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The Eastern Front 1914 1920

Author : David Jordan
ISBN : 9781908273079
Genre : History
File Size : 75. 40 MB
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The History of World War I series recounts the battles and campaigns of the 'Great War'. From the Falkland Islands to the lakes of Africa, across the Eastern and Western Fronts, to the former German colonies in the Pacific, the World War I series provides a six-volume history of the battles and campaigns that raged on land, at sea and in the air. In 1914, the autocratic Russian Empire was allied to the democracies of France and Great Britain – and the small Kingdom of Serbia – through a series of treaties concluded in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and designed to counter the threat of the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. With the outbreak of war in August, the Russian forces mobilized and moved into the attack. Despite being outnumbered, the German commander, Paul von Hindenburg, destroyed one Russian army at the Battle of Tannenberg in August 1914, before defeating another at the Battle of the Masurian Lakes the following month. The Russians fared better against the Austro-Hungarian forces further south in Galicia, before reluctant German intervention to help their allies stabilized the situation. The year 1915 saw the German High Command switch their main effort to the Eastern Front, resulting in the decisive German victory at Gorlice-Tarnow, and the subsequent capture of Warsaw and hundreds of square miles of formerly Russian-controlled territory. The Russian Brusilov Offensive in the summer of 1916 and the Romanian entry into the war on the Allied side saw the latter's fortunes revive, but the success proved to be only temporary. Brusilov's attack stalled, while Romania was effectively knocked out of the war by a joint Central Powers offensive led by Germany and Bulgaria. Increasing unrest in Russia culminated in the first revolution of 1917 and the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. The offensives of the Russian Provisional Government failed, and a second revolution in November saw Lenin's Bolsheviks seize power. Having made peace with the Central Powers, the Bolsheviks fought the anti-Bolshevik 'White' Russian forces in the Civil War that followed, while a number of Allied powers sent forces to help the Whites. This conflict, combined with war with the newly-revived state of Poland in 1919, meant that large-scale fighting in Russia did not end until late 1920. The length of the front in the East was much longer than in the West. The theatre of war was roughly delimited by the Baltic Sea in the West and Moscow in the East, a distance of 1,200 kilometres, and Saint Petersburg in the North and the Black Sea in the South, a distance of more than 1,600 kilometres. This had a drastic effect on the nature of the warfare. While World War I on the Western Front developed into trench warfare for much of the war, the battle lines on the Eastern Front were much more fluid, and trenches never truly developed. The greater length of the front ensured that the density of soldiers in the line was lower so the line was easier to break. Once broken, the sparse communication networks made it difficult for the defender to rush reinforcements to the rupture in the line to mount a rapid counteroffensive and seal off a breakthrough. The terrain in the Eastern European theatre was quite solid, often making it near impossible to construct anything resembling the complicated trench systems on the Western Front, which tended to have muddier and much more workable terrain. In short, in the east the side defending did not have the overwhelming advantages it had on the Western Front. In fact the greatest advance of the whole war was made in the East by the German Army in the summer of 1915. With the aid of over 300 black and white and colour photographs, complemented by full-colour maps, The Eastern Front provides a detailed guide to the background and conduct of the conflict on the Eastern Front, up to and including the Russian Civil War and the Russo-Polish War.

The Great War Against Eastern European Jewry 1914 1920

Author : Giuseppe Motta
ISBN : 9781527512214
Genre : History
File Size : 64. 5 MB
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This volume focuses on the consequences that the First World War had on the Jews living in the notorious Pale of Settlement within the frontiers of the Tsarist Empire. The research is entirely based on a solid documentary study, consisting of the documents of the Joint Distribution Committee and references to many historiographic works. Rather than dealing with the military aspects of war, the book focuses on the political consequences, and in particular on the economic and social changes that the conflict generated. The Jewish communities experienced a personal tragedy within the general tragedy of war, as they were particularly “damaged”, not only by violence and persecutions – suffering from the pogroms of Cossacks and local populations – but also by the evacuations and expulsions ordered by the military. It meant that a great part of the Jewish population was forced to leave their residence and, in many cases, compelled to wander for several years or even to emigrate. In addition to this, after the outbreak of World War I, the Russian Jews became “hostile elements” who were viewed as potential spies and traitors, and were subsequently targeted by a new wave of discriminatory measures that were based on two myths of contemporary antisemitism: the “stab in the back” and the conspiracy of Jewish Bolshevism. From this perspective, what happened during the Great War could be seen as an anticipation of the tragedy that affected Eastern European Jewry in the following decades.

Other Fronts Other Wars?

