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The Theory Of Sex Allocation Mpb 18 Volume 18

Author : Eric L. Charnov
ISBN : 9780691210056
Genre : Science
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This book is the first comprehensive treatment of sex allocation from the standpoint of modern evolutionary theory. It shows how the determination of sex ratio, resource allocation to sperm versus egg within simultaneous hermaphroditism, and the evolution of sex reversal can he explained as examples of a single process. The genetical theory, developed mostly with graphical arguments, also specifies when hermaphroditism and dioecy are themselves evolutionary stable. The work balances theory with field and laboratory research, providing critical tests of the theory by empirical studies of sex ratio in parasitoid wasps and mites, sex reversal in shrimp and coral reef fish, and allocation of resources to pollen versus seeds in higher plants. In addition, the author oilers an encyclopedic review of the field and laboratory work of other scientists, reviews many as yet untested hypotheses in sex allocation, and points toward numerous plant and animal systems that hold promise for future tests.

Theoretical Studies On Sex Ratio Evolution

Author : Samuel Karlin
ISBN : 0691084122
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 44 MB
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This book deals with a key area of population genetics: the ratio of the sexes in a population, or the allocation of resources to male versus female reproductive function. Samuel Karlin and Sabin Lessard establish the formal theoretical aspects of the evolution of sex ratio within the constraints of genetic mechanisms of sex determination. Their results generalize and unify existing work on the topic, strengthening previous conceptions in some cases and, in other instances, offering new directions of research. There are two main approaches to understanding the causes and effects of sex ratio. One approach focuses on the optimization and adaptive functions of sex allocation, while the other emphasizes the consequences of genetic sex determination mechanisms. In discussing the utility of these two approaches, Professors Karlin and Lessard examine the principal sex-determining mechanisms and facts involved in sex ratio representations, the various genetic and environmental factors that contribute to adaptive sex expression, and the evolution of sex determining systems and controls. From a population genetic perspective, the authors derive evolutionary properties in support of the high incidence of 1:1 sex ratio in natural populations and investigate the conditions that can explain the occurrence of biased sex ratio.

Sex Allocation

Author : Stuart West
ISBN : 9780691089645
Genre : Science
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Recent decades have witnessed an explosion of theoretical and empirical studies of sex allocation, transforming how we understand the allocation of resources to male and female reproduction in vertebrates, invertebrates, protozoa, and plants. In this landmark book, Stuart West synthesizes the vast literature on sex allocation, providing the conceptual framework the field has been lacking and demonstrating how sex-allocation studies can shed light on broader questions in evolutionary and behavioral biology. West clarifies fundamental misconceptions in the application of theory to empirical data. He examines the field's successes and failures, and describes the research areas where much important work is yet to be done. West reveals how a shared underlying theoretical framework unites findings of sex-ratio variation across a huge range of life forms, from malarial parasites and hermaphroditic worms to sex-changing fish and mammals. He shows how research on sex allocation has been central to many critical questions and controversies in evolutionary and behavioral biology, and he argues that sex-allocation research serves as a key testing ground for different theoretical approaches and can help resolve debates about social evolution, parent-offspring conflict, genomic conflict, and levels of selection. Certain to become the defining book on the subject for the next generation of researchers, Sex Allocation explains why the study of sex allocation provides an ideal model system for advancing our understanding of the constraints on adaptation among all living things in the natural world.

The Theory Of Sex Allocation

Author : Eric L. Charnov
ISBN : 0691082561
Genre : Différences entre sexes
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The Theory Of Sex Allocation

Author : Eric L. Charnov
ISBN : 0608033847
Genre :
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Sex Allocation

Author : Stuart A. West
ISBN : OCLC:1123726961
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Some Mathematical Questions In Biology Sex Allocation And Sex Change

Author : Marc Mangel
ISBN : 0821897179
Genre : Science
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The seven articles in this volume are based on lectures presented at the annual symposium, Some Mathematical Questions in Biology, held in conjunction with the American Institute of Biological Sciences meeting in Toronto, Ontario in August 1989. Sexual selection, sex determination, and sex allocation have been at the center of evolutionary ecology since its inception and have played an important role in the development of many concepts. As this volume demonstrates, many key questions remain to be investigated through a combination of empirical and theoretical work. In addition, questions of sex provide a natural mechanism for crossing the great taxonomic divide by allowing plant and animal researchers to focus on similar kinds of questions using a wide variety of organisms.

