service-life-estimation-and-extension-of-civil-engineering-structures

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Service Life Estimation And Extension Of Civil Engineering Structures

Author : Vistasp M. Karbhari
ISBN : 9780857090928
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 45. 82 MB
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Service life estimation is an area of growing importance in civil engineering both for determining the remaining service life of civil engineering structures and for designing new structural systems with well-defined periods of functionality. Service life estimation and extension of civil engineering structures provides valuable information on the development and use of newer and more durable materials and methods of construction, as well as the development and use of new techniques of estimating service life. Part one discusses using fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites to extend the service-life of civil engineering structures. It considers the key issues in the use of FRP composites, examines the possibility of extending the service life of structurally deficient and deteriorating concrete structures and investigates the uncertainties of using FRP composites in the rehabilitation of civil engineering structures. Part two discusses estimating the service life of civil engineering structures including modelling service life and maintenance strategies and probabilistic methods for service life estimation. It goes on to investigate non-destructive evaluation and testing (NDE/NDT) as well as databases and knowledge-based systems for service life estimation of rehabilitated civil structures and pipelines. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors Service life estimation and extension of civil engineering structures is an invaluable resource to academics, civil engineers, construction companies, infrastructure providers and all those with an interest in improving the service life, safety and reliability of civil engineering structures. A single source of information on the service life of reinforced concrete and fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) rehabilitated structures Examines degradation mechanisms in composites for rehabilitation considering uncertainties in FRP reliability Provides an overview of probabilistic methods for rehabilitation and service life estimation of corroded structures

Rehabilitation Of Pipelines Using Fiber Reinforced Polymer Frp Composites

Author : Vistasp M. Karbhari
ISBN : 9780857096920
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 81. 44 MB
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Rehabilitation of Pipelines Using Fibre-reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites presents information on this critical component of industrial and civil infrastructures, also exploring the particular challenges that exist in the monitor and repair of pipeline systems. This book reviews key issues and techniques in this important area, including general issues such as the range of techniques using FRP composites and how they compare with the use of steel sleeves. In addition, the book discusses particular techniques, such as sleeve repair, patching, and overwrap systems. Reviews key issues and techniques in the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as a flexible and cost-effective means to repair aging, corroded, or damaged pipelines Examines general issues, including the range of techniques using FRP composites and how they compare with the use of steel sleeves Discusses particular techniques such as sleeve repair, patching, and overwrap systems

Eco Efficient Repair And Rehabilitation Of Concrete Infrastructures

Author : Fernando Pacheco-Torgal
ISBN : 9780081021828
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 83. 51 MB
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Eco-efficient Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Infrastructures provides an updated state-of-the-art review on eco-efficient repair and rehabilitation of concrete infrastructure. The first section focuses on deterioration assessment methods, and includes chapters on stress wave assessment, ground-penetrating radar, monitoring of corrosion, SHM using acoustic emission and optical fiber sensors. Other sections discuss the development and application of several new innovative repair and rehabilitation materials, including geopolymer concrete, sulfoaluminate cement-based concrete, engineered cementitious composites (ECC) based concrete, bacteria-based concrete, concrete with encapsulated polyurethane, and concrete with super absorbent polymer (SAPs), amongst other topics. Final sections focus on crucial design aspects, such as quality control, including lifecycle and cost analysis with several related case studies on repair and rehabilitation. The book will be an essential reference resource for materials scientists, civil and structural engineers, architects, structural designers and contractors working in the construction industry. Delivers the latest research findings with contributions from leading international experts Provides fully updated information on the European standard on materials for concrete repair (EN 1504) Includes an entire sections on the state-of-the-art in NDT, innovative repair and rehabilitation materials, as well as LCC and LCA information

Case Studies Of Rehabilitation Repair Retrofitting And Strengthening Of Structures

Author : Mourad M. Bakhoum
ISBN : 9783857481246
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 55. 25 MB
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Bridge Engineering Handbook

Author : Wai-Fah Chen
ISBN : 9781439852330
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 85. 52 MB
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Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subjec

