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Safety Of Nanoparticles

Author : Thomas J. Webster
ISBN : 0387786082
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 9 MB
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In spite of the potential use of nanomaterials as tissue engineering devices, implants, biosensors, drug delivery devices, etc., there has yet to be a compilation of the risks associated with the in vivo use of nanomaterials. There are numerous and well-known risks because of the size of nanoparticles. For example, nanoparticles can cross cell membranes and enter the cytoplasm undetected. The aim of this book is to provide one of the first (if not the first) detailed views of how cells and tissues in the body deal with nanoparticles. This is important not only for implantable devices, but also for the manufacturing of nanophase materials when particles can be inhaled or enter the body through the skin. Only by compiling research at the intersection of nanoparticles and biological processes can we determine if nanophase materials are safe to be manufactured, handled, and/or implanted for various medical applications.

Nanotechnology Toxicological Issues And Environmental Safety

Author : P.P. Simeonova
ISBN : 9781402060762
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66. 2 MB
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This book provides a summary of the state-of-art knowledge on nanomaterials and nanoparticles. It examines toxicological issues, risk assessment and control measures, public participation and educational/ethical issues, as well as institutional mechanisms and status reports from various countries. Coverage also details collaborations in the field of nanotechnology regarding safe application and development.

The Elsi Handbook Of Nanotechnology

Author : Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
ISBN : 9781119591603
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61. 94 MB
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This Handbook focuses on the recent advancements in Safety, Risk, Ethical Society and Legal Implications (ESLI) as well as its commercialization of nanotechnology, such as manufacturing. Nano is moving out of its relaxation phase of scientific route, and as new products go to market, organizations all over the world, as well as the general public, are discussing the environmental and health issues associated with nanotechnology. Nongovernmental science organizations have long since reacted; however, now the social sciences have begun to study the cultural portent of nanotechnology. Societal concerns and their newly constructed concepts, show nanoscience interconnected with the economy, ecology, health, and governance. This handbook addresses these new challenges and is divided into 7 sections: Nanomaterials and the Environment; Life Cycle Environmental Implications of Nanomanufacturing; Bioavailability and Toxicity of Manufactured Nanoparticles in Terrestrial Environments; Occupational Health Hazards of Nanoparticles; Ethical Issues in Nanotechnology; Commercialization of Nanotechnology; Legalization of Nanotechnology.

Safety Aspects Of Engineered Nanomaterials

Author : Wolfgang Luther
ISBN : 9789814364867
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 41 MB
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With contributions from leading researchers and government experts involved with the safety assessment of nanomaterials, this book gives an up-to-date review on the safety of engineered nanomaterials and their impact on health and the environment. It covers the whole nanomaterial life cycle—from production, transport, and distribution in the environment to biological responses and toxicology. The book also addresses occupational safety measures as well as societal and economic contexts, such as medical applications of nanomaterials, public acceptance, and risk communication and management.

Environmental And Safety Impacts Of Nanotechnology

Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science
ISBN : PSU:000058162248
Genre : Electronic government information
File Size : 51. 82 MB
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Health And Environmental Safety Of Nanomaterials

Author : James Njuguna
ISBN : 9780857096678
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77. 97 MB
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Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials addresses concerns about the impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health, and examines the safety of specific nanomaterials. Understanding the unique chemical and physical properties of nanostructures has led to many developments in the applications of nanocomposite materials. While these materials have applications in a huge range of areas, their potential for toxicity must be thoroughly understood. Part one introduces the properties of nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites, and questions whether they are more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Part two looks at the release and exposure of nanomaterials. The text covers sampling techniques and data analysis methods used to assess nanoparticle exposure, as well as protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites. It explains characterization techniques of airborne nanoparticles and life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials. Part three focuses on the safety of certain nanomaterials, including nanolayered silicates, carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides. In particular, it explores the potential ecotoxicological hazards associated with the different structures of carbon nanotubes and the safe recycling of inorganic and carbon nanoparticles. The final two chapters address the risks of nanomaterials in fire conditions: their thermal degradation, flammability, and toxicity in different fire scenarios. This is a scientific guide with technical background for professionals using nanomaterials in industry, scientists, academicians, research scholars, and polymer engineers. It also offers a deep understanding of the subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students. Introduces the properties of nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites, and questions whether they are more toxic than their bulk counterparts Covers sampling techniques and data analysis methods used to assess nanoparticle exposure, as well as protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites Explores the potential ecotoxicological hazards associated with the different structures of carbon nanotubes and the safe recycling of inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

