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The Problem Of Reductionism In Science

Author : E. Agazzi
ISBN : 9789401134927
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 57 MB
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The topic to which this book is devoted is reductionism, and not reduction. The difference in the adoption of these two denominations is not, contrary to what might appear at first sight, just a matter of preference between a more abstract (reductionism) or a more concrete (reduction) terminology for indicating the same sUbject matter. In fact, the difference is that between a philosophical doctrine (or, perhaps, simply a philosophical tenet or claim) and a scientific procedure. Of course, this does not mean that these two fields are separated; they are only distinct, and this already means that they are also likely to be interrelated. However it is useful to consider them separately, if at least to better understand how and why they are interconnected. Just to give a first example of difference, we can remark that a philosophical doctrine is something which makes a claim and, as such, invites controversy and should, in a way, be challenged. A scientific procedure, on the other hand, is something which concretely exists, and as such must be first of all described, interpreted, understood, defined precisely and analyzed critically; this work may well lead to uncovering limitations of this procedure, or of certain ways of conceiving or defining it, but it does not lead to really challenging it.

The Problem Of The Unity Of Science

Author : Académie Internationale De Philosophie Des Sciences. Meeting
ISBN : 9789812799593
Genre : Science
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The unity of science has been a widely discussed issue both in the philosophy of science and within several sciences. Reductionism has often been seen as the means of bringing the different sciences to a fundamental unity by reference to some basic science, but it shows many limitations. Multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity have also been proposed as methodologies for attaining unity without underestimating the diversity of the sciences. This volume starts with a clarification of the possible meanings of this unity and then discusses the features of the mentioned approaches to unity, evaluating the success and the shortcomings of the unification programme among different sciences and within a single science. Contents: The General Framework: What Does ''The Unity of Science'' Mean? (E Agazzi); The Unity of Disunity (J Faye); Sciences of Nature and Sciences of Man: On a Difference between Natural Science and the Interpretive Sciences of Man (F Collin); Natural Sciences and Human Sciences (G M Prosperi); Overcoming Reductionism: Complexity, Reductionism, and the Unity of Science (J Ricard); The Consilience Approach to the Unity of Science (B Kanitscheider); The Unity Within a Single Science: The Problem of Unity in a Single Field of Science (A Cordero); The Unity of Particle Physics and Cosmology? The Case of the Cosmological Constant (J Mosterin); Is Quantum Mechanics a Universal Theory ? (B d''Espagnat); and other papers. Readership: Graduate students and academics in the philosophy of science.

Promises And Limits Of Reductionism In The Biomedical Sciences

Author : Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel
ISBN : 0471498505
Genre : Science
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Reductionism as a scientific methodology has been extraordinarily successful in biology. However, recent developments in molecular biology have shown that reductionism is seriously inadequate in dealing with the mind-boggling complexity of integrated biological systems. This title presents an appropriate balance between science and philosophy and covers traditional philosophical treatments of reductionism as well as the benefits and shortcomings of reductionism in particular areas of science. Discussing the issue of reductionism in the practice of medicine it takes into account the holistic and integrative aspects that require the context of the patient in his biological and psychological entirety. The emerging picture is that what first seems like hopeless disagreements turn out to be differences in emphasis. Although genes play an important role in biology, the focus on genetics and genomics has often been misleading. The consensus view leads to pluralism: both reductionst methods and a more integrative approach to biological complexity are required, depending on the questions that are asked. * An even balance of contributions from scientists and philosophers of science - representing a unique interchange between both communities interested in reductionism

Philosophia Naturalis

Author :
ISBN : UCBK:C049346569
Genre : Philosophy
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Reductionism And The Development Of Knowledge