Understanding The Rheology Of Concrete

Author : N Roussel
ISBN : 9780857095282
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 37 MB
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Estimating, modelling, controlling and monitoring the flow of concrete is a vital part of the construction process, as the properties of concrete before it has set can have a significant impact on performance. This book provides a detailed overview of the rheological behaviour of concrete, including measurement techniques, the impact of mix design, and casting. Part one begins with two introductory chapters dealing with the rheology and rheometry of complex fluids, followed by chapters that examine specific measurement and testing techniques for concrete. The focus of part two is the impact of mix design on the rheological behaviour of concrete, looking at additives including superplasticizers and viscosity agents. Finally, chapters in part three cover topics related to casting, such as thixotropy and formwork pressure. With its distinguished editor and expert team of contributors, Understanding the rheology of concrete is an essential reference for researchers, materials specifiers, architects and designers in any section of the construction industry that makes use of concrete, and will also benefit graduate and undergraduate students of civil engineering, materials and construction. Provides a detailed overview of the rheological behaviour of concrete, including measurement techniques, casting and the impact of mix design The estimating, modelling, controlling and monitoring of concrete flow is comprehensively discussed Chapters examine specific measurement and testing techniques for concrete, the impact of mix design on the rheological behaviour of concrete, particle packaging and viscosity-enhancing admixtures

Life Cycle Of Structures Under Uncertainty

Author : Dan M. Frangopol
ISBN : 9780429624940
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 33. 24 MB
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Life-cycle analysis is a systematic tool for efficient and effective service life management of deteriorating structures. In the last few decades, theoretical and practical approaches for life-cycle performance and cost analysis have been developed extensively due to increased demand on structural safety and service life extension. This book presents the state-of-the-art in life-cycle analysis and maintenance optimization for fatigue-sensitive structures. Both theoretical background and practical applications have been provided for academics, engineers and researchers. Concepts and approaches of life-cycle performance and cost analysis developed in recent decades are presented. The major topics covered include (a) probabilistic concepts of life-cycle performance and cost analysis, (b) inspection, monitoring and maintenance for fatigue cracks, (c) estimation of fatigue crack detection, (d) optimum inspection and monitoring planning, (e) multi-objective life-cycle optimization, and (f) decision making in life-cycle analysis. Life-cycle optimization covered in the book considers probability of fatigue crack detection, fatigue crack damage detection time, maintenance times, probability of failure, service life and total life-cycle cost. For the practical application and integration of recently developed approaches for inspection and maintenance planning, efficient and effective multi-objective optimization and decision making are presented. This book will help engineers engaged in civil and marine structures including students, researchers and practitioners with reliable and cost-effective maintenance planning of fatigue-sensitive structures, and to develop more advanced approaches and techniques in the field of life-cycle maintenance optimization and safety of structures under various aging and deteriorating conditions. Key Features: Provides the state-of-the-art in life-cycle cost analysis and optimization for fatigue-sensitive structures Provides a solid foundation of theoretical backgrounds and practical applications both for academics and practicing engineers and researchers Covers illustrative examples and recent development for optimum service life management Deals with various structures such as bridges and ships subjected to fatigue .

Developments In Fiber Reinforced Polymer Frp Composites For Civil Engineering

Author : Nasim Uddin
ISBN : 9780857098955
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38. 8 MB
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The use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials has had a dramatic impact on civil engineering techniques over the past three decades. FRPs are an ideal material for structural applications where high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios are required. Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering outlines the latest developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites and their applications in civil engineering. Part one outlines the general developments of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) use, reviewing recent advancements in the design and processing techniques of composite materials. Part two outlines particular types of fiber-reinforced polymers and covers their use in a wide range of civil engineering and structural applications, including their use in disaster-resistant buildings, strengthening steel structures and bridge superstructures. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Developments in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for civil engineering is an essential text for researchers and engineers in the field of civil engineering and industries such as bridge and building construction. Outlines the latest developments in fiber-reinforced polymer composites and their applications in civil engineering Reviews recent advancements in the design and processing techniques of composite materials Covers the use of particular types of fiber-reinforced polymers in a wide range of civil engineering and structural applications

