research misconduct policy in biomedicine beyond the bad apple approach basic bioethics

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Research Misconduct Policy In Biomedicine

Author : Barbara K. Redman
ISBN : 9780262019811
Genre : MEDICAL
File Size : 63. 11 MB
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Federal regulations that govern research misconduct in biomedicine have not been able to prevent an ongoing series of high-profile cases of fabricating, falsifying, or plagiarizing scientific research. In this book, Barbara Redman looks critically at current research misconduct policy and proposes a new approach that emphasizes institutional context and improved oversight. Current policy attempts to control risk at the individual level. But Redman argues that a fair and effective policy must reflect the context in which the behavior in question is embedded. As journalists who covered many research misconduct cases observed, the roots of fraud "lie in the barrel, not in the bad apples that occasionally roll into view." Drawing on literature in related fields -- including moral psychology, the policy sciences, the organizational sciences, and law -- as well as analyses of misconduct cases, Redman considers research misconduct from various perspectives. She also examines in detail a series of clinical research cases in which repeated misconduct went undetected and finds laxity of oversight, little attention to harm done, and inadequate correction of the scientific record. Study questions enhance the book's value for graduate and professional courses in research ethics. Redman argues that the goals of any research misconduct policy should be to protect scientific capital (knowledge, scientists, institutions, norms of science), support fair competition, contain harms to end users and to the public trust, and enable science to meet its societal obligations.

The Myth Of The Moral Brain

Author : Harris Wiseman
ISBN : 9780262333665
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 50. 60 MB
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Throughout history, humanity has been seen as being in need of improvement, most pressingly in need of moral improvement. Today, in what has been called the beginnings of "the golden age of neuroscience," laboratory findings claim to offer insights into how the brain "does" morality, even suggesting that it is possible to make people more moral by manipulating their biology. Can "moral bioenhancement" -- using technological or pharmaceutical means to boost the morally desirable and remove the morally problematic -- bring about a morally improved humanity? In The Myth of the Moral Brain, Harris Wiseman argues that moral functioning is immeasurably complex, mediated by biology but not determined by it. Morality cannot be engineered; there is no such thing as a "moral brain."Wiseman takes a distinctively interdisciplinary approach, drawing on insights from philosophy, biology, theology, and clinical psychology. He considers philosophical rationales for moral enhancement, and the practical realities they come up against; recent empirical work, including studies of the cognitive and behavioral effects of oxytocin, serotonin, and dopamine; and traditional moral education, in particular the influence of religious thought, belief, and practice. Arguing that morality involves many interacting elements, Wiseman proposes an integrated bio-psycho-social approach to the consideration of moral enhancement. Such an approach would show that, by virtue of their sheer numbers, social and environmental factors are more important in shaping moral functioning than the neurobiological factors with which they are interwoven.

Human Subjects Research Regulation

Author : I. Glenn Cohen
ISBN : 9780262027465
Genre : Law
File Size : 27. 42 MB
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Experts from different disciplines offer novel ideas for improving research oversight and protection of human subjects.

Ethics In Everyday Places

Author : Tom Koch
ISBN : 9780262037211
Genre : Medical
File Size : 40. 7 MB
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Cultural realities: ethics, values and morals -- Moral stress, distress, and injury -- An ethnography of ethics -- Ethics, geography, and mapping: the failure of the simple -- The tobacco problem -- The morals in the map: stress and distress -- Moral communities and their members -- Mapping poverty: ethics and morals -- An educational example -- Mapping justice as transportation -- Ethics and transplantation -- The ethics of scale, the scale of distress -- It's ... complex

Specimen Science

Author : Suzanne M. Rivera
ISBN : 9780262036108
Genre : Medical
File Size : 83. 56 MB
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Advances in medicine often depend on the effective collection, storage, research use, and sharing of human biological specimens and associated data. But what about the sources of such specimens? When a blood specimen is drawn from a vein in your arm, is that specimen still you? Is it your property, intellectual or otherwise? Should you be allowed not only to consent to its use in research but also to specify under what circumstances it may be used? These and other questions are at the center of a vigorous debate over the use of human biospecimens in research. In this book, experts offer legal, regulatory, and ethical perspectives on balancing social benefit and human autonomy in biospecimen research. After discussing the background to current debates as well as several influential cases, including that of Henrietta Lacks, the contributors consider the rights, obligations, risks, and privacy of the specimen source; different types of informed consent under consideration (broad, blanket, and specific); implications for special patient and researcher communities; and the governance of biospecimen repositories and the responsibilities of investigators. ContributorsRebecca A. Anderson, Heide Aungs, Avery Avrakotos, Mark Barnes, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Benjamin Berkman, Barbara E. Bierer, Mark A. Borreliz, Jeffrey R. Botkin, Dan Brock, Ellen Wright Clayton, I. Glenn Cohen, Lisa Eckstein, Barbara J. Evans, Emily Chi Fogler, Nanibaa' A. Garrison, Pamela Gavin, Aaron J. Goldenberg, Christine Grady, Kate Gallin Heffernan, Marylana Saadeh Helou, Sara Chandros Hull, Elisa A. Hurley, Steven Joffe, Erin P. Johnson, Julie Kaneshiro, Aaron S. Kesselheim, Isaac Kohane, David Korn, Russell Korobkin, Bernard Lo, Geoffrey Lomax, Kimberly Hensle Lowrance, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Bradley A. Malin, Karen J. Maschke, Eric M. Meslin, P. Pearl O'Rourke, Quinn T. Ostrom, David Peloquin, Rebecca Pentz, Jane Perlmutter, Ivor Pritchard, Suzanne M. Rivera, Erin Rothwell, Andrew P. Rusczek, Rachel E. Sachs, Carol Weil, David Wendler, Benjamin Wilfond, Susan M. Wolf

The Politics Of Adoption

Author : Bruno Perreau
ISBN : 9780262027229
Genre : Family & Relationships
File Size : 26. 96 MB
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"This work originally appeared under the title Penser l'adoption, Presses Universitaires de France, 2012."

Getting To Good

Author : Arthur L. Caplan
ISBN : 9783319513584
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68. 39 MB
Format : PDF
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This book represents the first comprehensive, gold standard reader on research integrity in the biomedical sciences. Now more than ever, the responsible conduct of research (RCR) has become critically important as new technologies affect research practices in both positive and negative ways. Since learning to do science and practicing it brings researchers into contact with a vast array of ethical issues, it is critical to know the standards and how they are evolving. Indeed, research integrity requires scientists at all levels to operate ethically in a system that supports ethical practice. This unique, foundational text covers all the relevant areas -- subject protection, research misconduct and conflict of interest as well as newly quantified concerns about research bias and non-reproducibility, as well as other unique issues. Developed by renowned experts, this compelling title discusses the full range of practices and policies that should support research that is honestly produced and disseminated. It also specifically incorporates topics noted by the National Institutes of Health as essential and required for training in RCR. Getting to Good – Research Integrity in the Biomedical Sciences is a major contribution to the literature on bioethics and will serve as an invaluable resource for all researchers, students, administrators and professionals interested in research ethics and integrity.

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