the adaptive landscape in evolutionary biology

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The Adaptive Landscape In Evolutionary Biology

Author : Erik Svensson
ISBN : 9780191631672
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 51 MB
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The 'Adaptive Landscape' has been a central concept in population genetics and evolutionary biology since this powerful metaphor was first formulated by Sewall Wright in 1932. Eighty years later, it has become a central framework in evolutionary quantitative genetics, selection studies in natural populations, and in studies of ecological speciation and adaptive radiations. Recently, the simple concept of adaptive landscapes in two dimensions (genes or traits) has been criticized and several new and more sophisticated versions of the original adaptive landscape evolutionary model have been developed in response. No published volume has yet critically discussed the past, present state, and future prospect of the adaptive landscape in evolutionary biology. This volume brings together prominent historians of science, philosophers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists, with the aim of discussing the state of the art of the Adaptive Landscape from several different perspectives.

The Geometry Of Evolution

Author : George R. McGhee
ISBN : 9781139459952
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 18 MB
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The metaphor of the adaptive landscape - that evolution via the process of natural selection can be visualized as a journey across adaptive hills and valleys, mountains and ravines - permeates both evolutionary biology and the philosophy of science. The focus of this 2006 book is to demonstrate to the reader that the adaptive landscape concept can be put into actual analytical practice through the usage of theoretical morphospaces - geometric spaces of both existent and non-existent biological form - and to demonstrate the power of the adaptive landscape concept in understanding the process of evolution. The adaptive landscape concept further allows us to take a spatial approach to the concepts of natural selection, evolutionary constraint and evolutionary development. For that reason, this book relies heavily on spatial graphics to convey the concepts developed within these pages, and less so on formal mathematics.

Encyclopedia Of Evolutionary Biology

Author :
ISBN : 9780128004265
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 78 MB
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Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process

Towards A Theory Of Development

Author : Alessandro Minelli
ISBN : 9780191651182
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 9 MB
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Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be discovered, and examines the role of models and theories. The two editors (one a biologist with long interest in the theoretical aspects of his discipline, the other a philosopher of science who has mainly worked on biological systems) have assembled a team of leading contributors who are representative of the scientific and philosophical community within which a diversity of thoughts are growing, and out of which a theory of development may eventually emerge. They analyse a wealth of approaches to concepts, models and theories of development, such as gene regulatory networks, accounts based on systems biology and on physics of soft matter, the different articulations of evolution and development, symbiont-induced development, as well as the widely discussed concepts of positional information and morphogenetic field, the idea of a 'programme' of development and its critiques, and the long-standing opposition between preformationist and epigenetic conceptions of development. Towards a Theory of Development is primarily aimed at students and researchers in the fields of 'evo-devo', developmental biology, theoretical biology, systems biology, biophysics, and the philosophy of science.

Evolutionary Biology

Author : Mitchell B. Cruzan
ISBN : 9780190882686
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 96 MB
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Many of the characteristics that distinguish plants from other living organisms can be traced to their bacterial origin early in the history of life. These features-such as a multicellular haploid life stage, prevalent hermaphroditism, self-fertilization, and general dependence on biotic and abiotic vectors for reproduction-stem directly from the plant's ability to obtain energy from the sun. This novel mode of energy capture had far-ranging implications for plant evolution. It not only fueled the tremendous diversification of life on Earth that followed, but also had far-ranging implications for the evolution of photosynthetic microorganisms and eventually for land plants. Understanding the evolutionary processes for the proliferation and diversification of plants requires an appreciation of their unique biological features. While the processes of mutation, selection, genetic drift, and gene flow remain the same for both plants and animals, there are specific characteristics of plants that modify the way their evolution is implemented. Unique traits of plants affect everything from the fate of mutations, through exposure to selection in a haploid life phase, to the distribution of genetic variation within populations, and ultimately the rates and patterns of diversification. This book examines the origins of the unique evolutionary features of plants, as well as their implications for evolutionary processes. Author Mitchell B. Cruzan provides contemporary discussion of subjects including population genetics, phylogeography, phylogenetics, ecological genetics, and genomics. The book fills a need for modern coverage of these topics, all of which are essential to a wide range of advanced courses in plant biology.

Making Sense Of Evolution

Author : Massimo Pigliucci
ISBN : 9780226668352
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 99 MB
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Making Sense of Evolution explores contemporary evolutionary biology, focusing on the elements of theories—selection, adaptation, and species—that are complex and open to multiple possible interpretations, many of which are incompatible with one another and with other accepted practices in the discipline. Particular experimental methods, for example, may demand one understanding of “selection,” while the application of the same concept to another area of evolutionary biology could necessitate a very different definition. Spotlighting these conceptual difficulties and presenting alternate theoretical interpretations that alleviate this incompatibility, Massimo Pigliucci and Jonathan Kaplan intertwine scientific and philosophical analysis to produce a coherent picture of evolutionary biology. Innovative and controversial, Making Sense of Evolution encourages further development of the Modern Synthesis and outlines what might be necessary for the continued refinement of this evolving field.