Safety And Performance Concept Reliability Assessment Of Concrete Structures

Author : fib Fédération internationale du béton
ISBN : 9782883941267
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86. 86 MB
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Concrete structures have been built for more than 100 years. At first, reinforced concrete was used for buildings and bridges, even for those with large spans. Lack of methods for structural analysis led to conservative and reliable design. Application of prestressed concrete started in the 40s and strongly developed in the 60s. The spans of bridges and other structures like halls, industrial structures, stands, etc. grew significantly larger. At that time, the knowledge of material behaviour, durability and overall structural performance was substantially less developed than it is today. In many countries statically determined systems with a fragile behavior were designed for cast in situ as well as precast structures. Lack of redundancy resulted in a low level of robustness in structural systems. In addition, the technical level of individual technologies (e.g. grouting of prestressed cables) was lower than it is today. The number of concrete structures, including prestressed ones, is extremely high. Over time and with increased loading, the necessity of maintaining safety and performance parameters is impossible without careful maintenance, smaller interventions, strengthening and even larger reconstructions. Although some claim that unsatisfactory structures should be replaced by new ones, it is often impossible, as authorities, in general, have only limited resources. Most structures have to remain in service, probably even longer than initially expected. In order to keep the existing concrete structures in an acceptable condition, the development of methods for monitoring, inspection and assessment, structural identification, nonlinear analysis, life cycle evaluation and safety and prediction of the future behaviour, etc. is necessary. The scatter of individual input parameters must be considered as a whole. This requires probabilistic approaches to individual partial problems and to the overall analysis. The members of the fib Task Group 2.8 “Safety and performance concepts” wrote, on the basis of the actual knowledge and experience, a comprehensive document that provides crucial knowledge for existing structures, which is also applicable to new structures. This guide to good practice is divided into 10 basic chapters dealing with individual issues that are critical for activities associated with preferably existing concrete structures. Bulletin 86 starts with the specification of the performance-based requirements during the entire lifecycle. The risk issues are described in chapter two. An extensive part is devoted to structural reliability, including practical engineering approaches and reliability assessment of existing structures. Safety concepts for design consider the lifetime of structures and summarise safety formats from simple partial safety factors to develop approaches suitable for application in sophisticated, probabilistic, non-linear analyses. Testing for design and the determination of design values from the tests is an extremely important issue. This is especially true for the evaluation of existing structures. Inspection and monitoring of existing structures are essential for maintenance, for the prediction of remaining service life and for the planning of interventions. Chapter nine presents probabilistically-based models for material degradation processes. Finally, case studies are presented in chapter ten. The results of the concrete structures monitoring as well as their application for assessment and prediction of their future behaviour are shown. The risk analysis of highway bridges was based on extensive monitoring and numerical evaluation programs. Case studies perfectly illustrate the application of the methods presented in the Bulletin. The information provided in this guide is very useful for practitioners and scientists. It provides the reader with general procedures, from the specification of requirements, monitoring, assessment to the prediction of the structures’ lifecycles. However, one must have a sufficiently large amount of experimental and other data (e.g. construction experience) in order to use these methods correctly. This data finally allows for a statistical evaluation. As it is shown in case studies, extensive monitoring programs are necessary. The publication of this guide and other documents developed within the fib will hopefully help convince the authorities responsible for safe and fluent traffic on bridges and other structures that the costs spent in monitoring are first rather small, and second, they will repay in the form of a serious assessment providing necessary information for decision about maintenance and future of important structures.

