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The American Synthetic Rubber Research Program

Author : Peter J. T. Morris
ISBN : 9781512818161
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 89 MB
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This history of the government-funded synthetic rubber research program (1942-1956) offers a rare analysis of a cooperative research program geared to the improvement of existing products and the creation of new ones. The founders of the program believed the best way to further research in the new field was through collaboration among corporations, universities, and the federal government. Morris concludes that, in fact, the effort was ultimately a failure and that vigorous competition proves the best way to stimulate innovation. Government programs, like the rubber research program, are far better at improving existing products, the author contends, than creating wholly new ones.

The Federal Research Program

Author : United States. President's Scientific Research Board
ISBN : UIUC:30112104107054
Genre : Medicine
File Size : 87. 55 MB
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Science And Public Policy The Federal Research Program

Author : United States. President's Scientific Research Board
ISBN : STANFORD:36105120776005
Genre : Research
File Size : 30. 44 MB
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Chains Of Opportunity

Author : Mark D. Bowles
ISBN : 9781931968539
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 42 MB
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While ""plastics"" was a one-word joke in the 1967 movie The Graduate, plastics and other polymers have never been a laughing matter at the University of Akron, with its world-renowned College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering. Chains of Opportunity: The University of Akron and the Emergence of the Polymer Age, 1909-2007 tells the story of the university's rise to prominence in the field, beginning with the world's first academic course in rubber chemistry almost a century ago. Chains of Opportunity explores the university's pioneering contributions to rubber chemistry, polymer science, and polymer engineering. It traces the school's interaction with Akron rubber giants such as Goodyear and Firestone, recounts its administration of the federal government's synthetic rubber program during World War II, and describes its role in the development and professionalization of the academic discipline in polymers. The University of Akron has been an essential force in establishing the polymer age that has become a pervasive part of our material lives, in everything from toys to biotechnology.

Departmental And Agency Statements On Research And Development Administration

Author : United States. President's Scientific Research Board
ISBN : UOM:39015030970415
Genre : Research
File Size : 60. 72 MB
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Advances In Chromatography

Author : Nelu Grinberg
ISBN : 9780429651960
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76. 33 MB
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For more than five decades, scientists and researchers have relied on the Advances in Chromatography series for the most up-todate information on a wide range of developments in chromatographic methods and applications. The clear presentation of topics and vivid illustrations for which this series has become known makes the material accessible and engaging to analytical, biochemical, organic, polymer, and pharmaceutical chemists at all levels of technical skill. Key Features: Includes a chapter dedicated to Izaak Maurits Kolthoff, offering a unique look at his non-professional life as well as his impact and legacy in Analytical Chemistry. Discusses recent advances in two-dimensional liquid chromatography for the characterization of monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins. Reviews solvation processes, methodologies of their measurement, and parameters influenced solvation Explores recent advances in TLC analysis of natural colorings, determination of synthetic dyes, and determination of EU-permitted natural colors, in foods. Offers comprehensive and critical insights on the key aspects of CE-MS analysis of intact proteins

Synthetic Rubber

Author : United States. President (1945-1953 : Truman)
ISBN : UIUC:30112084274767
Genre : Rubber industry and trade
File Size : 56. 58 MB
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Technology And The American Economy

Author : United States. National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress
ISBN : UOM:39015004844356
Genre : Automation
File Size : 83. 65 MB
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Technology And The American Economy; Report

Author : United States. National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress
ISBN : UOM:35112103258713
Genre : Machinery in the workplace
File Size : 61. 78 MB
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The American Synthetic Organic Chemicals Industry

Author : Kathryn Steen
ISBN : 9781469612911
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 49. 37 MB
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Prior to 1914, Germany dominated the worldwide production of synthetic organic dyes and pharmaceuticals like aspirin. When World War I disrupted the supply of German chemicals to the United States, American entrepreneurs responded to the shortages and high prices by trying to manufacture chemicals domestically. Learning the complex science and industry, however, posed a serious challenge. This book explains how the United States built a synthetic organic chemicals industry in World War I and the 1920s. Kathryn Steen argues that Americans' intense anti-German sentiment in World War I helped to forge a concentrated effort among firms, the federal government, and universities to make the United States independent of "foreign chemicals." Besides mobilization efforts to make high explosives and war gases, federal policies included protective tariffs, gathering and publishing market information, and, most dramatically, confiscation of German-owned chemical subsidiaries and patents. Meanwhile, firms and universities worked hard to develop scientific and manufacturing expertise. Against a backdrop of hostilities and intrigue, Steen shows how chemicals were deeply entwined with national and international politics and policy during the war and subsequent isolationism of the turbulent early twentieth century.

