the first triumvirate of rome julius caesar marcus licinius crassus gnaeus pompey magnus and the fall of the roman republic

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The First Triumvirate Of Rome

Author : Clifford Alexander
ISBN : 1523294442
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The First Century BC was a watershed for the development of the Roman state. It was a century characterized by near incessant warfare and political strife in Rome, evidence that a new form of government was necessary to rule over its new extensive conquests. It was becoming apparent to the traditional ruling elite that the ancient military superpower was beginning to undergo an uneasy transition from Republic to Imperial Power. Central in this change were the actions of the First Triumvirate: an alliance between the most powerful men in Rome. The Triumvirate was composed of Gnaeus Pompey Magnus, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Gaius Julius Caesar, and together these individuals combined their vast political influence to reduce the Roman Senate to a mere charade. Together, they eked out a place for themselves at the head of the Roman state. Through their efforts, Gaul, Spain and Syria came firmly into the Roman fold. However, like all things true to the Roman Republic, the First Triumvirate was not invulnerable to outside coercion and manipulation. Soon, it too began to show signs of corruption, and each man started to suspect the other of looming betrayal. These misgivings would seep through the alliance until the poison had successfully turned the members of the First Triumvirate against one another. The political tension, and the ensuing war, would fundamentally alter the very fabric of the Roman state forever. From the chaos of the Triumvirate, a new form of government would take root: the Roman monarchy we now know as the Empire.

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus

Author : Source Wikipedia
ISBN : 1230813136
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 24. Chapters: First Triumvirate, Julius Caesar, Lucca Conference, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey. Excerpt: Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: , July 100 BC - 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion to march on Rome. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity." But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the...

Wars That Changed History 50 Of The World S Greatest Conflicts

Author : Spencer C. Tucker
ISBN : 9781610697866
Genre : History
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A thorough study of significant wars throughout history and their influence on world affairs—from the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmore III's Campaigns during 479–459 BCE through the Iraq War of 2003–2011. • Features Illustrations, maps, and photographs to visually engage readers • Discusses the significance of major conflicts and their broad historical consequences • Offers the most recent interpretations as to the causes and effects of each war covered • Provides a list of books for additional reading to expand learning opportunities • Reveals the meaning of the term "tech-tac disjoint" and explains its relevance to to modern use of technology-enabled weaponry

The Roman Republic A Very Short Introduction

Author : David M. Gwynn
ISBN : 9780191642357
Genre : History
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The rise and fall of the Roman Republic occupies a special place in the history of Western civilization. From humble beginnings on the seven hills beside the Tiber, the city of Rome grew to dominate the ancient Mediterranean. Led by her senatorial aristocracy, Republican armies defeated Carthage and the successor kingdoms of Alexander the Great, and brought the surrounding peoples to east and west into the Roman sphere. Yet the triumph of the Republic was also its tragedy. In this Very Short Introduction, David M. Gwynn provides a fascinating introduction to the history of the Roman Republic and its literary and material sources, bringing to life the culture and society of Republican Rome and its ongoing significance within our modern world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Year Of Julius And Caesar

Author : Stefan G. Chrissanthos
ISBN : 9781421429717
Genre : History
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The year 59 BC—when Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus served as joint consuls—marked a major turning point in the history of the Roman Republic. It was a dramatic and momentous time of political intrigue, bloodshed, and murder, one that boasted some of the most famous personalities ever to grace the Roman historical stage. Arguing that this pivotal year demands extended study, Stefan G. Chrissanthos's The Year of Julius and Caesar is the first focused investigation of the period. Chrissanthos uses a single event as his centerpiece: the violent attack orchestrated by Caesar and the "First Triumvirate" on Bibulus and his followers in the Forum on April 4. Before that day, he reveals, 59 had been a typical year, one that provides valuable insight into Roman government and political gamesmanship. But the assault on Bibulus changed everything: the consul retired to his house for the rest of the year, allowing Caesar and his allies to pass legislation that eventually enabled Caesar to take complete control of the Roman state. This detailed reconstruction draws on archeological and literary evidence to describe a watershed year in the history of the late Roman Republic, establish an accurate chronology, and answer many of the important historical questions surrounding the year 59. Written in an engaging and accessible style, The Year of Julius and Caesar will appeal to undergraduates and scholars alike and to anyone interested in contemporary politics, owing to the parallels between the Roman and American Republics.