Bridge Safety Maintenance And Management In A Life Cycle Context

Author : Dan M. Frangopol
ISBN : 9781000564518
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 66 MB
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During the past two decades, it has been generally acknowledged that life-cycle bridge analysis can be a systematic tool to address efficient and effective bridge management under uncertainty life-cycle management at the bridge network level can lead to an improvement in the allocation of limited financial resources, ensuring the safety and functionality of the bridge network life-cycle management of bridges and bridge networks based on resilience and sustainability can improve their resistance and robustness to extreme events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and hurricanes bridge management should consider the impact of environmental conditions and climate change This book addresses important concepts and approaches developed recently on bridge safety, maintenance, and management in a life-cycle context. Bridge life-cycle performance and cost analysis, prediction, optimization, and decision making under uncertainty are discussed. The major topics include bridge safety and service life prediction; bridge inspection and structural health monitoring; bridge maintenance; life-cycle bridge and bridge network management; optimum life-cycle bridge management planning; resilience and sustainability of bridges and bridge networksunder hazards; and bridge management considering climate change. By providing practical applications of the presented concepts and approaches, this book can help students, researchers, practitioners, infrastructure owners and managers, and transportation officials to build up their knowledge of life-cycle bridge performance and cost management at bothproject level and network level under various deteriorating mechanisms, hazards and climate change effects.

Structures And Infrastructure Systems

Author : Dan M. Frangopol
ISBN : 9781351182782
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28. 90 MB
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Our knowledge to model, design, analyse, maintain, manage and predict the life-cycle performance of infrastructure systems is continually growing. However, the complexity of these systems continues to increase and an integrated approach is necessary to understand the effect of technological, environmental, economic, social, and political interactions on the life-cycle performance of engineering infrastructure. In order to accomplish this, methods have to be developed to systematically analyse structure and infrastructure systems, and models have to be formulated for evaluating and comparing the risks and benefits associated with various alternatives. Civil engineers must maximize the life-cycle benefits of these systems to serve the needs of our society by selecting the best balance of the safety, economy, resilience and sustainability requirements despite imperfect information and knowledge. Within the context of this book, the necessary concepts are introduced and illustrated with applications to civil and marine structures. This book is intended for an audience of researchers and practitioners world‐wide with a background in civil and marine engineering, as well as people working in infrastructure maintenance, management, cost and optimization analysis. The chapters originally published as articles in Structure and Infrastructure Engineering.

Bridge Safety Maintenance Management Life Cycle Resilience And Sustainability

Author : Joan Ramon Casas
ISBN : 9781000798739
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 55. 13 MB
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Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability contains lectures and papers presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management (IABMAS 2022, Barcelona, Spain, 11–15 July, 2022). This e-book contains the full papers of 322 contributions presented at IABMAS 2022, including the T.Y. Lin Lecture, 4 Keynote Lectures, and 317 technical papers from 36 countries all around the world. The contributions deal with the state-of-the-art as well as emerging concepts and innovative applications related to the main aspects of safety, maintenance, management, life-cycle, resilience, sustainability and technological innovations of bridges. Major topics include: advanced bridge design, construction and maintenance approaches, safety, reliability and risk evaluation, life-cycle management, life-cycle, resilience, sustainability, standardization, analytical models, bridge management systems, service life prediction, structural health monitoring, non-destructive testing and field testing, robustness and redundancy, durability enhancement, repair and rehabilitation, fatigue and corrosion, extreme loads, needs of bridge owners, whole life costing and investment for the future, financial planning and application of information and computer technology, big data analysis and artificial intelligence for bridges, among others. This volume provides both an up-to-date overview of the field of bridge engineering and significant contributions to the process of making more rational decisions on bridge safety, maintenance, management, life-cycle, resilience and sustainability of bridges for the purpose of enhancing the welfare of society. The volume serves as a valuable reference to all concerned with and/or involved in bridge structure and infrastructure systems, including students, researchers and practitioners from all areas of bridge engineering.