Summary Of Activities Of The Committee On Science January 4 2007 109 2 House Report 109 748

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105050440408
Genre :
File Size : 49. 33 MB
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Nanomedicine And Neurosciences Advantages Limitations And Safety Aspects

Author : Giovanni Tosi
ISBN : 9781681084930
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 10 MB
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Frontiers in Nanomedicine offers an up-to-date understanding of nanomaterials to readers having clinical or biomolecular research interests. Scientists, both aspiring and experienced, will find, in each volume, a comprehensive overview of current molecular strategies for using nanoscale materials in medicine. Nanomedicine and Neurosciences: Advantages, Limitations and Safety Aspects presents different aspects of nanomedicine applied to neuroscience for the diagnosis of disease and the role of nanoparticles in targeted drug delivery systems for neurodegenerative disorders. Topics covered in this volume cover the physiology of neurodegeneration, targeted therapies for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, blood brain barrier drug delivery systems, in vivo studies of drug nanoconjugates, nanomedicine safety, and more.

Report Of The Oecd Workshop On The Safety Of Manufactured Nanomaterials

Author :
ISBN : UIUC:30112109106788
Genre : Nanotechnology
File Size : 86. 49 MB
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Exposure Assessment And Safety Considerations For Working With Engineered Nanoparticles

Author : Michael J. Ellenbecker
ISBN : 9780470467060
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 25 MB
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While invaluable for their uses in medicine as a drug delivery system or as an imaging agent in cancer detection, nanoparticles do present possible medical and environmental dangers. Due to the thousands of commercial and medical applications for engineered nanoparticles currently available or under development, guidelines for evaluating and controlling exposure to engineered nanoparticles are essential. Designed for EHS professionals working with nanoparticles, this important reference outlines the acceptable levels of exposure to nanoparticles and describes methods for evaluating and controlling worker exposure to engineered nanoparticles. With case studies on various nanoparticle exposures, the book sheds light on the toxicity of such nanoparticles as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, TiO2, and metal nanoparticles as well as routes of exposure, such as skin and the respiratory system.

Nanomaterials Ecotoxicity Safety And Public Perception

Author : Mahendra Rai
ISBN : 9783030051440
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34. 91 MB
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The environment is prone to suffer pollution and toxic insult from generations of nanomaterials as well from accidental releases during production, transportation, and disposal operations. The NMs could interact with and cause adverse biological effects at cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels. Assessing potential environmental/ecological risks requires quality information on transport and fate of nanoparticles in the environment, exposures and vulnerabilities of organisms to the nanomaterials and standard methods for assessing toxicity for aquatic or terrestrial organisms and human health. The systematic risk characterization and evaluation of the safety of nanomaterials require a multidisciplinary approach and convergence of knowledge and efforts from researchers and experts from toxicology, biotechnology, materials science, chemistry, physics, engineering, and other branches of life sciences. Although studies are beginning to appear in the literature addressing the toxicity of various nanomaterials and their potential for exposure, at this stage definitive statements regarding the impacts of nanomaterials on human health and the environment remain sketchy requiring an increased level of precautions with regard to nanomaterials, as has happened with other emerging contaminants and technologies (e.g., biotechnology). The need for an increased level of understanding the perception of risk and of benefits will vary and is likely to influence public, regulatory, and non-governmental activities regarding risk and benefit evaluations. Systematic identification and assessment of the risks posed by any new technology are essential. A prudent, integrated, and holistic approach is required to develop best practices based on the scientific understanding about what we know and what we don’t know but need to know. Nanomaterials addresses key issues of ecotoxicological actions and effects of nanomaterials on life and environment, their threats, vulnerability, risks, and public perception. The readers learn to read bad news objectively and think about and search for ecological ‘green’ solutions to current environmental and ecological problems with blue, grey, brown, and red shades for building a sustainable ecosystem. It shows how this molecular terrain is a common ground for interdisciplinary research and education that will be an essential component of science, engineering and technology in the future. The book is divided into three sections. Section I includes general topics related to ecotoxicity of nanomaterials to microbes, plants, human and environment. Section 2 incorporates risks generated by the use of nanomaterials. Section 3 discusss safety issues and the public.