Theoretical Studies On Sex Ratio Evolution

Author : Samuel Karlin
ISBN : 0608063029
Genre :
File Size : 59. 22 MB
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Population Genetics And Evolution

Author : Gerdina de Jong
ISBN : 9783642730696
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 80 MB
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At least since the 1940s neo-Darwinism has prevailed as the consensus view in the study of evolution. The mechanism of evolution in this view is natural selection leading to adaptation, working on a substrate of adapta tionally random mutations. As both the study of genetic variation in natural populations, and the study of the mathematical equations of selec tion are reckoned to a field called population genetics, population genetics came to form the core in the theory of evolution. So much so, that the fact that there is more to the theory of evolution than population genetics became somewhat obscured. The genetics of the evolutionary process, or the genetics of evolutionary change, came close to being all of evolutionary biology. In the last 10 years, this dominating position of population genetics within evolutionary biology has been challenged. In evolutionary ecology, optimization theory proved more useful than population genetics for interesting predictions, especially of life history strategies. From develop mental biology, constraints in development and the role of internal regula tion were emphasized. From paleobiology, a proposal was put forward to describe the fossil record and the evolutionary process as a series of punc tuated equilibria; thus exhorting population geneticists to give a plausible account of how such might come about. All these developments tend to obscure the central role of population genetics in evolutionary biology.

Sustainable Agriculture And Rural Livelihoods Vol 1

Author : Dr. Santha Govind, Dr. M. Kavaskar and Dr. D. Vengatesan
ISBN : 9780359581344
Genre :
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Theoretical Studies On Sex Ratio Evolution Mpb 22 Volume 22

Author : Samuel Karlin
ISBN : 9780691210117
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 4 MB
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This book deals with a key area of population genetics: the ratio of the sexes in a population, or the allocation of resources to male versus female reproductive function. Samuel Karlin and Sabin Lessard establish the formal theoretical aspects of the evolution of sex ratio within the constraints of genetic mechanisms of sex determination. Their results generalize and unify existing work on the topic, strengthening previous conceptions in some cases and, in other instances, offering new directions of research. There are two main approaches to understanding the causes and effects of sex ratio. One approach focuses on the optimization and adaptive functions of sex allocation, while the other emphasizes the consequences of genetic sex determination mechanisms. In discussing the utility of these two approaches, Professors Karlin and Lessard examine the principal sex-determining mechanisms and facts involved in sex ratio representations, the various genetic and environmental factors that contribute to adaptive sex expression, and the evolution of sex determining systems and controls. From a population genetic perspective, the authors derive evolutionary properties in support of the high incidence of 1:1 sex ratio in natural populations and investigate the conditions that can explain the occurrence of biased sex ratio.

The Acari

Author : Reinhart Schuster
ISBN : 9789401131025
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 67 MB
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During the Inaugural Meeting of the European Association of Acarol ogists (EURAAC), held in Amsterdam in 1987, it was decided that the holding of a Symposium at regular intervals should be a major objective. With this in view, it was agreed that Professor Reinhart Schuster, the senior editor, be invited to accept the Presidency of the Association and, arising from that Office, to organize the first Symposium in Austria in 1988. There was strong support for a main theme focused on a particular aspect of acarology. From these discussions there emerged the proposal that emphasis be placed on aspects of reproduction, development and life-history strategies of the Acari. These were topics in the forefront of the discipline with exciting developments of interest not only to acarologists but to a wider audience because of the light they cast on fundamental processes in physiology, ecology and evolutionary biology. The object then was to invite a small number of key workers to present extended papers related to the main theme. There were seven of these all of which appear in the book. The remaining 51 contributions were offered papers a number of which fit within the framework of the Symposium theme.

Evo Devo Non Model Species In Cell And Developmental Biology

Author : Waclaw Tworzydlo
ISBN : 9783030234591
Genre : Science
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Evolutionary developmental biology or evo-devo is a field of biological research that compares the underlying mechanisms of developmental processes in different organisms to infer the ancestral condition of these processes and elucidate how they have evolved. It addresses questions about the developmental bases of evolutionary changes and evolution of developmental processes. The book’s content is divided into three parts, the first of which discusses the theoretical background of evo-devo. The second part highlights new and emerging model organisms in the evo-devo field, while the third and last part explores the evo-devo approach in a broad comparative context. To the best of our knowledge, no other book combines these three evo-devo aspects: theoretical considerations, a comprehensive list of emerging model species, and comparative analyses of developmental processes. Given its scope, the book will offer readers a new perspective on the natural diversity of processes at work in cells and during the development of various animal groups, and expand the horizons of seasoned and young researchers alike.

Genetic Structure And Local Adaptation In Natural Insect Populations

Author : Susan Mopper
ISBN : 9781475709025
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 20 MB
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Providing an essential foundation for evolutionary theory, this comprehensive volume examines patterns of genetic variation within natural insect populations, and explores the underlying mechanisms that lead to the genetic divergence of coexisting organisms. In particular, the text investigates current research on finescale genetic structure in natural insect populations. Internationally renowned scientists offer a wealth of current information not previously published. Part I present case studies of adaptive genetic structure in natural insect populations, including a critical discussion of the strenghts and weaknesses of the experimental methods employed. Part II addresses the ecological mechanisms that produce adaptive genetic structure in natural insect populations. Part III describes how behavioral and life-history patterns influence genetic structure. Finally, Part IV combines theoretical and empirical approaches linking genetic structure at the population level with larger-scale patterns of variation, such as host race formation and speciation. This broad-ranging, interdisciplinary source of information supplies a thorough examination of the mechanisms that promote and impede genetic structure in natural insect populations. It is a book that will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students, and to researchers in the fields of ecology, evolution, insect and plant systems, entomology, and population genetics.