Report To Congress Recommending Disposal Of Government Owned Synthetic Rubber Facilities Public Law 205 83d Congress

Author : United States. Rubber Producing Facilities Disposal Commission
ISBN : UIUC:30112108107225
Genre : Government property
File Size : 48. 24 MB
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Arsenal Of World War Ii

Author : Paul A. C. Koistinen
ISBN : STANFORD:36105114327732
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 80. 95 MB
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Prolific munitions production keyed America's triumph in World War II but so did the complex economic controls needed to sustain that production. Artillery, tanks, planes, ships, trucks, and weaponry of every kind were constantly demanded by the military and readily supplied by American business. While that relationship was remarkably successful in helping the U.S. win the war, it also raised troubling issues about wartime economies that have never been fully resolved. Paul Koistinen's fourth installment of a monumental five-volume series on the political economy of American warfare focuses on the mobilization of national resources for a truly global war. Koistinen comprehensively analyzes all relevant aspects of the World War II economy from 1940 through 1945, describing the nation's struggle to establish effective control over industrial supply and military demand—and revealing the growing partnership between the corporate community and the armed services. Koistinen traces the evolution of federal agencies mobilizing for war—including the National Defense Advisory Commission, the Office of Production Management, and the Supply Priorities and Allocation Board-and then focuses on the work of the War Production Board from 1942-1945. As the war progressed, the WPB and related agencies oversaw the military's supply and procurement systems; stabilized the economy while financing the war; closely monitored labor relations; and controlled the shipping and rationing of fuel and food. In chronicling American mobilization, Koistinen reveals how representatives of industry and the armed services expanded upon their growing prewar ties to shape policies for harnessing the economy, and how federal agencies were subsequently riven with dissension as New Deal reformers and anti-New Deal corporate elements battled for control over mobilization itself. As the armed services emerged as the principal customers of a command economy, the military-industrial nexus consolidated its power and ultimately succeeded in bending the reformers to its will. The product of exhaustive archival research, Arsenal of World War II shows that mobilization meant more than simply harnessing the economy for war-it also involved struggles for power and position among a great many interest groups and ideologies. Nearly two decades in the making, it provides an ambitious and enormously insightful overview of the emergence of the military-industrial economy, one that still resonates today as America continues to wage wars around the globe.

Modern Styrenic Polymers

Author : John Scheirs
ISBN : 0471497525
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54. 97 MB
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This title addresses the latest developments in the field, covering the major advances that have occurred over the past five years in the polymerization and structure of new generation polystyrenes that are broadening its scope of application. It covers the advent of branched polystyrenes, syndiotactic polystyrene, high-molecular weight general purpose PS, styrenic interpolymers, and clear SBS copolymers Presents voluminous research previously only reported at conferences in one reference Unique coverage of a topic not found in the field

Determinants In The Evolution Of The European Chemical Industry 1900 1939

Author : Anthony S. Travis
ISBN : 9789401712330
Genre : Science
File Size : 45. 99 MB
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The editors wish to thank the European Science Foundation for its support of the programme on the Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, as well as for sponsoring the publication of this volume. Through the subdivision of this initiative that deals specifically with chemical industry it has been possible for historians of science, technology, business and economics to share often widely differing viewpoints and develop consensus across disciplinary and cultural boundaries. The contents of this volume are based on the third of three workshops that have considered the emergence of the modern European chemical industry prior to 1939, the first held in Liege (1994), the second in Maastricht (1995), and the third in Strasbourg (1996). All contributors and participants are thanked for their participation in often lively and informative debates. The generous hospitality of the European Science Foundation and its staff in Strasbourg is gratefully acknowledged. Introduction Emerging chemical knowledge and the development of chemical industry, and particularly the interaction between them, offer rich fields of study for the historian. This is reflected in the contents of the three workshops dealing with the emergence of chemical industry held under the aegis of the European Science Foundation's Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, programme. The first workshop focused mainly on science for industry, 1789- 1850, and the second on the two-way traffic between science and industry, 1850-1914. The third workshop, dealing with the period 1900-1939, covers similar issues, but within different, and wider, contexts.

