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Spectroscopy And Optical Diagnostics For Gases

Author : Ronald K. Hanson
ISBN : 9783319232522
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 32. 99 MB
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This text provides an introduction to the science that governs the interaction of light and matter (in the gas phase). It provides readers with the basic knowledge to exploit the light-matter interaction to develop quantitative tools for gas analysis (i.e. optical diagnostics) and understand and interpret the results of spectroscopic measurements. The authors pair the basics of gas‐phase spectroscopy with coverage of key optical diagnostic techniques utilized by practicing engineers and scientists to measure fundamental flow‐field properties. The text is organized to cover three sub‐topics of gas‐phase spectroscopy: (1) spectral line positions, (2) spectral line strengths, and (3) spectral lineshapes by way of absorption, emission, and scattering interactions. The latter part of the book describes optical measurement techniques and equipment. Key subspecialties include laser induced fluorescence, tunable laser absorption spectroscopy, and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. It is ideal for students and practitioners across a range of applied sciences including mechanical, aerospace, chemical, and materials engineering.

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Author : Viktor Nikolaevich Zadkov
ISBN : UOM:39015043099053
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 56. 64 MB
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Optical Diagnostics For Thin Film Processing

Author : Irving P. Herman
ISBN : 0080538088
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72. 92 MB
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This volume describes the increasing role of in situ optical diagnostics in thin film processing for applications ranging from fundamental science studies to process development to control during manufacturing. The key advantage of optical diagnostics in these applications is that they are usually noninvasive and nonintrusive. Optical probes of the surface, film, wafer, and gas above the wafer are described for many processes, including plasma etching, MBE, MOCVD, and rapid thermal processing. For each optical technique, the underlying principles are presented, modes of experimental implementation are described, and applications of the diagnostic in thin film processing are analyzed, with examples drawn from microelectronics and optoelectronics. Special attention is paid to real-time probing of the surface, to the noninvasive measurement of temperature, and to the use of optical probes for process control. Optical Diagnostics for Thin Film Processing is unique. No other volume explores the real-time application of optical techniques in all modes of thin film processing. The text can be used by students and those new to the topic as an introduction and review of the subject. It also serves as a comprehensive resource for engineers, technicians, researchers, and scientists already working in the field. The only volume that comprehensively explores in situ, real-time, optical probes for all types of thin film processing Useful as an introduction to the subject or as a resource handbook Covers a wide range of thin film processes including plasma etching, MBE, MOCVD, and rapid thermal processing Examples emphasize applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics Introductory chapter serves as a guide to all optical diagnostics and their applications Each chapter presents the underlying principles, experimental implementation, and applications for a specific optical diagnostic

Multimodal Optical Diagnostics Of Cancer

Author : Valery V. Tuchin
ISBN : 9783030445942
Genre :
File Size : 41. 58 MB
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Applied Combustion Diagnostics

Author : KoHse-HoingHaus
ISBN : 1560329130
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 1 MB
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The editors have assembled a world-class group of contributors who address the questions the combustion diagnostic community faces. They are chemists who identify the species to be measured and the interfering substances that may be present; physicists, who push the limits of laser spectroscopy and laser devices and who conceive suitable measurement schemes; and engineers, who know combustion systems and processes. This book assists in providing guidance for the planning of combustion experiments, in judging research strategies and in conceiving new ideas for combustion research. It provides a snapshot of the available diagnostic methods and thier typical applications from the perspective of leading experts in the field.

Sensors And Measurement Techniques For Chemical Gas Lasers

Author : Mainuddin Gaurav Singhal
ISBN : 9788461711529
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48. 54 MB
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Sensing and Measurement is the key technology area in the development of these lasers. Advanced sensing and measurement technologies are required to acquire, analyze and transform data into information that is useful to enhance the performance and capabilities of these lasers systems.The goal of this book is therefore to enable scientists and technologists working in rather complex area of chemical lasers to achieve the best technical performances. Till now such topics havebeen covered scantly in open literature and that too in the research papers only.

Database Needs For Modeling And Simulation Of Plasma Processing

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309175135
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 62 MB
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In spite of its high cost and technical importance, plasma equipment is still largely designed empirically, with little help from computer simulation. Plasma process control is rudimentary. Optimization of plasma reactor operation, including adjustments to deal with increasingly stringent controls on plant emissions, is performed predominantly by trial and error. There is now a strong and growing economic incentive to improve on the traditional methods of plasma reactor and process design, optimization, and control. An obvious strategy for both chip manufacturers and plasma equipment suppliers is to employ large-scale modeling and simulation. The major roadblock to further development of this promising strategy is the lack of a database for the many physical and chemical processes that occur in the plasma. The data that are currently available are often scattered throughout the scientific literature, and assessments of their reliability are usually unavailable. Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing identifies strategies to add data to the existing database, to improve access to the database, and to assess the reliability of the available data. In addition to identifying the most important needs, this report assesses the experimental and theoretical/computational techniques that can be used, or must be developed, in order to begin to satisfy these needs.