Integrating Ecology And Evolution In A Spatial Context

Author : Jonathan Silvertown
ISBN : 0521549337
Genre : Nature
File Size : 72. 13 MB
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Leading population biologists examine ecological and evolutionary issues in the context of space.

The 1991 Conference On Thrips Thysanoptera

Author :
ISBN : MINN:31951D02995934O
Genre : Sugar maple
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The Short Tailed Fruit Bat

Author : Theodore H. Fleming
ISBN : 0226253287
Genre : Nature
File Size : 64. 60 MB
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As dusk settles over the Costa Rican forest, the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, stirs from its cave roost. Flying out to search for ripe fruit, Carollia returns to a night roost in the forest vegetation to eat. After a few such flights Carollia rests, and the fruits pass through its short digestive tract. The seeds are excreted onto the ground, to be eaten in turn by mice and insects, but a few are pushed into crevices where they await the necessary conditions for germination. In The Short-tailed Fruit Bat, Theodore Fleming examines Carollia's role in the ecology of tropical forests. Based on more than ten years' research, this study provides the most detailed ecological and evolutionary account to date of the life history of a Neotropical mammal and includes striking photographs of the bats in flight.

The Behaviour Of Teleost Fishes

Author : Tony J. Pitcher
ISBN : 9781468482614
Genre : Science
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This book is about the behaviour of teleosts, a well-defined, highly successful, taxonomic group of vertebrate animals sharing a common body plan and forming the vast majority of living bony fishes. There are weH over 22000 living species of teleosts, including nearly all those of importance in com mercial fisheries and aquaculture. Teleosts are represented injust about every conceivable aquatic environment from temporary desert pools to the deep ocean, from soda lakes to sub-zero Antarctic waters. Behaviour is the primary interface between these effective survival machines and their environment: behavioural plasticity is one of the keys to their success. The study of animal behaviour has undergone revolutionary changes in the past decade under the dual impact of behavioural ecology and sociobiology. The modern body of theory provides quantitatively testable and experi mentaHy accessible hypotheses. Much current work in animal behaviour has concentrated on birds and mammals, animals with ostensibly more complex structure, physiology and behavioural capacity, but there is a growing body of information about the behaviour of fishes. There is now increasing awareness that the same ecological and evolutionary rules govern teleost fish, and that their behaviour is not just a simplified version of that seen in birds and mammals. The details of fish behaviour intimately reflect unique and efficient adaptations to their three-dimensional aquatic environment.

Perspectives In Ecological Theory

Author : Jonathan Roughgarden
ISBN : 9781400860180
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 55 MB
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This volume presents an overview of current accomplishments and future directions in ecological theory. The twenty-three chapters cover a broad range of important topics, from the physiology and behavior of individuals or groups of organisms, through population dynamics and community structure, to the ecology of ecosystems and the geochemical cycles of the entire biosphere. The authors focus on ways in which theory, whether expressed mathematically or verbally, can contribute to defining and solving fundamental problems in ecology. A second aim is to highlight areas where dialogue between theorists and empiricists is likely to be especially rewarding. The authors are R. M. Anderson, C. W. Clark, M. L. Cody, J. E. Cohen, P. R. Ehrlich, M. W. Feldman, M. E. Gilpin, L. J. Gross, M. P. Hassell, H. S. Horn, P. Kareiva, M.A.R. Koehl, S. A. Levin, R. M. May, L. D. Mueller, R. V. O'Neill, S. W. Pacala, S. L. Pimm, T. M. Powell, H. R. Pulliam, J. Roughgarden, W. H. Schlesinger, H. H. Shugart, S. M. Stanley, J. H. Steele, D. Tilman, J. Travis, and D. L. Urban. Originally published in 1989. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Wolves Bears And Their Prey In Alaska

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309064057
Genre : Science
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This book assesses Alaskan wolf and bear management programs from scientific and economic perspectives. Relevant factors that should be taken into account when evaluating the utility of such programs are identified. The assessment includes a review of current scientific knowledge about the dynamics and management of large mammalian predator-prey relationships and human harvest of wildlife in northern ecosystems, and an evaluation of the extent to which existing research and management data allow prediction of the outcome of wolf management or control programs and grizzly bear management programs. Included is an evaluation of available economic studies and methodologies for estimating the costs and benefits of predator control programs in Alaska.

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