Advanced Fibre Reinforced Polymer Frp Composites For Structural Applications

Author : J Bai
ISBN : 9780857098641
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 65 MB
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Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have become essential materials for the building of new structures and for the repair of existing infrastructure. Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications provides an overview of different advanced FRP composites and the use of these materials in a variety of application areas. Part one introduces materials used in the creation of advanced FRP composites including polyester, vinylester and epoxy resins. Part two goes on to explore the processing and fabrication of advanced FRP composites and includes chapters on prepreg processing and filament winding processes. Part three highlights properties of advanced FRP composites and explores how performance can be managed and tested. Applications of advanced FRP composites, including bridge engineering, pipe rehabilitation in the oil and gas industry and sustainable energy production, are discussed in part four. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications is a technical resource for researchers and engineers using advanced FRP composites, as well as professionals requiring an understanding of the production and properties of advanced FRP composites, and academics interested in this field. Provides an overview of different advanced FRP composites and the use of these materials in a variety of application areas Introduces materials used in the creation of advanced FRP composites including polyester, vinylester and epoxy resins Explores the processing and fabrication of advanced FRP composites and includes chapters on prepreg processing and filament winding processes

Introduction To Civil Engineering Systems

Author : Samuel Labi
ISBN : 9781118415306
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 70. 47 MB
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This book presents an integrated systems approach to the evaluation, analysis, design, and maintenance of civil engineering systems. Addressing recent concerns about the world's aging civil infrastructure and its environmental impact, the author makes the case for why any civil infrastructure should be seen as part of a larger whole. He walks readers through all phases of a civil project, from feasibility assessment to construction to operations, explaining how to evaluate tasks and challenges at each phase using a holistic approach. Unique coverage of ethics, legal issues, and management is also included.

Advanced Composites In Bridge Construction And Repair

Author : Yail Jimmy Kim
ISBN : 9780857097019
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 80. 38 MB
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Advanced composite materials for bridge structures are recognized as a promising alternative to conventional construction materials such as steel. After an introductory overview and an assessment of the characteristics of bonds between composites and quasi-brittle structures, Advanced Composites in Bridge Construction and Repair reviews the use of advanced composites in the design and construction of bridges, including damage identification and the use of large rupture strain fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. The second part of the book presents key applications of FRP composites in bridge construction and repair, including the use of all-composite superstructures for accelerated bridge construction, engineered cementitious composites for bridge decks, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites for cable-stayed bridges and for repair of deteriorated bridge substructures, and finally the use of FRP composites in the sustainable replacement of ageing bridge superstructures. Advanced Composites in Bridge Construction and Repair is a technical guide for engineering professionals requiring an understanding of the use of composite materials in bridge construction. Reviews key applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in bridge construction and repair Summarizes key recent research in the suitability of advanced composite materials for bridge structures as an alternative to conventional construction materials

Innovative Developments Of Advanced Multifunctional Nanocomposites In Civil And Structural Engineering

Author : Kenneth Loh
ISBN : 9781782423447
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 59. 14 MB
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Innovative Developments of Advanced Multifunctional Nanocomposites in Civil and Structural Engineering focuses on nanotechnology, the innovation and control of materials at 100 nm or smaller length scales, and how they have revolutionized almost all of the various disciplines of science and engineering study. In particular, advances in synthesizing, imaging, and manipulating materials at the nano-scale have provided engineers with a broader array of materials and tools for creating high-performance devices. Nanomaterials possess drastically different properties than those of their bulk counterparts mainly because of their high surface-to-mass ratios and high surface energies/reactivity. For instance, carbon nanotubes have been shown to possess impressive mechanical strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity superior to that of bulk carbon. Whilst nanotechnology has become deeply rooted in electrical, chemical, and materials engineering disciplines, its proliferation into civil engineering did not begin until fairly recently. This book covers that proliferation and the main challenges associated with the integration of nanomaterials and nano-scale design principles into civil and structural engineering. Examines nanotechnology and its application to not only structural engineering, but also transportation, new infrastructure materials, and the applications of nanotechnology to existing structural systems Focuses on how nanomaterials can provide enhanced sensing capabilities and mechanical reinforcement of the original structural material Analyzes experimental and computational work carried out by world-renowned researchers

Developments In Fiber Reinforced Polymer Frp Composites For Civil Engineering

Author : O. Gunes
ISBN : 9780128087688
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36. 34 MB
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Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials have been increasingly used in civil engineering applications in the past two decades. Their wide ranging use, however, is still not realized due to a few fundamental issues including high material costs, relatively short history of applications and the gaps in the development of established standards. Design safety requires that all possible modes and mechanisms of failure are identified, characterized, and accounted for in the design procedures. This chapter provides a review of the failure types encountered in structural engineering applications of FRP and the preventive methods and strategies that have been developed to eliminate or delay such failures. As part of preventive measures, various non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) methods used for monitoring FRP applications are discussed with illustrative examples.