Characterization Of High Temperature Vapors And Gases

Author : John W. Hastie
ISBN : PSU:000071923758
Genre : Gases at high temperatures
File Size : 41. 37 MB
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Laser Program Annual Report

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015051239922
Genre : Lasers
File Size : 25. 66 MB
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Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Author : Jagdish P. Singh
ISBN : 9780128188309
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 9 MB
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Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Second Edition, covers the basic principles and latest developments in instrumentation and applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Written by active experts in the field, it serves as a useful resource for analytical chemists and spectroscopists, as well as graduate students and researchers engaged in the fields of combustion, environmental science, and planetary and space exploration. This fully revised second edition includes several new chapters on new LIBS techniques as well as several new applications, including flame and off-gas measurement, pharmaceutical samples, defense applications, carbon sequestration and site monitoring, handheld instruments, and more. LIBS has rapidly developed into a major analytical technology with the capability of detecting all chemical elements in a sample, of real- time response, and of close-contact or stand-off analysis of targets. It does not require any sample preparation, unlike conventional spectroscopic analytical techniques. Samples in the form of solids, liquids, gels, gases, plasmas, and biological materials (like teeth, leaves, or blood) can be studied with almost equal ease. This comprehensive reference introduces the topic to readers in a simple, direct, and accessible manner for easy comprehension and maximum utility. Covers even more applications of LIBS beyond the first edition, including combustion, soil physics, environment, and life sciences Includes new chapters on LIBS techniques that have emerged in the last several years, including Femtosecond LIBS and Molecular LIBS Provides inspiration for future developments in this rapidly growing field in the concluding chapter

Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics

Author : Marshall Lapp
ISBN : 9781468421033
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 59 MB
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The Laser Raman Workshop on the r"eas urement of Gas Properti es i sone of aseries of occasional meetings organized in an informal workshop format through the stimulation of Project SQUID, Office of Naval Research. This workshop is the second to be organized on gas-phase applications of Raman scattering. Both Raman workshops were supported by Project SQUID, ONR, and the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The first Raman Workshop was held at the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, Everett, Massachusetts, with their co-sponsorship in January 1972 under the chairmanship of D. A. Leonard. The present meeting was co-sponsored by the General Electric Research and Development Center, and held at their facility in Schenectady, New York. We are grateful to Project SQUID, AFAPL, and GE for their generous financial support of this Workshop, and to Project SQUID for underwriting the publication costs of the Proceedings. As is always the case for successful meetings, many people contributed substantially to the organization and execution of this workshop. Professor Robert Goulard supported, aided, and encouraged us in the most helpful ways, and we are indebted to him. We received further valuable support and assistance from Dr. Ralph Roberts, Director, and Mr. James R. Patton, Jr., of the Power Branch, Office of Naval Research; from Dr. William H. Heiser, Chief Scientist of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory; and from Dr. James M.

Dielectrics For Nanosystems 3 Materials Science Processing Reliability And Manufacturing

Author : D. Misra
ISBN : 9781566776271
Genre : Dielectrics
File Size : 67. 27 MB
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This issue covers papers relating to advanced semiconductor products that are true representatives of nanoelectronics have reached below 100 nm. Depending on the application, the nanosystem may consist of one or more of the following types of functional components: electronic, optical, magnetic, mechanical, biological, chemical, energy sources, and various types of sensing devices. As long as one or more of these functional devices is in 1-100 nm dimensions, the resultant system can be defined as nanosystem. Papers will be in all areas of dielectric issues in nanosystems. In addition to traditional areas of semiconductor processing and packaging of nanoelectronics, emphasis will be placed on areas where multifunctional device integration (through innovation in design, materials, and processing at the device and system levels) will lead to new applications of nanosystems.

Experimental Diagnostics In Gas Phase Combustion Systems

Author : Ben T. Zinn
ISBN : UOM:39015002945494
Genre : Aeronautics
File Size : 48. 55 MB
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Industrial Applications Of Laser Diagnostics

Author : Yoshihiro Deguchi
ISBN : 9781439853399
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 65 MB
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Tighter regulations of harmful substances such as NOx, CO, heavy metals, particles, emissions from commercial plants and automobiles reflect a growing demand for lowering the anthropogenic burdens on the environment. It is equally important to monitor controlling factors to improve the operation of industrial machinery and plants. Among the many me

Optical And Laser Diagnostics

Author : C Arcoumanis
ISBN : 9781482263183
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 90 MB
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From the automotive industry to blood flow monitoring, optical techniques and laser diagnostics are becoming integral parts in engineering and medical instrumentation. Written by leading global experts from industry, academic groups, and laboratories, this volume provides an international perspective on both existing applications and leading-edge r