Nanomaterials Safety

Author : Shyamasree Ghosh
ISBN : 9783110578362
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 42 MB
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This monograph summarizes the current knowledge on potential health hazards induced by nanomaterials from different sources and sort such as food, drugs and silver nanoparticles. Methods to assess toxicity as well as known effects on the genome, neuronal and respiratory system are discussed. Besides the impact on human and animal life the books also addresses aquatic toxicity.

Nanotechnology Characterization Tools For Environment Health And Safety

Author : Challa S.S.R. Kumar
ISBN : 9783662596005
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71. 43 MB
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Tenth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Nanotechnology Characterization Tools for Environment, Health, and Safety. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

Rna Nanoparticle As A Safe And Effective Drug Delivery Platform For Cancer Therapy

Author : Sijin Guo
ISBN : OCLC:1180291735
Genre : Cancer
File Size : 46. 82 MB
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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that focuses on the nanostructure design, construction, and application in biotechnology and biomedicine. Unlike other biomacromolecules, RNA is more flexible in structure and more versatile in functionality. On the other hand, RNA is a naturally-occurring biopolymer, making them more biocompatible compared to other nanomaterials. Thus, RNA can serve as a building block to construct nanoparticles as drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This dissertation primarily describes a fundamental study that explores the immune-compatibility of RNA nanoparticles, as well as the use of thermostable RNA nanoparticles to specifically deliver therapeutics for efficient cancer therapy without causing toxicity. Firstly, RNA polygons that have identical size but varying shapes, or same shape but with different sizes were constructed as study model. The RNA nanoparticles were found to be immunologically inert, indicating that RNA nanoparticles are safe drug carriers without triggering immune responses. On the other hand, they can elicit significant immunomodulation by extending the nanoparticles with special sequences. Specifically, this immunomodulation was found to be size, shape, sequence-dependent, demonstrating the potential of using RNA nanoparticles in immunotherapy. Secondly, the use of a thermostable RNA nanoparticle for solubilizing and high-density loading chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer inhibition is reported. Small chemotherapeutic drugs possess significant anti-cancer activity, but their clinical applications were greatly limited by the poor biocompatibility such as water-insolubility. By chemically conjugating water-insoluble drugs to RNA, the RNA nanoparticles dramatically improved drug water-solubility. An ultra-thermostable RNA four-way junction nanoparticle was able to covalently load twenty-four copies of paclitaxel without nanoparticle dissociation or unfolding. After intravenous administration, the resulting RNA-paclitaxel nanoparticles harboring specific cancer targeting ligand significantly inhibited breast cancer tumor in mice. The toxicity in organs and immune responses in mice were almost undetectable. Besides paclitaxel, this RNA-drug conjugation was applied to another anti-cancer drug, camptothecin, and showed significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth. Furthermore, an acid labile linker was developed within RNA-drug conjugates, aiming at controlling pH-responsive drug release in acidic tumor environment to improve drug efficacy. Thirdly, a three-dimensional RNA cube was constructed and explored as a multi-functional drug carrier by incorporation with different therapeutic modules. This multi-functional RNA cube is able to load chemotherapeutic drug, immunostimulatory molecule, or short-interfering RNA for enhanced cellular effects in vitro. What’s more, the RNA cube can be manipulated to become reconfigurable, suggesting the great potential of drug encapsulation and release for in vivo applications. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that RNA nanoparticles can serve as a biocompatible drug delivery platform for effective cancer therapy with favorable safety profile.

