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Development Of The Rat Spinal Cord Immuno And Enzyme Histochemical Approaches

Author : Martin F. Bach
ISBN : 9783642784743
Genre : Medical
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The studies described here were carried out in the Neuroregul ation Group, Department of Physiology, University of Leiden, the Netherlands. Over the last decade, this group, in close collaboration with the Department of Neurosurgery of the Academic Hospital of Leiden, has studied the development of the central nervous system from a neuroanatomical as well as a clinical perspective. During this period, the expression of several morphore gulators in the developing rat spinal cord was extensively investigated. Parallel studies focused on the development of the spinal cord fiber systems, which was studied by means of the intrauterine use of neuronal tracers. The main goal of these studies was to extend our knowledge about the (normal) generation of the spinal cord and to contribute to the under standing of clinical problems related to regeneration and degeneration in the mammalian central nervous system. The studies on morphoregulators, in particular, appeared to benefit two different scientific areas. Firstly, the correlation between morphoregulator expression patterns and known anatomy contributed to our knowledge about spinal cord development. Secondly, the correlation between morpho regulator expression patterns and known developmental processes may help to understand their precise function(s). This volume of Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology presents these particular studies on the development of the rat spinal cord performed over the last decade. As well as integrating the results of the tracer studies, this volume also provides an update on the development of the rat spinal cord.

The Development Of The Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Joseph Altman
ISBN : 3540131191
Genre : Medical
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The study of the development of the spinal cord has a relatively long history. The spinal cord was singled out as a favorable site when cytological techniques were first applied to the study of the embryonic development of the nervous system. Bidder and Kupffer (1857), using the new procedure of hardening nerve tissue with chromic acid (Hannover 1844), made an investigation of spinal cord development in fetal sheep. They reported that the cellular central mass of the spinal cord develops before its fibrous envelope, deducing from this that the fibers of the white matter of the embryonic spinal cord were outgrowths of cells in the gray matter. Bidder and Kupffer also noted that in the spinal ganglia fibers grew out from cells in both directions, peripherally and centrally. Their report was one of the earliest ontogenetic lines of evidence in support of the later-formulated neuron doctrine (Waldeyer 1891). The spinal cord re mained a favorite topic of morphogenetic studies of the nervous system through out the last quarter of the nineteenth century, with seminal contributions made by His (1886, 1889), von Lenhossek (1889), Retzius (1898), and Ramon y Cajal (1960). Indeed, the preoccupation with the spinal cord in the early investigations of neural development had a lasting, and to some extent regrettable, influence on ideas about the ontogeny of the brain and on the terminology adopted by anatomists.

Development Of The Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Martin Oudega
ISBN : 3642784755
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This edition provides an update on the latest findings on the development ofthe rat spinal cord. The expression pat- terns of several morphoregulators were investigated using immuno-/histochemistry and are discussed in relationto the known anatomy of the spinal cord. The embryonal development of different fiber systems was studied using a newly develo- ped intrauterine tracing technique. In a multidisciplinary effort the different studies were integrated and new ideas on the developmental events in the rat spinal cord discus- sed.

Development Of The Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Martin Oudega
ISBN : 9090038078
Genre : Rats
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Development Of The Human Spinal Cord