World History For Dummies

Author : Peter Haugen
ISBN : 9780470446546
Genre : History
File Size : 51. 35 MB
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Now updated! Your personal tour guide to the history of the world Want to know more about global history? This concise guide explains in clear detail all the major players and events that have made the world what it is today. Covering the entirety of human history, this comprehensive resource highlights important developments in everything from religion and science to art and war — giving you an understanding of how the 21st-century world came to be. Begin to connect with the past — label the eras as you meet the Neanderthals, home in on Homer, raise Atlantis, and preserve Pharaohs Find strength in numbers — trace the growth from ancient civilizations to today's global community and discover what makes societies succeed or fail Discover the impact of thought — explore the rise of religion, the roots of philosophy, and the advance of science — and how our feelings and beliefs continually redefined us Know the global consequences of war — ride with the Greeks and the Romans, arm yourself with the cavalry, dig the trenches, and follow the paths humans took to wage modern war Meet the movers and shakers — from great leaders and courageous revolutionaries to ruthless tyrants and unsung heroes Examine significant events of the 21st century — from 9/11 and the Afghanistan and Iraq wars to climate change, Hurricane Katrina, and the economic rise of China, India, and Brazil Open the book and find: A detailed overview of history The development of the world's religions Reviews of essential historical documents, from the Bible to the Bill of Rights The invention of writing and art Scientific developments that revolutionized the world Capsule biographies of people who changed history — and a few who were changed by it Ten unforgettable dates in world history

Caesar S Commentaries

Author : Julius Caesar
ISBN : 9781455364718
Genre : History
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De Bello Gallico (The War in Gaul) and The Civil War. According to Wikipedia: "Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. A politician of the populares tradition, he formed an unofficial triumvirate with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus which dominated Roman politics for several years, opposed in the Roman Senate by optimates like Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea, and he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC. The collapse of the triumvirate, however, led to a stand-off with Pompey and the Senate. Leading his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he became the master of the Roman world. After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He was proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity" (dictator perpetuo), and heavily centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic. A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (March 15) in 44 BC, hoping to restore the normal running of the Republic. However, the result was another Roman civil war, which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent autocracy by Caesar's adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus. In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Senate officially sanctified Caesar as one of the Roman deities. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero, the historical writings of Sallust, and the poetry of Catullus."

A Global Chronology Of Conflict

Author : Spencer Tucker
ISBN : 1851096671
Genre : History
File Size : 49. 61 MB
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This monumental six-volume resource offers engaging entries of major diplomatic, military, and political events driving world conflicts from ancient times to the present. * Hundreds of concise, chronologically organized entries on major wars, battles, political events, weapons technologies, and diplomatic initiatives * Essays at roughly 50-year intervals analyzing each era's defining developments in the evolution of warfare, including changes in tactics, weapons, and other technologies * Sidebars highlighting hundreds of key individuals in the history of military conflict as well as important developments in weapon systems * A comprehensive glossary of military terms to help readers understand the language of warfare and weapons * A rich illustration program of images, drawings, and maps

National Geographic Visual History Of The World

Author : Klaus Berndl
ISBN : UOM:49015003142966
Genre : History
File Size : 70. 87 MB
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Looks at the important events and figures in world history, from 4000 B.C. to the present day.

Magill S Guide To Military History Peq Tri

Author : John Powell
ISBN : UOM:49015002851328
Genre : History
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"Salem Press's five-volume 'Magill's Guide to Military History' presents a survey of the wars, battles, peoples, groups, and civilizations that played an important role in worldwide military history from ancient times to the twenty-first century. In addition to comprehensive coverage of Western military history, the encyclopedia examines the major military events, personages, and civilizations of the entire world from the beginning of military history ..." Includes: Time Line of Wars and Battles, Wars and Battles by Geographical Area, Military Leaders by Geographic Area, and List of Entries by Category,

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