The International Handbook Of Frp Composites In Civil Engineering

Author : Manoochehr Zoghi
ISBN : 9781420003741
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22. 46 MB
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Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have become an integral part of the construction industry because of their versatility, enhanced durability and resistance to fatigue and corrosion, high strength-to-weight ratio, accelerated construction, and lower maintenance and life-cycle costs. Advanced FRP composite materials are also emerging for a wide range of civil infrastructure applications. These include everything from bridge decks, bridge strengthening and repairs, and seismic retrofit to marine waterfront structures and sustainable, energy-efficient housing. The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering brings together a wealth of information on advances in materials, techniques, practices, nondestructive testing, and structural health monitoring of FRP composites, specifically for civil infrastructure. With a focus on professional applications, the handbook supplies design guidelines and standards of practice from around the world. It also includes helpful design formulas, tables, and charts to provide immediate answers to common questions. Organized into seven parts, the handbook covers: FRP fundamentals, including history, codes and standards, manufacturing, materials, mechanics, and life-cycle costs Bridge deck applications and the critical topic of connection design for FRP structural members External reinforcement for rehabilitation, including the strengthening of reinforced concrete, masonry, wood, and metallic structures FRP composites for the reinforcement of concrete structures, including material characteristics, design procedures, and quality assurance–quality control (QA/QC) issues Hybrid FRP composite systems, with an emphasis on design, construction, QA/QC, and repair Quality control, quality assurance, and evaluation using nondestructive testing, and in-service monitoring using structural health monitoring of FRP composites, including smart composites that can actively sense and respond to the environment and internal states FRP-related books, journals, conference proceedings, organizations, and research sources Comprehensive yet concise, this is an invaluable reference for practicing engineers and construction professionals, as well as researchers and students. It offers ready-to-use information on how FRP composites can be more effectively utilized in new construction, repair and reconstruction, and architectural engineering.

Eco Efficient Construction And Building Materials

Author : Fernando Pacheco-Torgal
ISBN : 9780857097729
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 25. 35 MB
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Eco-efficient Construction and Building Materials reviews ways of assessing the environmental impact of construction and building materials. Part one discusses the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to building materials as well as eco-labeling. Part two includes case studies showing the application of LCA methodology to different types of building material, from cement and concrete to wood and adhesives used in building. Part three includes case studies applying LCA methodology to particular structures and components. Reviews ways of assessing the environmental impact of construction and building materials Provides a thorough overview, including strengths and shortcomings, of the life cycle assessment (LCA) and eco-labeling of eco-efficient construction and building materials Includes case studies showing the application of LCA methodology to different types of building material, from cement and concrete to wood and adhesives used in building

The Utilization Of Slag In Civil Infrastructure Construction

Author : George C. Wang
ISBN : 9780081003978
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 62. 21 MB
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The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction strives to integrate the theory, research, and practice of slag utilization, including the production and processing of slags. The topics covered include: production and smelting processes for metals; chemical and physical properties of slags; pretreatment and post-treatment technology to enhance slag properties; potential environmental impact; mechanisms of potential expansion; special testing methods and characteristics; slag processing for aggregate and cementitious applications; suitability of slags for use in specific applications; overall properties of materials containing slags; and commercialization and economics. The focus of the book is on slag utilization technology, with a review of the basic properties and an exploration of how its use in the end product will be technically sound, environment-friendly, and economic. Covers the production, processing, and utilization of a broad range of ferrous, non-ferrous, and non-metallurgical slags Provides information on applicable methods for a particular slag and its utilization to reduce potential environmental impacts and promote natural resource sustainability Presents the overall technology of transferring a slag from the waste stream into a useful materials resource Provides a detailed review of the appropriate utilization of each slag from processing right through to aggregate and cementitious use requirements

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