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The Inner Citadel

Author : Pierre Hadot
ISBN : 0674461711
Genre : Philosophy
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The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius are treasured today--as they have been over the centuries--as an inexhaustible source of wisdom. And as one of the three most important expressions of Stoicism, this is an essential text for everyone interested in ancient religion and philosophy. Yet the clarity and ease of the work's style are deceptive. Pierre Hadot, eminent historian of ancient thought, uncovers new levels of meaning and expands our understanding of its underlying philosophy. Written by the Roman emperor for his own private guidance and self-admonition, the Meditations set forth principles for living a good and just life. Hadot probes Marcus Aurelius's guidelines and convictions and discerns the hitherto unperceived conceptual system that grounds them. Abundantly quoting the Meditations to illustrate his analysis, the author allows Marcus Aurelius to speak directly to the reader. And Hadot unfolds for us the philosophical context of the Meditations, commenting on the philosophers Marcus Aurelius read and giving special attention to the teachings of Epictetus, whose disciple he was. The soul, the guiding principle within us, is in Marcus Aurelius's Stoic philosophy an inviolable stronghold of freedom, the "inner citadel." This spirited and engaging study of his thought offers a fresh picture of the fascinating philosopher-emperor, a fuller understanding of the tradition and doctrines of Stoicism, and rich insight on the culture of the Roman empire in the second century. Pierre Hadot has been working on Marcus Aurelius for more than twenty years; in this book he distills his analysis and conclusions with extraordinary lucidity for the general reader.

The Inner Citadel

Author : John Philip Christman
ISBN : 0195058623
Genre : Autonomy (Philosophy).
File Size : 71. 19 MB
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The concept of individual autonomy is one of the most frequently utilized--and perhaps least understood--terms of current moral, political, and legal debate. The first anthology devoted entirely to this philosophical concept, The Inner Citadel includes both extensive discussions of autonomy itself and theoretical applications of autonomy to various areas of philosophical inquiry. John Christman has assembled essays, many appearing in print for the first time, by such eminent philosophers as Gerald Dworkin, Joel Feinberg, Harry Frankfurt, and David A. J. Richards. Together, these essays provide the necessary foundation for the myriad debates and controversies in areas such as bioethics, feminism, and paternalism whose resolution turns on the nature and value of individual autonomy. As the idea of autonomy is central to such a wide range of philosophical issues and impinges on other disciplines as well, The Inner Citadel will be essential for courses in moral, political, social, and legal philosophy, as well as a valuable resource for students of law, political science, and psychology.

Eastern Turkey

Author : T.A. Sinclair
ISBN : 9781904597704
Genre : Social Science
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Civilizations of great diversity have succeeded each other or co-existed in Eastern Turkey, and most of them have left monuments of high quality. Hittite, Urartian, Hellenistic, Roman, Syrian, Byzantine, Armenian, Arab, Seljuk and Ottoman, their remains are all represented in the region. These include some of the most important sites in Near Eastern archaeology, in regions in and near the heartland of the Hittite and Urartian cultures. The Hellenistic cities reflect the introduction of a new civilization, and the Roman and Byzantine empires included all or part of the region, with the prosperous feudal states of Georgia and Armenia on their borders. Besides the Byzantine, three great East Christian monastic traditions, Syrian, Georgian and Armenian, flourished here from the late fourth century onwards, and their monuments have left a permanent mark on the landscape. The Seljuk invasion, followed by the more recent period of Ottoman rule, led to the imposition of a new culture on the region, and its reflection in the monuments. Some of the finest Seljuk buildings are in Eastern Turkey, and the buildings of the Turkish states east of the Seljuk empire form much of the early history of Turkish architecture. The independent Greek empire of Trebizond and two of the four Crusader states lay in Eastern Turkey. The lands of the empires and the smaller medieval states were heavily fortified, and their castles and other fortifications are now spread over the region. The cultural diversity of its inheritance has made Eastern Turkey one of the most fascinating regions for archaeological and art-historical research. These four volumes provide the first comprehensive guide to all of the important historical sites of the region, the result of eight years of travel and research. The monuments are dealt with by geographical location, including a full description of each site, and details on how it can be reached. In the case of the more important monuments, a full bibliography of earlier work is provided. The ample provision of photographs and plans enhances the value of the author's detailed descriptions.

