframes. Anyone who studies the prolog implementations of the lexicons and syntactic principles of combination should be able to use Prolog to represent their own linguistic data on the most complex Prolog computer available, whether their data derive from syntactic theory, semantics, sociolinguistics, bilingualism, language acquisition, language learning, or some related area in which the grammatical patterns of words and phrases are more crucial than concepts of quantity. The printed examples illustrate C-Prolog on an Ultrix Vax, a standard university configuration. The disk included with the book contains shareware version of Prolog-2 (IBM PC) and MacProlog (Macintosh) plus versions of the programs that run on C-Prolog, Quintas, Prolog-2, and MacProlog. Appendix II contains information about how to use the Internet, Gopher, CompuServe, and the free More BBS to download the latest copies of Prolog, programs, lexicons, and parsers. All figures (100+) in the book are available scaled to make full size transparencies for class lectures. Valuable special features of this volume include: * more than 100 full page diagrams illustrating the basic concepts of natural language processing, Prolog, and Chomsky's linguistic theories; * more than 100 programs -- illustrated in at least one script file -- showing how to encode the representations and derivations of generative grammar into Prolog; * more than 100 session files guiding readers through their own hands-on sessions with the programs illustrating Chomsky's theory; * a 3.5" disk (IBM Format) containing: 1. all programs in versions to run in C-Prolog or Quintas Prolog on an Ultrix Vax, and on an IBM PC and a Macintosh, 2. a shareware version of Prolog-2 for IBM PC clones which runs all programs in the book, 3. a shareware version of MacProlog for Macintosh which runs all programs in the book; * instructions on using Internet, CompuServe, and the free More BBS to download the latest copies of Prolog, programs, lexicons, and parsers; and * numerous references enabling interested students to pursue questions at greater depth by consulting the items in the extensive bibliography.

Language And Recursion

Author : Francis Lowenthal
ISBN : 1461494133
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 64. 32 MB
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As humans, our many levels of language use distinguish us from the rest of the animal world. For many scholars, it is the recursive aspect of human speech that makes it truly human. But linguists continue to argue about what recursion actually is, leading to the central dilemma: is full recursion, as defined by mathematicians, really necessary for human language? Language and Recursion defines the elusive construct with the goal of furthering research into language and cognition. An up-to-date literature review surveys extensive findings based on non-verbal communication devices and neuroimaging techniques. Comparing human and non-human primate communication, the book’s contributors examine meaning in chimpanzee calls, and consider the possibility of a specific brain structure for recursion. The implications are then extended to formal grammars associated with artificial intelligence, and to the question of whether recursion is a valid concept at all. Among the topics covered: • The pragmatic origins of recursion. • Recursive cognition as a prelude to language. • Computer simulations of recursive exercises for a non-verbal communication device. • Early rule learning ability and language acquisition. • Computational language related to recursion, incursion, and fractals • Why there may be no recursion in language. Regardless of where one stands in the debate, Language and Recursion has much to offer the science community, particularly cognitive psychologists and researchers in the science of language. By presenting these multiple viewpoints, the book makes a solid case for eventual reconciliation.

Language

Author : Daniel Everett
ISBN : 9781847654151
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 39. 24 MB
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Like other tools, language was invented, can be reinvented or lost, and shows significant variation across cultures. It's as essential to survival as fire - and, like fire, is found in all human societies. Language presents the bold and controversial idea that language is not an innate component of the brain, as has been famously argued by Chomsky and Pinker. Rather, it's a cultural tool which varies much more across different societies than the innateness view suggests. Fusing adventure, anthropology, linguistics and psychology, and drawing on Everett's pioneering research with the Amazonian Pirahs, Language argues that language is embedded within - and is inseparable from - its specific culture. This book is like a fire that will generate much light. And much heat.

