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Development Of The Vertebrate Retina

Author : Barbara L. Finlay
ISBN : 9781468455922
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 38 MB
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The vertebrate retina has a form that is closely and clearly linked to its func tion. Though its fundamental cellular architecture is conserved across verte brates, the retinas of individual species show variations that are also of clear and direct functional utility. Its accessibility, readily identifiable neuronal types, and specialized neuronal connectivity and morphology have made it a model system for researchers interested in the general questions of the genet ic, molecular, and developmental control of cell type and shape. Thus, the questions asked of the retina span virtually every domain of neuroscientific inquiry-molecular, genetic, developmental, behavioral, and evolutionary. Nowhere have the interactions of these levels of analysis been more apparent and borne more fruit than in the last several years of study of the develop ment of the vertebrate retina. Fields of investigation have a natural evolution, rdoving through periods of initial excitement, of framing of questions and controversy, to periods of synthesis and restatement of questions. The study of the development of the vertebrate retina appeared to us to have reached such a point of synthesis. Descriptive questions of how neurons are generated and deployed, and ques tions of mechanism about the factors that control the retinal neuron's type and distribution and the conformation of its processes have been posed, and in good part answered. Moreover, the integration of cellular accounts of development with genetic, molecular, and whole-eye and behavioral accounts has begun.

The Development Of The Vertebrate Retina

Author : G. Grun
ISBN : 3642687202
Genre :
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The Development Of The Vertebrate Retina

Author : G. Grün
ISBN : 9783642687198
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61. 19 MB
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The mature vertebrate retina is a highly complicated array of several kinds of cells, capable of receiving light impulses, transforming them into neuronal membrane currents, and transmitting these in a meaningful way to central processing. Before it starts to develop, it is a small sheet of unconspicuous cells, which do not differ from other cells of the central nervous system. The chain of events which lead to the trans formation from this stage into that of highly specialized cells ready to fulfll a specific task, is usually called "differentiation. " Originally, this word indicated firstly the proc ess of divergence from other cells which were previously alike, and secondly, the change from an earlier stage of the same cello lt has become widespread practice to imply by the word "differentiation" also the acquisition of specific properties and capacities which are characteristic of a mature, Le. , specifically active, cello Every cell is active at any stage of development, but certain activities are shared by most cells (e. g. , the activities of preparing and accomplishing proliferation, that of initiating development, that of maintaining a certain level of metabolism), while there are others which are shared by only a small number of - originally relate- cells. In most cases these latter activities are acquired by the fmal steps of cellular development, the terminal "differentiation. " In the context of the present paper, the word "function" will refer to this latter type of specific activity.

Vertebrate Eye Development

Author : M. Elizabeth Fini
ISBN : 9783540468264
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 37 MB
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"Who would believe that so small a space could contain the images of all the universe?" Leonardo da Vinci The last years of the 20th century have found the discipline of Developmental Biology returning to its original position at the forefront of biological re search. This progress can be attributed to the burgeoning knowledge base on molecules and gene families, and to the power of the molecular genetic ap proach. Topping the list of organ systems which have provided the most significant advances would have to be the eye. The vertebrate eye was one of the classic embryologic models, used to demonstrate many important prin ciples, including the concepts of inductive tissue interactions first put forth in the early 1900s. Within the last decade of this century, a return to some of the old questions with the new approaches has put eye development back into the limelight. I find this a highly appropriate topic for a book which aims to spark research for the new millennium. We begin with a chapter that discusses the anatomy of eye development, providing the basic reference information for the chapters that follow. A novel aspect of this introduction is the connection made between develop mental strategies and the eye's optical function. What also emerges from this chapter is the number of important eye structures that have barely been touched by the modern developmental biologist. Work on cornea and ante rior chamber development has lagged behind lens and retina.