Long Narrative Songs From The Mongghul Of Northeast Tibet

Author : Gerald Roche
ISBN : 9781783743865
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 74. 83 MB
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Containing ballads of martial heroism, tales of tragic lovers and visions of the nature of the world, Long Narrative Songs from the Mongghul of Northeast Tibet: Texts in Mongghul, Chinese, and English is a rich repository of songs collected amongst the Mongghul of the Seven Valleys, on the northeast Tibetan Plateau in western China. These songs represent the apogee of Mongghul oral literature, and they provide valuable insights into the lives of Mongghul people—their hopes, dreams, and worries. They bear testimony to the impressive plurilingual repertoire commanded by some Mongghul singers: the original texts in Tibetan, Mongghul, and Chinese are here presented in Mongghul, Chinese, and English. The kaleidoscope of stories told in these songs include that of Marshall Qi, a chieftain from the Seven Valleys who travels to Luoyang with his Mongghul army to battle rebels; Laarimbu and Qiimunso, a pair of star-crossed lovers who take revenge from beyond the grave on the families that kept them apart; and the Crop-Planting Song and the Sheep Song, which map the physical and spiritual terrain of the Mongghul people, vividly describing the physical and cosmological world in which they exist. This collection of songs is supported by an Introduction by Gerald Roche that provides an understanding of their traditional context, and shows that these works offer insights into the practices of multilingualism in Tibet. Long Narrative Songs from the Mongghul of Northeast Tibet is vital reading for researchers and others working on oral literature, as well as those who study Inner Asia, Tibet, and China’s ethnic minorities. Finally, this book is of interest to linguistic anthropologists and sociolinguists, particularly those working on small-scale multilingualism and pre-colonial multilingualism.

Interpreting Islam

Author : Hastings Donnan
ISBN : 0761954228
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 71. 96 MB
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Islam is one of the most misunderstood concepts in the West. Myths and stereotypes surround it. This clear and penetrating volume helps readers to make sense of Islam. It offers a penetrating guide to the diversity and richness of contemporary knowledge about Islam and Muslim society. Throughout, the emphasis is upon the value of pluralistic approaches to Islam, rather than condensing complexity with unifying concepts such as `Orientalism'. Interdisciplinary in scope and organization, the book cuts through the bewildering and seemingly anarchic diversity of contemporary knowledge about Islam and Muslim society. The methodological difficulties and advantages of Western researchers focusing on Islam are fully documented. The book demonstrates how gender, age, status and `insider' / `outsider' status impacts upon research and inflects research findings.

The Fall Of The Roman Empire

Author : Martin M. Winkler
ISBN : 9781118589816
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 10 MB
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The essays collected in this book present the first comprehensiveappreciation of The Fall of the Roman Empire fromhistorical, historiographical, and cinematic perspectives. The bookalso provides the principal classical sources on the period. It isa companion to Gladiator: Film and History (Blackwell, 2004)and Spartacus: Film and History (Blackwell, 2007) andcompletes a triad of scholarly studies on Hollywood’sgreatest films about Roman history. A critical re-evaluation of the 1964 epic film The Fall ofthe Roman Empire, directed by Anthony Mann, fromhistorical, film-historical, and contemporary points of view Presents a collection of scholarly essays and classical sourceson the period of Roman history that ancient and modern historianshave considered to be the turning point toward the eventual fall ofRome Contains a short essay by director Anthony Mann Includes a map of the Roman Empire and film stills, as well astranslations of the principal ancient sources, an extensivebibliography, and a chronology of events