Author :
ISBN : 9789004279513
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 6 MB
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Other Fronts, Other Wars? offers insights into areas beyond the Western Front covering aspects such as captivity, occupation of the Eastern war theatre, medical history and war relief, home-front, gender, and the shaping of attitudes during and after this war.

The Czecho Slovak Struggle For Independence 1914???1920

Author : Brent Mueggenberg
ISBN : 9781476617626
Genre : History
File Size : 35. 35 MB
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The calamity of World War I spawned dozens of liberation movements among ethnic and religious groups throughout the world. None was more successful in realizing the goal of self-determination than the Czechs and Slovaks. From its humble beginning the Czecho-Slovak liberation movement grew into an impressive struggle that was waged from the capitals of Western Europe to the frozen steppes of Siberia. Its ranks included exiled propagandists, war prisoners-turned-legionaries and conspirators inside Austria-Hungary. This book shows how these groups overcame their estrangements and coordinated their efforts to win independence for their homeland. It also examines the consequences of the Czecho-Slovaks’ achievements, including their entanglement in the Russian Civil War and their impact on the postwar settlements that redrew the political boundaries of Central Europe.

The Oxford Illustrated History Of The First World War

Author : Hew Strachan
ISBN : 9780191640414
Genre : History
File Size : 42. 24 MB
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The First World War, now a century ago, still shapes the world in which we live, and its legacy lives on, in poetry, in prose, in collective memory and political culture. By the time the war ended in 1918, millions lay dead. Three major empires lay shattered by defeat, those of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans. A fourth, Russia, was in the throes of a revolution that helped define the rest of the twentieth century. The Oxford History of the First World War brings together in one volume many of the most distinguished historians of the conflict, in an account that matches the scale of the events. From its causes to its consequences, from the Western Front to the Eastern, from the strategy of the politicians to the tactics of the generals, they chart the course of the war and assess its profound political and human consequences. Chapters on economic mobilization, the impact on women, the role of propaganda, and the rise of socialism establish the wider context of the fighting at sea and in the air, and which ranged on land from the trenches of Flanders to the mountains of the Balkans and the deserts of the Middle East. First published for the 90th anniversary of the 1918 Armistice, this highly illustrated revised edition contains significant new material to mark the 100th anniversary of the war's outbreak.

The Polish Review

Author :
ISBN : UCR:31210024570986
Genre : Poland
File Size : 86. 19 MB
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Barbarism And Civilization

Author : Bernard Wasserstein
ISBN : 9780191622519
Genre : History
File Size : 54. 76 MB
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The twentieth century in Europe witnessed some of the most brutish episodes in history. Yet it also saw incontestable improvements in the conditions of existence for most inhabitants of the continent - from rising living standards and dramatically increased life expectancy, to the virtual elimination of illiteracy, and the advance of women, ethnic minorities, and homosexuals to greater equality of respect and opportunity. It was a century of barbarism and civilization, of cruelty and tenderness, of technological achievement and environmental spoliation, of imperial expansion and withdrawal, of authoritarian repression - and of individualism resurgent. Covering everything from war and politics to social, cultural, and economic change, Barbarism and Civilization is by turns grim, humorous, surprising, and enlightening: a window on the century we have left behind and the earliest years of its troubled successor.

The Myth Of The Great War

Author : John Mosier
ISBN : 9780062084118
Genre : History
File Size : 35. 36 MB
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Based on previously unused French and German sources, this challenging and controversial new analysis of the war on the Western front from 1914 to 1918 reveals how and why the Germans won the major battles with one-half to one-third fewer casualties than the Allies, and how American troops in 1918 saved the Allies from defeat and a negotiated peace with the Germans.

The Czechoslovak Legion In Russia 1914 1920

Author : John Francis Nejez Bradley
ISBN : UOM:39015024989728
Genre : History
File Size : 38. 6 MB
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Churchill S Crusade

Author : Clifford Kinvig
ISBN : 9780826433480
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 39 MB
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The story of Britain's invasion of Russia at the end of the First World War has remained largely untold. Although not its initial architect, its chief advocate, was the passionately anti-Bolshevik, Winston Churchill. Churchill's Crusade is the first complete account of a unique military operation - one which, if it had succeeded, would have changed the history of Russia, Europe and the World.