The Development Of The Vertebrate Retina

Author : Eva Braak
ISBN : 0387114084
Genre : Aminopeptidases
File Size : 24. 16 MB
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Functional Organization And Development Of The Vertebrate Retina

Author : You-Wei Peng
ISBN : OCLC:20840157
Genre :
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Development And Regeneration Of Neuronal Circuits In The Vertebrate Retina

Author : Florence D. D'Orazi
ISBN : OCLC:960818077
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Like in other parts of the central nervous system (CNS), information processing in the retina depends upon the exquisite organization of synaptic connectivity amongst diverse neuronal cell types. Assembly of neuronal circuits during retinal development is highly orchestrated. Recapitulating the precision of this process presents a major challenge for therapeutic efforts to repair the retina after injury or disease in mammals. Whereas mammals cannot replenish lost neurons in their retinas, zebrafish show an innate ability to regenerate their retinas. In this work, I sought to advance our understanding of the restorative potential of retinal regeneration. I capitalized on the native regenerative capacity of the zebrafish to provide some of the first insights into the fidelity of neuronal replacement and integration in the retina. In Chapter 1, I review the factors and mechanisms that shape organized circuitry during retinal development, as well as summarize the current state of the field in teleost and mammalian retinal regeneration research. In Chapters 2 and 3, I investigate bipolar cells, interneurons that convey light signals from photoreceptors to the retinal output neurons. In Chapter 2, I explore the cellular strategies that functionally distinct bipolar cell types undertake during retinal development to attain their characteristic morphologies and dendritic wiring patterns. I use this knowledge in Chapter 3 as a framework to assess the ability of regenerated circuits to engage developmental mechanisms to re-establish their original patterning. I utilize a genetically targeted cell ablation technique to trigger regeneration of bipolar cells in situ, and investigate the precision with which regenerated cells integrate into a mature retinal network. In Chapter 4, I examine the specificity of endogenous neuronal replacement by comparing the composition of regenerated cone photoreceptor populations after ablation of distinct cone types. Lastly, in Chapter 5 I summarize my findings and discuss future directions to address questions raised by this work.

The Visual System In Vertebrates

Author : F. Crescitelli
ISBN : 9783642664687
Genre : Medical
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The vertebrate eye has been, and continues to be, an object of interest and of inquiry for biologists, physicists, chemists, psychologists, and others. Quite apart from its important role in the development of ophthalmology and related medical disciplines, the vertebrate eye is an exemplar of the ingenuity of living systems in adapting to the diverse and changing environments in which vertebrates have evolved. The wonder is not so much that the visual system, like other body systems, has been able to adapt in this way, but rather that these adaptations have taken such a variety of forms. In a previous volume in this series (VII/I) Eakin expressed admiration for the diversity of invertebrate photoreceptors. A comparable situation exists for the vertebrate eye as a whole and one object of this volume is to present to the reader the nature of this diversity. One result of this diversification of ocular structures and properties is that the experimental biologist has available a number of systems for study that are unique or especially favorable for the investigation of particular questions in visual science or neurobiology. This volume includes some examples of progress made by the use of such specially selected vertebrate systems. It is our hope that this comparative approach will continue to reveal new and useful preparations for the examination of important questions.

Regulation Of Vertebrate Retinal Development By Notch Signaling Pathway

Author : Ashutosh Prabhakar Jadhav
ISBN : OCLC:85886822
Genre : Cell determination
File Size : 45. 82 MB
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Invertebrate And Vertebrate Eye Development

Author :
ISBN : 0123850452
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 63 MB
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Vision is our primary sensory modality, and we are naturally curious as to how the visual system assembles. The visual system is in many ways remarkably simple, a repeating assemblage of neurons and support cells that parse the visual field through precision and redundancy. Through this simplicity the eye has often led the way in our exploration of how an organ is assembled. Eye development has therefore long been a favorite for exploring mechanisms of cell fate choice, patterning and cell signaling. This volume, which is part of the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series, highlights the exceptional advances over the past 20 years. Chapters emphasize our knowledge of transcription factors and how these generate networks to direct the eye field and associated structures. Topics such as cell fate specification are also explored, along with the potential of Drosophila as a model for lens formation and the progress made in using the Drosophila eye to examine planar cell polarity. Contributions from researchers who are active in identifying new paradigms to explore Review of our current state of knowledge Chapters written by authors with a new generation approach that takes a more systems approach to identifying factors and better defines cell subtypes