The United Service Magazine

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015010800798
Genre : Military art and science
File Size : 61. 93 MB
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Personal Autonomy In Society

Author : Marina Oshana
ISBN : 0754656705
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 58. 50 MB
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Challenging many of the currently accepted conceptions of autonomy and of how it is valued, Oshana develops a social-relational account of autonomy that is constituted by a person's relations with others and by the absence of certain social relations. She denies that command over one's motives and the freedom to realize one's will are sufficient to secure the kind of command over one's life that autonomy requires, and argues against psychological, procedural, and content neutral accounts of autonomy.

Campaign Of The Indus

Author : T. W. E. Holdsworth
ISBN : 9781781492611
Genre : History
File Size : 86. 89 MB
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This book consists of a series of letters (13 in all) from a young officer of the Queen’s Regiment (2nd Foot) to members of his family, describing his experiences in the First Afghan War (1839). T.W.E Holdsworth (and that is how he signs himself at the end of his letters), wrote them without any thought of subsequent publication; it was the father (A.H.Holdsworth) who decided they were worth publishing as a book (he was right) and then only a few copies for friends. He himself has provided a long (25 pages) introduction as background. The importance of Afghanistan as far as India was concerned was that it formed a buffer against Russia (regarded as the main threat) and against Persia.The First Afghan War resulted from a decision by the Governor General in India to replace the ruler in the country, Dost Mohammed, by a puppet king, Shah Suja, who had been ruler years before but was heartily disliked and had been thrown out. An expeditionary force was formed from the armies of the Bengal and Bombay Presidencies, some 20,000 men with double that number of camp-followers, which was called the Army of the Indus. The British element consisted of the 4th Light Dragoons (later renamed 4th Hussars), 16th Lancers, Queen’s (2nd Foot), Somerset Light Infantry (13th Foot) and R Leicesters (17th Foot). Holdsworth’s regiment was in the Bombay column which began its march in December 1838 with Kabul the objective. It was a march of about 400 hundred miles through rough terrain and mountain passes; the columns were frequently raided and cut up by tribesmen, particularly the camp-followers. These letters give a good account of what it was like campaigning in such conditions, heat, exhaustion, disease and harassing tribesmen combined to make it a gruelling operation. There were two major battles, the capture of the fortress of Ghuzni in July 1839, and of Khelat (Kalat) in November, where Holdsworth was wouinded by a musket ball which passed through his arm and right side coming out through his back just missing his spine. These actions are graphically described. An appendix contains among other things the official despatch from Lt-Gen Sir John Keane, the army commander, to the Governor General; casualty details; congratulatory order from the army commander to his command; extracts from the Indian Gazette and the letter from the Bombay column commander to the Governor General.

Kierkegaard And The Roman World

Author : Jon Bartley Stewart
ISBN : 0754665542
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 54. 92 MB
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While Kierkegaard's use of the Greek authors, particularly Plato and Aristotle, has attracted considerable attention over the years, his use of the Roman authors has, by contrast, remained sadly neglected. This neglect is somewhat surprising given the fact that Kierkegaard was extremely well read in Latin from his early youth when he attended the Borgerdyd School in Copenhagen. Kierkegaard's interest in the Roman authors is perhaps best evidenced by his book collection. In his private library he had a long list of Latin titles and Danish translations of the standard Roman authors in any number of different genres. His extensive and frequent use of writers such as Cicero, Horace, Terence, Seneca, Suetonius and Ovid clearly warrants placing them in the select group of his major sources.The chapters in this volume demonstrate that Kierkegaard made use of the Roman sources in a number of different ways. His readings from the school seem to have stuck with him as an adult. He constantly refers to Roman authors, such as Livy, Nepos, and Suetonius for colourful stories and anecdotes. In short, the Roman authors serve to enrich any number of different aspects of Kierkegaard's authorship with respect to both content and form.

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