Author : Joseph Altman
ISBN : 0195144279
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50. 23 MB
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There exists a wealth of information about the development of the spinal cord in journal articles and monographs, yet this beautifully illustrated work is the first book devoted to this important topic. Because the developing human spinal cord cannot be subjected to experimental manipulations, the knowledge gained from experimental work in animals is applied here to an interpretation of the time course and mechanisms of spinal cord development in man. The book begins with a review of our current understanding of the structure and functions of the spinal cord. Special reference is made to the phylogeny of the vertebrate spinal cord because the authors' interpretation of the development and organization of the human spinal cord is specifically an evolutionary one. Following a detailed experiment-based account of spinal cord development in the rat, the development of the human spinal cord is described, illustrated and interpreted in separate chapters during three epochs: the first trimester (the embryonic period), the second and third trimesters (the fetal period), and the first year of postnatal life. Special attention is paid to such topics as neurons, and the growth and myelination of the ascending and descending fiber tracts of the spinal cord. The book ends with a correlation of the development of motor behavior with different stages in the morphological development of the human spinal cord during the embryonic, fetal, and postnatal periods. The successive acquisition of voluntary control over different parts of the body during infancy is correlated with the progressive myelination of the corticospinal tract. * The book contains an extensive review of work on spinal cord organization and development throughout the 20th century. * The interpretations are based on experimental studies of spinal cord development in the rat carried out by the authors and their associates. * The histological material on human spinal cord development is the largest ever assembled and reproduced (combining the Carnegie, Minot, and Yakovlev Collections). * The collected material (which varies in quality and some of it has begun to fade) has been digitized and electronically reprocessed for improved reproduction. * Discrete components of the spinal cord and new developments are highlighted by color coding; typically on one side only, leaving the contralateral side untouched to allow the reader to use his own interpretation. * Summary graphs are presented, many in color, to convey important structural relationships, developmental events, or theories. * The authors revive a few forgotten theories and offer several new ones regarding the development and organization of the human spinal cord. Development of the Human Spinal Cord will be of interest to developmental biologists, neuroscientists, embryologists, molecular biologists (those working on stem cell research), pediatric neurologists, pathologists, child and developmental psychologists, and their students and trainees.

A Stereological Study On The Postnatal Development Of The Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Christopher Kunaye Momoh
ISBN : OCLC:270837003
Genre :
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The Projections To The Spinal Cord Of The Rat During Development

Author : Egbert Lakke
ISBN : 3642606024
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The Development Of Brainstem And Spinal Cord Respiratory Centres In The Rat

Author : Aihua Song
ISBN : OCLC:222187810
Genre : Brain stem
File Size : 44. 27 MB
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Isolation Of Single Nerve Fibres From The Rat Spinal Cord

Author : K. Yogendran
ISBN : OCLC:1166810322
Genre :
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An Experimental Model Of Rat Spinal Cord Injury

Author : Natasha J. Olby
ISBN : OCLC:53652806
Genre :
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Expression Of L1 Decreases During Postnatal Development Of Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Alin Akopians
ISBN : UCLA:L0087446704
Genre :
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The Post Natal Development Of The Posterior Horn Of The Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Richard S. Hannah
ISBN : OCLC:1033020737
Genre :
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The Post Natal Development Of The Posterior Horn Of The Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Richard Stanley Hannah
ISBN : OCLC:184861696
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Development Of Cholinergic Connections In The Ventral Horn Of The Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Michael Christopher Knox
ISBN : OCLC:47137786
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Development Of Neurons In The Substantia Gelatinosa Of Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Harold Ryan Bicknell
ISBN : OCLC:27964788
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Development Of The Rat Corticospinal Tract

Author : Max Curfs
ISBN : OCLC:246799450
Genre :
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Development Of The Rat Corticospinal Tract

Author : Maximilianus Hubertus Joseph Marie Curfs
ISBN : 9090083782
Genre : Cervical vertebrae
File Size : 24. 36 MB
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Analysis Of Glial Cell Development In The Developing Rat Spinal Cord

Author : Siobhan Sarah McMahon
ISBN : OCLC:795302887
Genre : Rats
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In this study radial glia in the cervical region of the spinal cord were analysed. Di1 was used to determine the morphology and distribution of radial glia during spinal cord development. Using this technique, radial glia were shown to be present at embryonic day (E) 14, E16 and E18 in the developing spinal cord but by E20 no radial glia extended from the luminal to the pial surface of the cord. The only remaining evidence of radial glia was short radial processes in the white matter. Immunocytochemical markers were used to label the radial cells in an attempt to follow any transition in expression of intermediate filament protein, which is known to occur during transformation of radial glia into astrocytes. The presence of vimentin in radially orientated processes in the white matter of the cord at E14 indicated their radial glial nature. By E18, the white matter processes became glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive and were therefore astrocytic in nature. These astrocytes may have differentiated from radial glia that detached from the luminal surface and translocated to the white matter or alternatively some may belong to a population of VZ cells that migrated to the white matter and started to express GFAP. The VZ cells in the developing rat spinal cord were also analysed with immunocytochemical markers both using flow cytometry and in culture to identify their phenotype.