Nanoparticles And The Immune System

Author : Diana Boraschi
ISBN : 9780124079212
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34. 93 MB
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Nanoparticles and the Immune System provides a reference text for toxicologists, materials scientists and regulators and covers the key issues of interaction of nanomaterials with the immune system. The book discusses several issues that toxicologists and regulators need to know: identification of endpoints that are relevant for assessing hazard, evaluating impact on immunologically frail populations, and how to evaluate chronic/cumulative effects. In addition, the book addresses the possibility of turning the immunomodulating properties of certain nanomaterials to our advantage for amplifying immune responses in certain diseases or preventive strategies (e.g. vaccination). Identifies endpoints relevant for assessing hazardous situations, evaluating the impact on immunologically frail populations and how to gauge chronic/cumulative effects Raises the awareness of the importance of knowing the effects of the new nanomaterials on our immune system

Animal Biotechnology

Author : Ashish S. Verma
ISBN : 9780128117101
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 13 MB
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Animal Biotechnology: Models in Discovery and Translation, Second Edition, provides a helpful guide to anyone seeking a thorough review of animal biotechnology and its application to human disease and welfare. This updated edition covers vital fundamentals, including animal cell cultures, genome sequencing analysis, epigenetics and animal models, gene expression, and ethics and safety concerns, along with in-depth examples of implications for human health and prospects for the future. New chapters cover animal biotechnology as applied to various disease types and research areas, including in vitro fertilization, human embryonic stem cell research, biosensors, enteric diseases, biopharming, organ transplantation, tuberculosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and more. Highlights the latest biomedical applications of genetically modified and cloned animals, with a focus on cancer and infectious diseases Offers first-hand accounts of the use of biotechnology tools, including molecular markers, stem cells, animal cultures, tissue engineering, ADME and CAM Assay Includes case studies that illustrate safety assessment issues, ethical considerations, and intellectual property rights associated with the translation of animal biotechnology studies

Carbon Nanomaterials For Agri Food And Environmental Applications

Author : Kamel Ahmed Abd-Elsalam
ISBN : 9780128197868
Genre :
File Size : 85. 48 MB
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Carbon Nanomaterials for Agri-food and Environmental Applications discusses the characterization, processing and applications of carbon-based nanostructured materials in the agricultural and environmental sectors. Sections discuss the synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes, the technological developments in environmental applications of carbon-based nanomaterials, and agri-food applications. The book also covers the toxic effects of engineered carbon nanoparticles on the environment, and in plants and animals. Finally, quality control and risk management are addressed to assess health and environmental risks. This is an applicable book for graduate students, researchers and those in industrial sectors of science and technology who want to learn more about carbon nanomaterials. Compares a range of carbon-based nanomaterials, showing how they are used for a range of agricultural and environmental applications Discusses the challenges and toxicity of different types of carbon-based nanomaterials for environmental and agricultural applications Explores when different classes of nanomaterial should be used in different environments

Agriculture Rural Development Food And Drug Administration And Related Agencies Appropriations For 2013

Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies
ISBN : MINN:31951D03577159Q
Genre : United States
File Size : 82. 81 MB
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Nanotechnology Commercialization

Author : Takuya Tsuzuki
ISBN : 9789814303293
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 42. 24 MB
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In terms of commercialization, nanomaterials occupy a unique place in nanotechnology. Engineered nanomaterials, especially nanoparticulate materials, are the leading sector in nanotechnology commercialization. In addition, the nanomaterial sector has attracted much more heated debate than any other nanotechnology sector with regard to safety, regulation, standardization, and ethics. This is the first book on nanotechnology commercialization that deals exclusively with nanomaterials. It provides overviews of the current trends in, and the issues associated with, the commercialization of nanomaterials by some of the foremost nanotechnology experts in their fields.

Nanotechnology In Agriculture And Food Science

Author : Monique A. V. Axelos
ISBN : 9783527339891
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 47 MB
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A comprehensive overview of the current state of this highly relevant topic. An interdisciplinary team of researchers reports on the opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the agriculture and food sector, highlighting the scientific, technical, regulatory, safety, and societal impacts. They also discuss the perspectives for the future, and provide insights into ways of assuring safety so as to obtain confidence for the consumer, as well as an overview of the innovations and applications. Essential reading for materials and agricultural scientists, food chemists and technologists, as well as toxicologists and ecotoxicologists.

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