The Prehistory Of Language

Author : Rudolf Botha
ISBN : 9780191562877
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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'When, why, and how did language evolve?' 'Why do only humans have language?' This book looks at these and other questions about the origins and evolution of language. It does so via a rich diversity of perspectives, including social, cultural, archaeological, palaeoanthropological, musicological, anatomical, neurobiological, primatological, and linguistic. Among the subjects it considers are: how far sociality is a prerequisite for language; the evolutionary links between language and music; the relation between natural selection and niche construction; the origins of the lexicon; the role of social play in language development; the use of signs by great apes; the evolution of syntax; the evolutionary biology of language; the insights offered by Chomsky's biolinguistic approach to mind and language; the emergence of recursive language; the selectional advantages of the human vocal tract; and why women speak better than men. The authors, drawn from all over the world, are prominent linguists, psychologists, cognitive scientists, archaeologists, primatologists, social anthropologists, and specialists in artificial intelligence. As well as explaining what is understood about the evolution of language, they look squarely at the formidable obstacles to knowing more - the absence of direct evidence, for example; the problems of using indirect evidence; the lack of a common conception of language; confusion about the operation of natural selection and other processes of change; the scope for misunderstanding in a multi-disciplinary field, and many more. Despite these difficulties, the authors in their stylish and readable contributions to this book are able to show just how much has been achieved in this most fruitful and fascinating area of research in the social, natural, and cognitive sciences.

The Evolution Of Language

Author : Erica A Cartmill
ISBN : 9789814603645
Genre : Computers
File Size : 89. 80 MB
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This volume comprises refereed papers and abstracts of the 10th International Conference on the Evolution of Language (EVOLANGX), held in Vienna on 14–17th April 2014. As the leading international conference in the field, the biennial EVOLANG meeting is characterised by an invigorating, multidisciplinary approach to the origins and evolution of human language, and brings together researchers from many subject areas, including anthropology, archaeology, biology, cognitive science, computer science, genetics, linguistics, neuroscience, palaeontology, primatology and psychology. For this 10th conference, the proceedings will include a special perspectives section featuring prominent researchers reflecting on the history of the conference and its impact on the field of language evolution since the inaugural EVOLANG conference in 1996. Contents:Diachronic Processes in Language as Signaling Under Conflicting Interests (Christopher Ahern and Robin Clark)Syntactic Development in Phenotypic Space (Lluís Barceló-Coblijn and Antoni Gomila Benejam)Linguistic Animals: Understanding Language Through a Comparative Approach (Piera Filippi)Social Interaction Influences the Evolution of Cognitive Biases for Language (Seán G Roberts, Bill Thompson and Kenny Smith)Symbol Extension and Meaning Generation in Cultural Evolution for Displaced Communication (Kaori Tamura and Takashi Hashimoto)The Origins of Combinatorial Communication (Richard A Blythe and Thomas C Scott-Phillips)Social Origins of Rhythm? Synchrony and Temporal Regularity in Human Vocalization (Daniel L Bowling, Christian T Herbst and W Tecumseh Fitch)The Effect of Pitch Enhancement on Spoken Language Acquisition (Piera Filippi, Bruno Gingras and W Tecumseh Fitch)Bow-and-Arrow Technology: Mapping Human Cognition and Perhaps Language Evolution (Alexandra Regina Kratschmer, Miriam Noël Haidle and Marlize Lombard)The Cognitive Underspinnings of Metaphor as the Driving Force of Language Evolution (Andrew D M Smith and Stefan H Höfler)Model Fitting and Prediction for Language Evolution (Bill Thompson and Vanessa Ferdinand)and other papers Readership: Graduate students, academics and researchers working on the evolution of language, artificial intelligence, genetics and psychology. Key Features:Keywords:Evolution;Language;Evolang;Origin;Protolanguage

The Boundaries Of Babel

Author : Andrea Moro
ISBN : 9780262029858
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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The new edition of a pioneering book that examines research at the intersection of contemporary theoretical linguistics and the cognitive neurosciences.

Interfaces Recursion = Language?

