solid-polymer-electrolytes

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Solid Polymer Electrolytes

Author : Fiona M. Gray
ISBN : 0471187372
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 56. 74 MB
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This book is a welcome response to the general concerns for the generation and conservation of energy in the future. It gives a comprehensive overview of both the fundamental and applied aspects of solid polymer electrolytes. Topics discussed include: * Polymer Electrolyte-based Devices * Homopolymer Hosts * The Interaction between Polymer and Salt * Conductivity in Polymer Electrolytes * Polymer Electrolyte Architecture * Transport Properties Effects of Dynamic Disorder * The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface Newcomers and experts alike will greatly benefit from the lucid and objective analysis this book provides.

Polymer Electrolyte Reviews

Author : J.R. MacCallum
ISBN : 1851663487
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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Network Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes Spes For Lithium Metal Batteries Lmbs And Beyond

Author : Yongwei Zheng
ISBN : OCLC:1237123754
Genre : Lithium ion batteries
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Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are regarded as the next-generation energy storage devices due to the high theoretical energy density. Conventional organic-based liquid electrolytes are not compatible with LMBs because of the safety issues that are caused by the high flammability and Li dendrites-induced short-circuit. Recently, solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have received attention due to the mechanical properties, and flexibility. Compared with different SPEs structures, the network structure stands out. The network based SPEs exhibit both good ionic conductivity and mechanical stability. They also perform well in inhibiting Li dendrites growth and extend the cell cycling lifetime. In this dissertation, a series of network based SPEs were synthesized and characterized. The network chemistry selection was based on polymer physics and electrochemistry. A typical example is the crosslinked poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) network. A systematic characterization has been conducted on this single network platform. Then, the network structure was transited from single network to interpenetrating network (IPN) in order to address some of the issues. For example, poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) was incorporated to liberate the Li+ and increase the cation transference number. Ultra-high molecular weight PEO was incorporated to increase the toughness of the SPE. Poly (acrylonitrile) (PAN) was incorporated to improve the anodic stability voltage. In cell level, the performance of the SPEs was evaluated in a series setup such as symmetrical cell, half cell, and full cell. In this dissertation, the design of SPEs is to pursue the extended cell cycling lifetime and increased Li metal anode cycling efficiency. So, the formation, composition, and evolution of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) were specially characterized, analyzed and correlated with the chemistry of SPE, salts and additives. The results demonstrated the concept of IPN is feasible in designing the SPEs for LMBs.

Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Author : Thomas Francis Fuller
ISBN : UCAL:C3369242
Genre : Polyelectrolytes
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Solid Polymer Electrolytes

Author : Mario Joost
ISBN : OCLC:853279435
Genre :
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Development Of Solid Polymer Electrolytes Of Polyurethane And Polyether Modified Polysiloxane Blends With Lithium Salts

Author : Shanshan Wang
ISBN : OCLC:191732841
Genre : Electrolytes
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"Novel flexible solid polymer electrolytes with both ionic conductivity and good dimensional stability based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polyether-modified polysiloxane (PEMPS) electrolytes with various lithium salts were developed. The salts used include lithium chloride (LiCl), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium bistrifluoromethanesulfonimidate (LiN(SO2CF3)2 [LITFSI]). These polymer electrolytes were prepared by a solvent-free, in-situ process, instead of the conventional solution casting method. In this process, the monomer, polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG), was the solvent for dissolving lithium salts instead of a highly volatile one. This process included two steps: (a) dissolve lithium salts in PTMG and PEMPS; and (b) add 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), 1,4 butane diol (BDO) to start polymerization of polyurethane. The dissolution of salts in PTMG and PEMPS, the interaction of salt with PTMG and PEMPS, and the miscibility of PTMG/PEMPS were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and optical microscopy. The structure of the anion greatly affected the solubility of salts in PTMG and PEMPS. Salts with large anions, such as ClO4 and TFSI, exhibited better solubility than ones with small anions, such as Cl. Salts enhanced the compatibility between PEMPS and PTMG. Kinetics studies of polyurethane polymerization using the isothermal calorimetry indicated that the lithium salt slightly retarded the polymerization of TPU due to interaction of lithium ions with hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) characterization and tensile testing of TPU/PEMPS electrolytes demonstrated good thermal and dimensional stability. Morphological studies of TPU and TPU/PEMPS electrolytes were conducted using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TPU/PEMPS electrolytes exhibit a multiphase morphology with PEMPS dispersed in the TPU matrix. Salt improved compatibility between phases. FTIR studies indicated that lithium salts interacted strongly with the soft and hard segments of TPU as well as the PEMPS. Salt compatibilized these phases. The effects of PEMPS and lithium salts on Tm and the degree of crystallinity of TPU also were investigated by DSC. Ionic conductivity and its temperature dependence of these electrolytes were determined using an LCR meter. A mechanism of ionic conductivity of TPU/PEMPS electrolytes was proposed. Effects of the structure of the anion, salt-polymer interaction, and multiphase morphology on the ionic conductivity were considered."--Abstract.

Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

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ISBN : OCLC:727239633
Genre :
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A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25°C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

Analytical Methods For Solid Polymer Electrolytes Used In Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

Author : Olt Emil Geiculescu
ISBN : OCLC:57934293
Genre :
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Rational Design Of Nanostructured Polymer Electrolytes And Solid Liquid Interphases For Lithium Batteries

Author : Snehashis Choudhury
ISBN : 9783030289430
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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This thesis makes significant advances in the design of electrolytes and interfaces in electrochemical cells that utilize reactive metals as anodes. Such cells are of contemporary interest because they offer substantially higher charge storage capacity than state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery technology. Batteries based on metallic anodes are currently considered impractical and unsafe because recharge of the anode causes physical and chemical instabilities that produce dendritic deposition of the metal leading to catastrophic failure via thermal runaway. This thesis utilizes a combination of chemical synthesis, physical & electrochemical analysis, and materials theory to investigate structure, ion transport properties, and electrochemical behaviors of hybrid electrolytes and interfacial phases designed to prevent such instabilities. In particular, it demonstrates that relatively low-modulus electrolytes composed of cross-linked networks of polymer-grafted nanoparticles stabilize electrodeposition of reactive metals by multiple processes, including screening electrode electrolyte interactions at electrochemical interfaces and by regulating ion transport in tortuous nanopores. This discovery is significant because it overturns a longstanding perception in the field of nanoparticle-polymer hybrid electrolytes that only solid electrolytes with mechanical modulus higher than that of the metal electrode are able to stabilize electrodeposition of reactive metals.

Beyond Peo Alternative Host Materials For Li Conducting Solid Polymer Electrolytes

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ISBN : OCLC:1053730600
Genre :
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Abstract: The bulk of the scientific literature on Li-conducting solid (solvent-free) polymer electrolytes (SPEs) for applications such as Li-based batteries is focused on polyether-based materials, not least the archetypal poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A significant number of alternative polymer hosts have, however, been explored over the years, encompassing materials such as polycarbonates, polyesters, polynitriles, polyalcohols and polyamines. These display fundamentally different properties to those of polyethers, and might therefore be able to resolve the key issues restricting SPEs from realizing their full potential, for example in terms of ionic conductivity, chemical or electrochemical stability and temperature sensitivity. It is further interesting that many of these polymer materials complex Li ions less strongly than PEO and facilitate ion transport through different mechanisms than polyethers, which is likely critical for true advancement in the area. In this review, >30 years of research on these 'alternative' Li-ion-conducting SPE host materials are summarized and discussed in the perspective of their potential application in electrochemical devices, with a clear focus on Li batteries. Key challenges and strategies forward and beyond the current PEO-based paradigm are highlighted.