The Fitness Of Information

Author : Chaomei Chen
ISBN : 9781118594209
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 30. 66 MB
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Theories and practices to assess critical information in acomplex adaptive system Organized for readers to follow along easily, The Fitness ofInformation: Quantitative Assessments of Critical Evidenceprovides a structured outline of the key challenges in assessingcrucial information in a complex adaptive system. Illustrating avariety of computational and explanatory challenges, the bookdemonstrates principles and practical implications of exploring andassessing the fitness of information in an extensible framework ofadaptive landscapes. The book’s first three chapters introduce fundamentalprinciples and practical examples in connection to the nature ofaesthetics, mental models, and the subjectivity of evidence. Inparticular, the underlying question is how these issues can beaddressed quantitatively, not only computationally but alsoexplanatorily. The next chapter illustrates how one can reduce thelevel of complexity in understanding the structure and dynamics ofscientific knowledge through the design and use of the CiteSpacesystem for visualizing and analyzing emerging trends in scientificliterature. The following two chapters explain the concepts ofstructural variation and the fitness of information in a frameworkthat builds on the idea of fitness landscape originally introducedto study population evolution. The final chapter presents adual-map overlay technique and demonstrates how it supports avariety of analytic tasks for a new type of portfolioanalysis. The Fitness of Information: Quantitative Assessments of CriticalEvidence also features: In-depth case studies and examples that characterizefar-reaching concepts, illustrate underlying principles, anddemonstrate profound challenges and complexities at various levelsof analytic reasoning Wide-ranging topics that underline the common theme, from thesubjectivity of evidence in criminal trials to detecting earlysigns of critical transitions and mechanisms behind radicalpatents An extensible and unifying framework for visual analytics bytransforming analytic reasoning tasks to the assessment of criticalevidence The Fitness of Information: Quantitative Assessments of CriticalEvidence is a suitable reference for researchers, analysts, andpractitioners who are interested in analyzing evidence and makingdecisions with incomplete, uncertain, and even conflictinginformation. The book is also an excellent textbook forupper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses on visual analytics,information visualization, and business analytics and decisionsupport systems.

Adaptationism And Optimality

Author : Steven Hecht Orzack
ISBN : 0521598362
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 90 MB
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These essays are intended to provide useful advice to "biologists in the trenches" but also to assess the larger theoretical and conceptual issues that form the basis of the current controversy." "This volume will serve to substantially advance the debate over adaptationism. It will be of interest to biologists, philosophers and historians of biology, anthropologists, psychologists, and cognitive scientists."--BOOK JACKET.

Synthetic Biology Applications In Industrial Microbiology

Author : Weiwen Zhang
ISBN : 9782889193424
Genre :
File Size : 79. 21 MB
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Exponentially increasing information on biological organisms coupled with increasing computational power in the past decade have broadened the perspective of fundamental biological research, bringing about considerable promise and unprecedented potential for practical applications in biotechnology. As one emergent discipline, synthetic biology aims to design and engineer novel biologically-based parts, devices, and systems, in addition to redesigning existing, natural biological systems. Although previously relegated to demonstration studies, more recent research in synthetic biology has focused on the rational engineering of industrial microorganisms with the potential to address many of society’s critical challenges. Within the realm of industrial microbiology, progress in the field of synthetic biology has enabled the development of, for example, new biosynthetic pathways for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, programmable logic controls to regulate and optimize cell function, and robust microbes for the destruction of harmful environmental contaminants. Some of the exciting examples included producing anti-malarial drug, anti- cancer taxol precursor and various biofuel molecules in E. coli and yeast. In addition, these researches have also greatly enhanced our understanding of the cellular machinery and its regulation in some of the industry important microbes, laying an important foundation for further design and engineering of biological function for even greater application. For these reasons, we present here a collection of articles from the leading edge of the field of synthetic biology, with a specific focus on the development in industrial microorganisms. It is the intent of this collection to reach a wide audience whose interests and expertise spans from development of novel synthetic biology methodologies and theories (both experimental and computational) to practical applications seeking to address issues facing the world today.

The Origins Of Order

Author : Stuart A. Kauffman
ISBN : 0195079515
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 17 MB
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Kauffman's thesis combines concepts of self-organization, integration with natural selection, and adaptation to explain the origins of life and maintenance of order in complex biological systems.

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