Black Newspapers And America S War For Democracy 1914 1920

Author : William G. Jordan
ISBN : 9780807875520
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 73. 91 MB
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During World War I, the publishers of America's crusading black newspapers faced a difficult dilemma. Would it be better to advance the interests of African Americans by affirming their patriotism and offering support of President Wilson's war for democracy in Europe, or should they demand that the government take concrete steps to stop the lynching, segregation, and disfranchisement of blacks at home as a condition of their participation in the war? This study of their efforts to resolve that dilemma offers important insights into the nature of black protest, race relations, and the role of the press in a republican system. William Jordan shows that before, during, and after the war, the black press engaged in a delicate and dangerous dance with the federal government and white America--at times making demands or holding firm, sometimes pledging loyalty, occasionally giving in. But although others have argued that the black press compromised too much, Jordan demonstrates that, given the circumstances, its strategic combination of protest and accommodation was remarkably effective. While resisting persistent threats of censorship, the black press consistently worked at educating America about the need for racial justice.

Europe Since 1815

Author : Preston William Slosson
ISBN : UOM:39015005476257
Genre : Europe
File Size : 44. 88 MB
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Struggle 1914 1920

Author : Evelyn Wrench
ISBN : UCAL:$B111224
Genre : Europe
File Size : 87. 7 MB
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Widener Library Shelflist General European And World History

Author : Harvard University. Library
ISBN : UOM:39015082923262
Genre : Library catalogs
File Size : 88. 94 MB
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Woodrow Wilson And The Rebirth Of Poland 1914 1920

Author : Louis L. Gerson
ISBN : UOM:39015020740950
Genre : Poland
File Size : 42. 7 MB
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"The original study ... was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Yale University." "Bibliographical essay": pages 140-145.

The Eastern Front 1914 1917

Author : Norman Stone
ISBN : STANFORD:36105036524697
Genre : Soviet Union
File Size : 75. 20 MB
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The battles fought on the Eastern Front were decisive to the course of the First World War. As Well as reconstructing these events, Norman Stone explores the factors that influenced their outcome and draws some unexpected conclusions. Dispelling the popular myth of an economically crippled Russia, he argues that the country was, in fact, going through a period of unprecedented economic growth. Tsarist Russia's weakness lay in its outdated administration, which resulted in war shortages and an inefficient army. In a fascinating reinterpretation of the connection between the war and the revolution that followed, he shows that although military events had almost ceased by the end of 1916, Russia was still in turmoil, undergoing a period of modernization that opened the way to revolution.

The Initial Period Of War On The Eastern Front 22 June August 1941

Author : David M. Glantz
ISBN : 9781136289699
Genre : History
File Size : 32. 62 MB
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Beginning with Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, this volume draws upon eye-witness German accounts supplemented with German archival and detailed Soviet materials. Formerly classified Soviet archival materials has been incorporated.

The British National Bibliography

Author : Arthur James Wells
ISBN : STANFORD:36105211722678
Genre : English literature
File Size : 65. 49 MB
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Pan African Chronology 1914 1929

Author : Everett Jenkins
ISBN : 0786408359
Genre : Reference
File Size : 21. 43 MB
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The author's first volume of hisPan-African Chronologycovers the period from 1400 through the end of the American Civil War. The second volume chronicles the most significant events in the African diaspora from the end of the Civil War through the pre–World War I years. This book is the third volume in the series. The period it covers is from 1914 through 1929, a time when people of African descent experienced two seminal events: World War I and the Black Awakening. In World War I, people of African descent fought for both sides, earning distinction on the battlefields of France as well as in the jungles and deserts of Africa. The "Black Awakening," a period from 1919 through 1929, marked the dawning of global awareness, not only for persons of African descent but also for non–African peoples, of the contributions of African people to the culture of the world. The book is arranged by year; events of each year are grouped by region-the Americas, Europe, Australia, Asia, and Africa. It also has two special biographical divisions for W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey.

The Longman Companion To European Nationalism 1789 1920

Author : Raymond Pearson
ISBN : UOM:39015032478896
Genre : History
File Size : 27. 37 MB
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This reference/companion reviews all aspects of European nationalism from the French Revolution through to the aftermath of World War I when the nationalist issues and problems that are coming to dominate the political history of our own time were already fully established. It provides the reader with the necessary facts and figures in a series of chronologies, initially Europe-wide but then charting the fortunes of each separate nation and ethnic group; statistical tables; nationalist biographies; an extended political glossary; detailed bibliographies arranged both by topic and by nation; and a concise atlas section; all presented in an accessible form, with commentary. Sea and Turkey and sets nationalism in the British Isles (the Irish, Scottish and Welsh experience) alongside that of continental Europe. It includes less familiar nations and groupings like the Icelanders and the Gypsies and has a strong geo-political emphasis, highlighting the interrelationship of history and geography throughout. It makes use of the research and skills of social science, as well as the traditional work of the historian, to throw light on the dynamics and rationale of the nationalist phenomenon.

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