Tailored Funtionalization Of Polyrotaxane Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes For Lithium Metal Batteries

Author : Laura Imholt
ISBN : OCLC:1189424644
Genre :
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Highly Electrochemical Stable Quaternary Solid Polymer Electrolyte For All Solid State Lithium Metal Batteries

Author : Yunfan Shao
ISBN : OCLC:1145940671
Genre : Lithium ion batteries
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Lithium metal batteries are regarded as promising electrochemical energy storage solutions due to their high energy densities. However, the safety issues including lithium dendrite formation impede their practical uses. In this thesis, solid polymer electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol diacrylate and additional acrylate comonomer plasticized by an organic plasticizer (succinonitrile) were studied. The lithium stripping/plating experiments indicated that the polymer electrolyte can suppress the dendrite formation under current density from 0.05 mA/cm2 to 0.5 mA/cm2. With a high room temperature conductivity of 7.8x10−4 S/cm and an wide electrochemical window of 0-5.0 V (vs. Li+/Li), the solid polymer electrolyte was used to fabricate all-solid-state lithium batteries with NCA cathode and operated at cut-off voltage of 4.3 V and current density of 0.5 C (1 C= 180 mA/g). The solid-state battery exhibited capacity retention of 47.6 % after 450 cycles with an average coulombic efficiency of 99.80 %, indicating the long-term stability of the polymer electrolyte.

Tailored Functionalization Of Polyrotaxane Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes For Lithium Metal Batteries

Author : Laura Imholt
ISBN : OCLC:1222403345
Genre :
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Synthesis And Characterizations Of Novel Solid Polymer Electrolytes With Carbon Nanotube As A Filler

Author : Suriani Ibrahim
ISBN : OCLC:958833763
Genre : Nanocomposites (Materials)
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Anhydrous State Proton And Lithium Ion Conducting Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based On Sulfonated Bisphenol A Poly Arylene Ethers

Author : Soma Guha Thakurta
ISBN : OCLC:1237644646
Genre : Polyelectrolytes
File Size : 31. 94 MB
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Sulfonated polymer based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have received considerable interest in recent years because of their wide variety of applications particularly in fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and electrochromic devices. The present research was focused on three interrelated subtopics. First, two different bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers), polyetherimide (PEI) and polysulfone (PSU) were sulfonated by a post sulfonation method to various degrees of sulfonation, and their thermal and mechanical properties were examined. The effects of poly(arylene ether) chemical structure, reaction time, concentration, and types of sulfonating agents on sulfonation reaction were investigated. It was found that deactivation of bisphenol A unit caused by the electron withdrawing imide, retarded the sulfonation of PEI compared to PSU. Sulfonation conducted with a high concentration of sulfonating agent and/or prolonged reaction time exhibited evidence of degradation at the isopropylidene unit. The degradation occurred through the same mechanistic pathway with the two different sulfonating agents, chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) and trimethylsilyl chlorosulfonate (TMSCS). The degradation was faster with CSA than its silyl ester, TMSCS, and was evident even at low acid concentration. Second, novel anhydrous proton conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were prepared by the incorporation of 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Taz) as a proton solvent in sulfonated polyetherimide (SPEI) matrix. The size, shape, and state of dispersion (crystal morphology) of triazole crystals in SPEI were examined as a function of degree of sulfonation and triazole concentration. Increasing sulfonic acid content caused reduction of triazole crystallite size, hence the depression of melting temperature and their uniform distribution throughout the sulfonated polymer matrix. The increased rate of structure diffusion within the smaller size crystals due to the improved molecular mobility contributed significantly to the anhydrous state proton conductivity. Third, a new category of single lithium ion conducting SPEs was developed by crosslinking a polyether epoxy, poly(ethylene glycol)diglicidyl ether (PEGDGE) (lithium ion solvent), in sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) matrix. The effects of degree of sulfonation and electrolyte composition on ionic conductivity, thermal, and tensile properties of SPEs were investigated. It was found that ion-dipole interactions between lithium sulfonate (SO3Li) and PEGDGE were responsible for the reduction in size of the dispersed epoxy phase and increased thermal stability. Lithium sulfonate promoted compatibilization and also caused improvement in elongation at break. A low molecular weight electrolyte salt, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) was further dissolved in PEGDGE phase prior to its crosslinking in SPSU matrix, and the ionic conductivity and thermal properties were evaluated as a function of doping level. The ionic conductivity showed remarkable improvement compared to the undoped system.