Author : Uli Sauerland
ISBN : 9783110207552
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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Human language is a phenomenon of immense richness: It provides finely nuanced means of expression that underlie the formation of culture and society; it is subject to subtle, unexpected constraints like syntactic islands and cross-over phenomena; different mutually-unintelligeable individual languages are numerous; and the descriptions of individual languages occupy thousands of pages. Recent work in linguistics, however, has tried to argue that despite all appearances to the contrary, the human biological capacity for language may be reducible to a small inventory of core cognitive competencies. The most radical version of this view has emerged from the Minimalist Program: The claim that language consists of only the ability to generate recursive structures by a computational mechanism. On this view, all other properties of language must result from the interaction at the interfaces of that mechanism and other mental systems not exclusively devoted to language. Since language could then be described as the simplest recursive system satisfying the requirements of the interfaces, one can speak of the Minimalist Equation: Interfaces + Recursion = Language. The question whether all the richness of language can be reduced to that minimalist equation has already inspired several fruitful lines of research that led to important new results. While a full assessment of the minimalist equation will require evidence from many different areas of inquiry, this volume focuses especially on the perspective of syntax and semantics. Within the minimalist architecture, this places our concern with the core computational mechanism and the (LF-)interface where recursive structures are fed to interpretation. Specific questions that the papers address are: What kind of recursive structures can the core generator form? How can we determine what the simplest recursive system is? How can properties of language that used to be ascribed to the recursive generator be reduced to interface properties? What effects do syntactic operations have on semantic interpretation? To what extent do models of semantic interpretation support the LF-interface conditions postulated by minimalist syntax?

The Nature And Origin Of Language

Author : Denis Bouchard
ISBN : 9780199681624
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This book looks at how the human brain got the capacity for language and how language then evolved. The author argues that language is a system of signs, considers how these elements first came together in the brain, and examines the brain mechanisms that allowed their formation. He shows that his explanation of language origins and evolution is consistent with the complex properties of languages and that it offers insights to both language learnability andconstructions that have defied decades of linguistic analysis. This outstandingly original account will interest linguists, cognitive scientists, and others interested in the evolution of language.

How Language Began

Author : Daniel Everett
ISBN : 9781782831280
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 59. 14 MB
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In his groundbreaking new book Daniel Everett seeks answers to questions that have perplexed thinkers from Plato to Chomsky: when and how did language begin? what is it? and what is it for? Daniel Everett confounds the conventional wisdom that language originated with Homo sapiens 150,000 years ago and that we have a 'language instinct'. Drawing on evidence from a wide range of fields, including linguistics, archaeology, biology, anthropology and neuroscience, he shows that our ancient ancestors, Homo erectus, had the biological and mental equipment for speech one and half million years ago, and that their cultural and technological achievements (including building ocean-going boats) make it overwhelmingly likely they spoke some kind of language. How Language Began sheds new light on language and culture and what it means to be human and, as always, Daniel Everett spices his account with incident and anecdote. His book is convincing, arresting and entertaining.

Why Only Us

Author : Robert C. Berwick
ISBN : 9780262034241
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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Berwick and Chomsky draw on recent developments in linguistic theory to offer an evolutionary account of language and humans' remarkable, species-specific ability to acquire it.

Recursion Complexity In Cognition

Author : Tom Roeper
ISBN : 9783319050867
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This volume focuses on recursion and reveals a host of new theoretical arguments, philosophical perspectives, formal representations and empirical evidence from parsing, acquisition and computer models, highlighting its central role in modern science. Noam Chomsky, whose work introduced recursion to linguistics and cognitive science and other leading researchers in the fields of philosophy, semantics, computer science and psycholinguistics in showing the profound reach of this concept into modern science. Recursion has been at the heart of generative grammar from the outset. Recent work in minimalism has put it at center-stage with a wide range of consequences across the intellectual landscape. The contributor to this volume both advance the field and provide a cross-sectional view of the place that recursion takes in modern science.