Vertebrate Photoreceptors

Author : Takahisa Furukawa
ISBN : 9784431548805
Genre : Medical
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This book provides a series of comprehensive views on various important aspects of vertebrate photoreceptors. The vertebrate retina is a tissue that provides unique experimental advantages to neuroscientists. Photoreceptor neurons are abundant in this tissue and they are readily identifiable and easily isolated. These features make them an outstanding model for studying neuronal mechanisms of signal transduction, adaptation, synaptic transmission, development, differentiation, diseases and regeneration. Thanks to recent advances in genetic analysis, it also is possible to link biochemical and physiological investigations to understand the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate photoreceptors within a functioning retina in a living animal. Photoreceptors are the most deeply studied sensory receptor cells, but readers will find that many important questions remain. We still do not know how photoreceptors, visual pigments and their signaling pathways evolved, how they were generated and how they are maintained. This book will make clear what is known and what is not known. The chapters are selected from fields of studies that have contributed to a broad understanding of the birth, development, structure, function and death of photoreceptor neurons. The underlying common word in all of the chapters that is used to describe these mechanisms is “molecule”. Only with this word can we understand how these highly specific neurons function and survive. It is challenging for even the foremost researchers to cover all aspects of the subject. Understanding photoreceptors from several different points of view that share a molecular perspective will provide readers with a useful interdisciplinary perspective.

Characterization Of Retinoic Acid Synthesis And Signalling In Vertebrate Eye Development

Author : Caroline S. T. Cheng
ISBN : OCLC:956275121
Genre : Eye
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Normal eye development requires a complex series of morphological movements and ocular patterning with aberrant eye development resulting in birth defects and retinal dystrophies. Eleven percent of paediatric blindness is caused by microphthalmia (small eyes), anophthalmia (no eyes) and coloboma (incomplete optic fissure closure), collectively known as MAC. The incidence of eye birth defects is higher in developing nations where vitamin A deficiency is more prevalent. Vitamin A plays an essential role in organ development, including ocular embryogenesis. The biologically active derivative of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), is required for proper brain formation and neurogenesis, but its precise role in eye development remains unclear. Proper eye morphogenesis requires a tight coordination of complex morphogenetic movements and precise spatial and temporal gene expression. Mutations in RA synthesis enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a3 (aldh1a3), are associated with human MAC cases. We hypothesize that retinoic acid synthesized in the dorsal and ventral retina is required for proper eye morphology and proper optic fissure closure. To test this hypothesis, we used a combinatorial approach to block RA synthesizing enzymes thereby reducing endogenous levels of RA during embryogenesis. To achieve this, we depleted three RA synthesis enzymes that are expressed within dorsal and/or ventral domains of the retina: aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a2 (aldh1a2), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a3 (aldh1a3) and cytochrome p450 1b1 (cyp1b1). We studied the function of RA using zebrafish, a genetically tractable model vertebrate whose transparent embryogenesis and external fertilization enables observation of eye development. Our studies revealed that RA is required for the closure of the optic fissure and may be implicated in the regulation of eye size. However, RA signalling is not required for dorsoventral retinal patterning. Interestingly, we observed that RA synthesized within the ventral retina signals within the dorsal retina. The vertebrate retina is a highly organized and laminar structure, the development of which is conserved among all vertebrates. Differentiation of retinal cell types from retinal progenitor cells is influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Previous studies have shown that sustained high levels of RA influences retinal cell fate decision. To better understand how RA synthesized in the retina is required for retinal neurogenesis, we used depleted RA synthesis enzymes to reduce endogenous RA levels. We observed a depletion of RA levels results in a reduction of rod photoreceptors. Further, we have obtained preliminary data that suggests that RA levels influence cone photoreceptor fate, biasing towards the differentiation of blue- and ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive cones. Taken together, we observed that RA plays a role both in eye morphogenesis as well as retinal neurogenesis. This analysis is paving the way to understanding how mutations in RA-synthesizing enzymes are causing ocular pathologies.

