the early earth accretion and differentiation geophysical monograph series

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The Early Earth

Author : James Badro
ISBN : 9781118860366
Genre : Science
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The Early Earth: Accretion and Differentiation provides a multidisciplinary overview of the state of the art in understanding the formation and primordial evolution of the Earth. The fundamental structure of the Earth as we know it today was inherited from the initial conditions 4.56 billion years ago as a consequence of planetesimal accretion, large impacts among planetary objects, and planetary-scale differentiation. The evolution of the Earth from a molten ball of metal and magma to the tectonically active, dynamic, habitable planet that we know today is unique among the terrestrial planets, and understanding the earliest processes that led to Earth’s current state is the essence of this volume. Important results have emerged from a wide range of disciplines including cosmochemistry, geochemistry, experimental petrology, experimental and theoretical mineral physics and geodynamics. The topics in this volume include: Condensation of primitive objects in the solar nebula, planetary building blocks Early and late accretion and planetary dynamic modeling Primordial differentiation, core formation, Magma Ocean evolution and crystallization This volume will be a valuable resource for graduate students, academics, and researchers in the fields of geophysics, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and planetary science.

Evolution Of The Earth

Author : David Stevenson
ISBN : 9780444535733
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 59 MB
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Evolution of the Earth focuses on the formation of Earth. Topics include the differention of the core, mantle and crust; the formation of the ocean basins and continents; outgassing and volcanism; the initiation of plate tectonics, the origin and persistence of Earth's magnetic field; the growth of the inner core; changes in mantle convection through time; and the impact of life on the planet. The volume takes an interdisciplinary viewpoint that emphasizes the interplay of geophysics, other aspects of earth science and biological evolution. Some outstanding questions are identified and debated. Self-contained volume starts with an overview of the subject then explores each topic with in depth detail Extensive reference lists and cross references with other volumes to facilitate further research Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding Content suited for both the expert and non-expert

Earth Processes

Author : Asish Basu
ISBN : 9780875900773
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 26 MB
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 95. Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close-2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer-3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest-4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

Earth S Deep Mantle

Author : VARIOS AUTORES
ISBN : UCSD:31822033841958
Genre : Science
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 160. Understanding the inner workings of our planet and its relationship to processes closer to the surface remains a frontier in the geosciences. Manmade probes barely reach ˜10 km depth and volcanism rarely brings up samples from deeper than ˜150 km. These distances are dwarfed by Earth's dimensions, and our knowledge of the deeper realms is pieced together from a range of surface observables, meteorite and solar atmosphere analyses, experimental and theoretical mineral physics and rock mechanics, and computer simulations. A major unresolved issue concerns the nature of mantle convection, the slow (1-5 cm/year) solid-state stirring that helps cool the planet by transporting radiogenic and primordial heat from Earth's interior to its surface. Expanding our knowledge here requires input from a range of geoscience disciplines, including seismology, geodynamics, mineral physics, and mantle petrology and chemistry. At the same time, with better data sets and faster computers, seismologists are producing more detailed models of 3-D variations in the propagation speed of different types of seismic waves; new instrumentation and access to state-of-the-art community facilities such as synchrotrons have enabled mineral physicists to measure rock and mineral properties at ever larger pressures and temperatures; new generations of mass spectrometers are allowing geo-chemists to quantify minute concentrations of diagnostic isotopes; and with supercomputers geodynamicists are making increasingly realistic simulations of dynamic processes at conditions not attainable in analogue experiments. But many questions persist. What causes the lateral variations in seismic wavespeed that we can image with mounting accuracy? How reliable are extrapolations of laboratory measurements on simple materials over many orders of magnitude of pressure and temperature? What are the effects of volatiles and minor elements on rock and mineral properties under extreme physical conditions? Can ab initio calculations help us understand material behavior in conditions that are still out of reach of laboratory measurement? What was the early evolution of our planet and to what extent does it still influence present-day dynamics? And how well do we know such first-order issues as the average bulk composition of Earth?

Geophysical Monograph

Author : Garry D. McKenzie
ISBN : CHI:28063987
Genre : Geodynamics
File Size : 21. 32 MB
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Geophysical Monograph

Author : Robert Stephen John Sparks
ISBN : CHI:66254333
Genre : Geophysics
File Size : 79. 55 MB
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Journal Of Geoscience Education

Author :
ISBN : UCSD:31822009056425
Genre : Geology
File Size : 83. 66 MB
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The Age Of The Earth

Author : Geological Society of London
ISBN : UCSD:31822031188444
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 34 MB
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Isotopes

Author : Gunter Faure
ISBN : UCSD:31822033467903
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 41 MB
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The leading textbook and professional resource on isotope geochemistry–completely updated and expanded Since its initial publication as Principles of Isotope Geology in 1977, this has been the most widely used comprehensive textbook in upper-level isotope geochemistry courses. Now in its Third Edition, Isotopes: Principles and Applications has been thoroughly updated, rewritten, reorganized, and expanded to include more than twice the content of its predecessor. Covering radiogenic, radioactive, and stable isotopes, this volume consists of five units that present fundamentals of atomic physics; dating methods for terrestrial and extraterrestrial rocks by means of radiogenic isotopes; geochemistry of radiogenic isotopes; dating by means of U, Th-series and cosmogenic radionuclides; and the fractionation of the stable isotopes of H, C, N, O, and S, as well as Li, B, Si, and Cl. Additionally, this edition provides: Expanded coverage of the U-Pb methods –the most accurate available dating technique Applications to the petrogenesis of igneous rocks Summaries of the use of isotopic data for study of the oceans New examples from the fields of archeology and anthropology Radiation-damage methods of dating including fission tracks, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance (ESR) Information on the dispersal of fission-product radionuclides and the disposal of radioactive waste Extensive chapter-by-chapter problems and solutions Supplemented with summaries and references in each chapter, as well as more than 450 drawings and 100 tables, this volume remains the leading resource in isotope geoscience. Broad applications in many other areas –including geochemistry, geology, meteoritics, physics, chemistry, and biology –make it indispensable throughout the natural sciences.

Evolution Of The Earth And Planets

Author : E. Takahashi
ISBN : UCSD:31822020600961
Genre : Science
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 74. The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in our understanding of how planets evolve. Space exploration and observations on the Earth's interior, complemented by laboratory investigations and theoretical analyses, have led to entirely new concepts governing our science: giant late-stage impacts, magma oceans, dense primordial atmospheres, continental growth curves, mantle-core interactions, boundary-layer instabilities and the influence of tectonics on climate, among others. It is the purpose of this book to illustrate the role these new concepts play in defining current thinking about the origin, growth and subsequent evolution of the Earth and planets. The topics range from cosmogony and comparative planetary tectonics to seismic tomography, mineral physics and geodynamics of the Earth's mantle. The articles, based on a Union Symposium at the 1991 IUGG General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, offer a unique blend of geophysics, geochemistry and planetary science. Theoretical, observational and laboratory studies are well represented, and the reader can obtain a broad overview of the state of the art in current research on the internal evolution of planets. The editors wish to acknowledge contributions from the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI), the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI), the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), and NASA, which supported the Symposium and the production of this volume. More important, we thank our colleagues who helped prepare and review the articles: their expert advice and unselfish efforts were invaluable.

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