Oklahoma Crude And The Second World War

Author : Kevin Neptune
ISBN : 9781387521654
Genre :
File Size : 39. 46 MB
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Science And Public Policy

Author : United States. President's Scientific Research Board
ISBN : NWU:35556013717764
Genre : Federal aid to research
File Size : 45. 56 MB
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Catching Up With America

Author : Dominique Barjot
ISBN : 2840502402
Genre : Diffusion of innovations
File Size : 23. 9 MB
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"This book is the outcome of the conference held in Caen (France) in September 1997, in preparation for the International Economic History Congress in Madrid (August 1998). This collection of essays provides, for the first time, a systematic overview of the productivity missions organised in the years following the Second World War, to investigate in situ the production and management techniques adduced to account for the American lead. Bringing together research workers from many countries (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States), the volume addresses four successive themes. The first one concerns the part played by the United States and that country's action on the international scene. This, in turn, leads to the subsequent query: Did the productivity missions constitute tools for modernisation, or were they devices of domination? The second part considers three national experiences: the United Kingdom, France, and Japan. The third part examines a number of branches: iron and steel, electrical engineering, petrochemicals, and the tyre industry. The final part seeks to assess the impact of the missions. Ultimately, one needs must make a distinction between the rhetoric of productivity, on the one hand, and actual achievements, on the other; the missions were part of a wider process of Americanisation, wherein lies one of the keys to the economic miracles of the post-war era."--Page 4 of cover.

Forged Consensus

Author : David M. Hart
ISBN : 9781400832422
Genre : History
File Size : 83. 94 MB
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In this thought-provoking book, David Hart challenges the creation myth of post--World War II federal science and technology policy. According to this myth, the postwar policy sprang full-blown from the mind of Vannevar Bush in the form of Science, the Endless Frontier (1945). Hart puts Bush's efforts in a larger historical and political context, demonstrating in the process that Bush was but one of many contributors to this complex policy and not necessarily the most successful one. Herbert Hoover, Karl Compton, Thurman Arnold, Henry Wallace, Robert Taft, and Curtis LeMay--along with more familiar figures like Bush--are among those whose endeavors he traces. Hart places these policy entrepreneurs in the broad scheme of American political development, connecting each one's vision of the state in this apparently esoteric policy area to the central issues, events, and figures of mid-century America and to key theoretical debates. Hart's work reveals the wide range of ideas, often in conflict with one another, that underlay what later observers interpreted as a "postwar consensus." In Hart's view, these visions--and the interests and institutions that shape their translation into public policy--form the enduring basis of American politics in this important area. Policymakers today are still grappling with the legacies of the forged consensus.

A History Of The International Chemical Industry

Author : Fred Aftalion
ISBN : 0812282078
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 16 MB
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Unlike conventional histories written about the field of chemistry, this study presents an international perspective, integrating the story of chemical science with that of the chemical industry, and emphasizing the developments of the twentieth century.

Inventing Polymer Science

Author : Yasu Furukawa
ISBN : 9781512801996
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 57 MB
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It would be difficult to overestimate the importance of polymer science to life in the twentieth century. Developments in polymer chemistry and engineering have led not only to the creation of a variety of substances such as synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, and plastic but also to discoveries about proteins, DNA, and other biological compounds that have revolutionized western medicine. For these reasons, the history of the discipline tells an important story about how both our material and intellectual worlds have come to be as they are. Yasu Furukawa explores that history by tracing the emergence of macromolecular chemistry, the true beginning of modern polymer science. It is a lively book, given human interest through its focus on the work of two of the central figures in the development of macromolecular chemistry, Hermann Staudinger and Wallace Carothers. In Inventing Polymer Science, Furukawa examines the origins and development of the scientific work of Staudinger and Carothers, illuminates their different styles in research and professional activities, and contrasts the peculiar institutional and social milieux in which they pursued their goals.

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