Retinal Development

Author : Evelyne Sernagor
ISBN : 9781139459730
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44. 2 MB
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This advanced text, first published in 2006, takes a developmental approach to the presentation of our understanding of how vertebrates construct a retina. Written by experts in the field, each of the seventeen chapters covers a specific step in the process, focusing on the underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms. There is also a special section on emerging technologies, including genomics, zebrafish genetics, and stem cell biology that are starting to yield important insights into retinal development. Primarily aimed at professionals, both biologists and clinicians working with the retina, this book provides a concise view of vertebrate retinal development. Since the retina is 'an approachable part of the brain', this book will also be attractive to all neuroscientists interested in development, as processes required to build this exquisitely organized system are ultimately relevant to all other parts of the central nervous system.

Vertebrate Eye Development

Author : M Elizabeth Fini
ISBN : 3642536778
Genre :
File Size : 85. 26 MB
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Pediatric Retina

Author : James D. Reynolds
ISBN : 9783642120411
Genre : Medical
File Size : 83. 27 MB
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Pediatric retinal diseases are not simply retinal diseases that occur in children; rather, they are unique disorders that often are not found in adults. This textbook of the pediatric retina offers in-depth guidance on congenital and acquired diseases of the retina in the pediatric population. It is organized according to disease onset and timing, as well as anatomy. All chapters are written by leading authorities in the field from both the pediatric and the retinal perspective. A multidisciplinary approach to the topic is adopted, and critical information is included on disease classification and diagnosis, pathophysiology, genetics, complications, and prognosis. Pediatric Retina will be a useful source of information for pediatric ophthalmologists, retina specialists, and other eye care providers who care for children.

The Retinal M?ller Cell

Author : Vijay Sarthy
ISBN : 9780306464706
Genre : Medical
File Size : 57. 75 MB
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This monograph examines the role of the Müller cell, the main glial element of the retina, in the development, organization, and function of the vertebrate retina. These cells may also play a role in the control of eye growth and in determining the processing of information by surrounding neurons.

Selected Topics On Optical Fiber Technology

Author : Moh Yasin
ISBN : 9535100912
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66. 35 MB
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This book presents a comprehensive account of the recent advances and research in optical fiber technology. It covers a broad spectrum of topics in special areas of optical fiber technology. The book highlights the development of fiber lasers, optical fiber applications in medical, imaging, spectroscopy and measurement, new optical fibers and sensors. This is an essential reference for researchers working in optical fiber researches and for industrial users who need to be aware of current developments in fiber lasers, sensors and other optical fiber applications.

The Origin Of Vertebrates

Author : Walter Holbrook Gaskell
ISBN : EAN:8596547233800
Genre : Fiction
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DigiCat Publishing presents to you this special edition of "The Origin of Vertebrates" by Walter Holbrook Gaskell. DigiCat Publishing considers every written word to be a legacy of humankind. Every DigiCat book has been carefully reproduced for republishing in a new modern format. The books are available in print, as well as ebooks. DigiCat hopes you will treat this work with the acknowledgment and passion it deserves as a classic of world literature.

The Development Of The Vertebrate Eye In Relation To The Problem Of Embryonic Induction

Author : Georgii V. Lopašov
ISBN : OCLC:256660790
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Selostus: Selkärankaissilmän kehitys embryonaalisen induktio-ongelman valossa.

Ventral Anterior Homeobox Vax Genes In Vertebrate Eye Development

Author : Stina Hung Mui
ISBN : UCSD:31822009313065
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