The Spinal Cord

Author : Charles Watson
ISBN : 0080921388
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 30 MB
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Many hundreds of thousands suffer spinal cord injuries leading to loss of sensation and motor function in the body below the point of injury. Spinal cord research has made some significant strides towards new treatment methods, and is a focus of many laboratories worldwide. In addition, research on the involvement of the spinal cord in pain and the abilities of nervous tissue in the spine to regenerate has increasingly been on the forefront of biomedical research in the past years. The Spinal Cord, a collaboration with the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation, is the first comprehensive book on the anatomy of the mammalian spinal cord. Tens of thousands of articles and dozens of books are published on this subject each year, and a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the rat spinal cord. Despite this, there is no comprehensive and authoritative atlas of the mammalian spinal cord. Almost all of the fine details of spinal cord anatomy must be searched for in journal articles on particular subjects. This book addresses this need by providing both a comprehensive reference on the mammalian spinal cord and a comparative atlas of both rat and mouse spinal cords in one convenient source. The book provides a descriptive survey of the details of mammalian spinal cord anatomy, focusing on the rat with many illustrations from the leading experts in the field and atlases of the rat and the mouse spinal cord. The rat and mouse spinal cord atlas chapters include photographs of Nissl stained transverse sections from each of the spinal cord segments (obtained from a single unfixed spinal cord), detailed diagrams of each of the spinal cord segments pictured, delineating the laminae of Rexed and all other significant neuronal groupings at each level and photographs of additional sections displaying markers such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin, calretinin, choline acetlytransferase, neurofilament protein (SMI 32), enkephalin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN). The text provides a detailed account of the anatomy of the mammalian spinal cord and surrounding musculoskeletal elements The major topics addressed are: development of the spinal cord; the gross anatomy of the spinal cord and its meninges; spinal nerves, nerve roots, and dorsal root ganglia; the vertebral column, vertebral joints, and vertebral muscles; blood supply of the spinal cord; cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture of the spinal gray matter; musculotopic anatomy of motoneuron groups; tracts connecting the brain and spinal cord; spinospinal pathways; sympathetic and parasympathetic elements in the spinal cord; neuronal groups and pathways that control micturition; the anatomy of spinal cord injury in experimental animals; The atlas of the rat and mouse spinal cord has the following features: Photographs of Nissl stained transverse sections from each of 34 spinal segments for the rat and mouse; Detailed diagrams of each of the 34 spinal segments for rat and mouse, delineating the laminae of Rexed and all other significant neuronal groupings at each level. ; Alongside each of the 34 Nissl stained segments, there are additional sections displaying markers such as acetylcholinesterase, calbindin, calretinin, choline acetlytransferase, neurofilament protein (SMI 32), and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) All the major motoneuron clusters are identified in relation to the individual muscles or muscle groups they supply.

Spinal Cord Injury

Author : Joost Verhaagen
ISBN : 9780444535078
Genre : Medical
File Size : 46. 44 MB
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Handbook of Clinical Neurology: Spinal Cord Injury summarizes advances in the clinical diagnosis, monitoring, prognostication, treatment, and management of spinal cord injuries. More specifically, it looks at new and important developments in areas such as high-resolution noninvasive neuroimaging, surgery, and electrical stimulation of motor, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual functions. It also reviews the latest insights into spontaneous regeneration and recovery of function following rehabilitation, with emphasis on novel therapeutic strategies, such as gene therapy, transcranial stimulation, brain-machine interfaces, pharmacological approaches, molecular target discovery, and the use of olfactory ensheathing cells, stem cells, and precursor cells. Organized in five sections, the book begins with an overview of the development, maturation, biomechanics, and anatomy of the spinal cord before proceeding with a discussion of clinical diagnosis and prognosis as well as natural recovery, ambulation, and function following spinal cord injury. It then examines clinical neurophysiology in the prognosis and monitoring of traumatic spinal cord injury; medical, surgical and rehabilitative management of spinal cord trauma; and some new approaches for improving recovery in patients, including restoration of function by electrical stimulation, locomotor training, and the use of robotics. Other chapters cover cell transplantation, artificial scaffolds, experimental pharmacological interventions, and molecular and combinatorial strategies for repairing the injured spinal cord. This volume should be of interest to neuroscience and clinical neurology research specialists and practicing neurologists. Comprehensive coverage of the latest scientific understanding of spinal cord injuries Detailed coverage of current treatment best practices and potential future treatments Connects leading edge research programs to future treatment opportunities

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