Polymer Electrolytes

Author : Tan Winie
ISBN : 9783527342006
Genre : Science
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A comprehensive overview of the main characterization techniques of polymer electrolytes and their applications in electrochemical devices Polymer Electrolytes is a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the characterization and applications of polymer electrolytes. The authors ? noted experts on the topic ? discuss the various characterization methods, including impedance spectroscopy and thermal characterization. The authors also provide information on the myriad applications of polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, solar cells and electrochromic windows. Over the past three decades, researchers have been developing new polymer electrolytes and assessed their application potential in electrochemical and electrical power generation, storage, and conversion systems. As a result, many new polymer electrolytes have been found, characterized, and applied in electrochemical and electrical devices. This important book: -Reviews polymer electrolytes, a key component in electrochemical power sources, and thus benefits scientists in both academia and industry -Provides an interdisciplinary resource spanning electrochemistry, physical chemistry, and energy applications -Contains detailed and comprehensive information on characterization and applications of polymer electrolytes Written for materials scientists, physical chemists, solid state chemists, electrochemists, and chemists in industry professions, Polymer Electrolytes is an essential resource that explores the key characterization techniques of polymer electrolytes and reveals how they are applied in electrochemical devices.

Investigation Of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Gas Sensor With Different Electrochemical Techniques

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ISBN : OCLC:1052001327
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Abstract: In this work solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) amperometric sulphur dioxide sensor is investigated. Nafion was used as a membrane electrode and 1M sulphuric acid as an internal electrolyte. Sensor response to sulphur dioxide was measured. Besides traditional constant voltage amperometry also different electrochemical techniques were used. Results obtained by these methods are compared.

Polymer Electrolytes

Author : César Sequeira
ISBN : 9781845699772
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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Polymer electrolytes are electrolytic materials that are widely used in batteries, fuel cells and other applications such as supercapacitors, photoelectrochemical and electrochromic devices. Polymer electrolytes: Fundamentals and applications provides an important review of this class of ionic conductors, their properties and applications. Part one reviews the various types of polymer electrolyte compounds, with chapters on ceramic polymer electrolytes, natural polymer-based polymer electrolytes, composite polymer electrolytes, lithium-doped hybrid polymer electrolytes, hybrid inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes. There are also chapters on ways of characterising and modelling polymer electrolytes. Part two discusses applications such as solar cells, supercapacitors, electrochromic and electrochemical devices, fuel cells and batteries. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Polymer electrolytes: Fundamentals and applications is a standard reference for all those researching and using polymer electrolytes in such areas as battery and fuel cell technology for automotive and other applications. Provides an important review of this class of ionic conductors, their properties and applications in practical devices Explores categories of polymer electrolytes and conductivity measurements Features a comprehensive analysis of current developments in polymer electrolytes and highlights a new type of polymer electrolyte

Ion Transport Mechanisms Of Solid Polymer Electrolyte With Silsesquioxane Crosslinking Polyethylene Glycol Framework For Lithium Ion Battery A Molecular Simulation Study

Author : 方湛恩
ISBN : OCLC:1232032627
Genre :
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Polymer Electrolytes

Author : Fiona M. Gray
ISBN : UOM:39015039919462
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 46 MB
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The first book in the RSC Materials Monographs Series, Polymer Electrolytes brings together the latest research in this important subject. The emphasis is on practical materials and it includes an excellent classification of polymer electrolytes, a comprehensive look at material types and an important discussion of the commercial prospects. The text is designed for research workers from a variety of disciplines and looks at some of the history as well as the future of the subject, including reference to computer simulation. Overall, Polymer Electrolytes is an important review of the structural, physical and electrical properties of the materials which are competing for a place in the future energy generation, storage and distribution markets.

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