The Evolution Of Language

Author : C. Scott-Philips Thomas
ISBN : 9789814401500
Genre : Computers
File Size : 44. 5 MB
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Proceedings of Evolang IX, the 9th International Conference on the Evolution of Language. The Evolang conferences are the leading international conferences for new findings in the study of the origins and evolution of language. They attract a multidisciplinary audience. The proceedings are an important resource for researchers in the field.

Biolinguistic Investigations And The Formal Language Hierarchy

Author : Juan Uriagereka
ISBN : 9781351622257
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 53. 30 MB
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This volume collects some of Juan Uriagereka’s previously published pieces and presentations on biolinguistics in recent years in one comprehensive volume. The book’s introduction lays the foundation for the field of biolinguistics, which looks to integrate concepts from the natural sciences in the analysis of natural language, situating the discussion within the minimalist framework. The volume then highlights eight of the author’s key papers from the literature, some co-authored, representative of both the architectural and evolutionary considerations to be taken into account within biolinguistic research. The book culminates in a final chapter with Bill Idsardi showcasing the extensive body of work being done on biolinguistics within the research program at the University of Maryland - College Park and their implications for interdisciplinary research and future directions for the field. This volume is essential reading for students and scholars interested in the interface between language and the natural sciences, including linguistics, syntax, biology, archaeology, and anthropology.

The Evolution Of Language

Author : Thomas C Scott-Phillips
ISBN : 9789814401517
Genre : Computers
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Proceedings of Evolang IX, the 9th International Conference on the Evolution of Language. The Evolang conferences are the leading international conferences for new findings in the study of the origins and evolution of language. They attract a multidisciplinary audience. The proceedings are an important resource for researchers in the field. Contents:Evolutionary Parallels between Language and Tool Use (Michael A Arbib)Cortico–Cortical and Cortico–Cerebellar Computations in Language Change (Giorgos P Argyropoulos)The Case for Neanderthal Language — How Strong is It? (Sverker Johansson)Meanings of Touching Object Parts in Pointing (Harumi Kobayashi and Tetsuya Yasuda)Robustness as a Design Feature of Speech Communication (Bodo Winter and Morten H Christiansen)The Exponent of Zipf's Law in Language Ontogeny (Jaume Baixeries, Ramon Ferrer-i-Cancho and Brita Elvevåg)and other papers Readership: Graduate students, academics and researchers working on the evolution of language, artificial intelligence, genetics and psychology. Keywords:Language Evolution;Evolution of Language;EVOLANG;Linguistics

The Evolution Of Language

Author : Andrew D. M. Smith
ISBN : 9789814295215
Genre : Computers
File Size : 64. 78 MB
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This volume comprises refereed papers and abstracts of the 8th International Conference on the Evolution of Language (EVOLANG8), held in Utrecht on 1417 April 2010. As the leading international conference in the field, the biennial EVOLANG meeting is characterized by an invigorating, multidisciplinary approach to the origins and evolution of human language, and brings together researchers from many subject areas, including anthropology, archaeology, biology, cognitive science, computer science, genetics, linguistics, neuroscience, palaeontology, primatology and psychology. The latest theoretical, experimental and modelling research on language evolution is presented in this collection, including contributions from many leading scientists in the field.

Primate Communication And Human Language

Author : Anne Vilain
ISBN : 9789027287311
Genre : Science
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After a long period where it has been conceived as iconoclastic and almost forbidden, the question of language origins is now at the centre of a rich debate, confronting acute proposals and original theories. Most importantly, the debate is nourished by a large set of experimental data from disciplines surrounding language. The editors of the present book have gathered researchers from various fields, with the common objective of taking as seriously as possible the search for continuities from non-human primate vocal and gestural communication systems to human speech and language, in a multidisciplinary perspective combining ethology, neuroscience, developmental psychology and linguistics, as well as computer science and robotics. New data and theoretical elaborations on the emergence of referential communication and language are debated here by some of the most creative scientists in the world.

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