Mid Infrared Optoelectronics

Author : Eric Tournié
ISBN : 9780081027387
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 67. 19 MB
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Mid-infrared Optoelectronics: Materials, Devices, and Applications addresses the new materials, devices and applications that have emerged over the last decade, along with exciting areas of research. Sections cover fundamentals, light sources, photodetectors, new approaches, and the application of mid-IR devices, with sections discussing LEDs, laser diodes, and quantum cascade lasers, mid-infrared optoelectronics, emerging research areas, dilute bismide and nitride alloys, Group-IV materials, gallium nitride heterostructures, and new nonlinear materials. Finally, the most relevant applications of mid-infrared devices are reviewed in industry, gas sensing, spectroscopy, and imaging. This book presents a key reference for materials scientists, engineers and professionals working in R&D in the area of semiconductors and optoelectronics. Provides a comprehensive overview of mid-infrared photodetectors and light sources and the latest materials and devices Reviews emerging areas of research in the field of mid-infrared optoelectronics, including new materials, such as wide bandgap materials, chalcogenides and new approaches, like heterogeneous integration Includes information on the most relevant applications in industry, like gas sensing, spectroscopy and imaging

Laser In Environmental And Life Sciences

Author : Peter Hering
ISBN : 9783662082553
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 63 MB
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This comprehensive reference work illustrates the state of the art of laser-induced analytical methods in environmental and life sciences via an interdisciplinary approach. Ky techniques for remote sensing in the atmosphere as well as diagnostic methods for soil, water and air contamination and exhaled breath are described. Each a prominent scientist, the authors report on their current research; demonstrate that multi-disciplinary applications are possible; and employ examples on how existing environmental diagnostic methods have found their way into the life sciences.

New Enhanced Sensitivity Infrared Laser Spectroscopy Techniques Applied To Reactive Plasmas And Trace Gas Detection

Author : Stefan Welzel
ISBN : 9783832523459
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 3 MB
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Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) employing both tuneable diode and quantum cascade lasers (TDLs, QCLs) has been applied with both high sensitivity and high time resolution to plasma diagnostics and trace gas measurements. TDLAS combined with a conventional White type multiple pass cell was used to detect up to 13 constituent molecular species in low pressure Ar/H2/N2/O2 and Ar/CH4/N2/O2 microwave discharges, among them the main products such as H2O, NH3, NO and CO, HCN respectively. The hydroxyl radical has been measured in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral range in-situ in both plasmas yielding number densities of between 1011 ... 1012 cm-3. Strong indications of surface dominated formation of either NH3 or N2O and NO were found in the H2-N2-O2 system. In methane containing plasmas a transition between deposition and etching conditions and generally an incomplete oxidation of the precursor were observed. The application of QCLs for IRLAS under low pressure conditions employing the most common tuning approaches has been investigated in detail. A new method of analysing absorption features quantitatively when the rapid passage effect is present is proposed. If power saturation is negligible, integrating the undisturbed half of the line profile yields accurate number densities without calibrating the system. By means of a time resolved analysis of individual chirped QCL pulses the main reasons for increased effective laser line widths could be identified. Apart from the well-known frequency down chirp non-linear absorption phenomena and bandwidth limitations of the detection system may significantly degrade the performance and accuracy of inter pulse spectrometers. The minimum analogue bandwidth of the entire system should normally not fall below 250 MHz. QCLAS using pulsed lasers has been used for highly time resolved measurements in reactive plasmas for the first time enabling a time resolution down to about 100 ns to be achieved. A temperature increase of typically less than 50 K has been established for pulsed DC discharges containing Ar/N2 and traces of NO. The main NO production and depletion reactions have been identified from a comparison of model calculations and time resolved measurements in plasma pulses of up to 100 ms. Considerable NO struction is observed after 5 ... 10 ms due to the impact of N atoms. Finally, thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave (cw) QCLs have been employed for high finesse cavity absorption spectroscopy in the MIR. Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) has been performed with pulsed QCLs and was found to be limited by the intrinsic frequency chirp of the laser suppressing an efficient intensity build-up inside the cavity. Consequently the accuracy and advantage of an absolute internal absorption calibration is not achievable. A room temperature cw QCL was used in a complementary cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) configuration which was equipped with different cavities of up to 1.3 m length. This spectrometer yielded path lengths of up to 4 km and a noise equivalent absorption down to 4 x 10-8 cm-1Hz-1/2. The corresponding molecular concentration detection limit (e.g. for CH4, N2O and C2H2 at 1303 cm-1/7.66 Aem) was generally below 1 x 1010 cm-3 for 1 s integration times and one order of magnitude less for 30 s integration times. The main limiting factor for achieving even higher sensitivity is the residual mode noise of the cavity. Employing a 0.5 m long cavity the achieved sensitivity was good enough for the selective measurement of trace atmospheric constituents at 2.2 mbar.

Plasma Processing Of Polymers

Author : Ricardo d'Agostino
ISBN : 0792348591
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 80. 40 MB
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Plasma Treatments and Deposition of Polymers, Acquafredda di Maratea, Italy, May 19-June 2, 1996

Excimer Lasers

Author : L.D. Laude
ISBN : 0792328191
Genre : Medical
File Size : 75. 21 MB
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on `Excimer Lasers: the Tools, Fundamental Processes and Applications', Elounda, Crete, Greece, September 6--17, 1993

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