Author : Terrance Brown
ISBN : 9781135639884
Genre : Psychology
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Among the many conceits of modern thought is the idea that philosophy, tainted as it is by subjective evaluation, is a shaky guide for human affairs. People, it is argued, are better off if they base their conduct either on know-how with its pragmatic criterion of truth (i.e., possibility) or on science with its universal criterion of rational necessity. Since Helmholtz, there has been increasing concern in the life sciences about the role of reductionism in the construction of knowledge. Is psychophysics really possible? Are biological phenomena just the deducible results of chemical phenomena? And if life can be reduced to molecular mechanisms only, where do these miraculous molecules come from, and how do they work? On a psychological level, people wonder whether psychological phenomena result simply from genetically hardwired structures in the brain or whether, even if not genetically determined, they can be identified with the biochemical processes of that organ. In sociology, identical questions arise. If physical or chemical reduction is not practicable, should we think in terms of other forms of reduction, say, the reduction of psychological to sociological phenomena or in terms of what Piaget has called the "reduction of the lower to the higher" (e.g., teleology)? All in all, then, reductionism in both naive and sophisticated forms permeates all of human thought and may, at least in certain cases, be necessary to it. If so, what exactly are those cases? The papers collected in this volume are all derived from the 29th Annual Symposium of the Jean Piaget Society. The intent of the volume is to examine the issue of reductionism on the theoretical level in several sciences, including biology, psychology, and sociology. A complementary intent is to examine it from the point of view of the practical effects of reductionistic doctrine on daily life.

Contemporary Schools Of Metascience

Author : Gerard Radnitzky
ISBN : UOM:39015004062439
Genre : Philosophy, Modern
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Revolution And Reinterpretation

Author : Ferdinand Deist
ISBN : UVA:X002116536
Genre : Bible
File Size : 80. 48 MB
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Nwsa Journal

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105122346294
Genre : Electronic journals
File Size : 24. 39 MB
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Readings In Anthropology

Author : Morton Herbert Fried
ISBN : 0690677685
Genre : Anthropology
File Size : 22. 31 MB
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Cultural Anthropology

Author : Morton Herbert Fried
ISBN : UCAL:B4470444
Genre :
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Thinking About Life

Author : Paul S. Agutter
ISBN : 9781402088667
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 24 MB
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Our previous book, About Life, concerned modern biology. We used our present-day understanding of cells to ‘define’ the living state, providing a basis for exploring several general-interest topics: the origin of life, extraterrestrial life, intelligence, and the possibility that humans are unique. The ideas we proposed in About Life were intended as starting-points for debate – we did not claim them as ‘truth’ – but the information on which they were based is currently accepted as ‘scientific fact’. What does that mean? What is ‘scientific fact’ and why is it accepted? What is science – and is biology like other sciences such as physics (except in subject m- ter)? The book you are now reading investigates these questions – and some related ones. Like About Life, it may particularly interest a reader who wishes to change career to biology and its related subdisciplines. In line with a recommendation by the British Association for the Advancement of Science – that the public should be given fuller information about the nature of science – we present the concepts underpinning biology and a survey of its historical and philosophical basis.

Revue Roumaine De Physique

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015018711955
Genre : Physics
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Beyond Reductionism

Author : Arthur Koestler
ISBN : 0807015350
Genre : Biology
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Transactions Of The Zimbabwe Scientific Association

Author :
ISBN : IND:30000070335447
Genre : Research
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The Structure Of Biological Science

Author : Alexander Rosenberg
ISBN : 052127561X
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 37 MB
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Preface p. ix Chapter 1 Biology and Its Philosophy p. 2 1.1 The Rise of Logical Positivism p. 2 1.2 The Consequences for Philosophy p. 4 1.3 Problems of Falsifiability p. 6 1.4 Philosophy of Science Without Positivism p. 8 1.5 Speculation and Science p. 10 Introduction to the Literature p. 11 Chapter 2 Autonomy and Provincialism p. 13 2.1 Philosophical Agendas versus Biological Agendas p. 13 2.2 Motives for Provincialism and Autonomy p. 18 2.3 Biological Philosophies p. 21 2.4 Tertium Datur? p. 25 2.5 The Issues in Dispute p. 30 2.6 Steps in the Argument p. 34 Introduction to the Literature p. 35 Chapter 3 Teleology and the Roots of Autonomy p. 37 3.1 Functional Explanations in Molecular Biology p. 39 3.2 The Search for Functions p. 43 3.3 Functional Laws p. 47 3.4 Directively Organized Systems p. 52 3.5 The Autonomy of Teleological Laws p. 59 3.6 The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Functional Explanation p. 62 3.7 Functional Explanation Will Always Be with Us p. 65 Introduction to the Literature p. 67 Chapter 4 Reductionism and the Temptation of Provincialism p. 69 4.1 Motives for Reductionism p. 69 4.2 A Triumph of Reductionism p. 73 4.3 Reductionism and Recombinant DNA p. 84 4.4 Antireductionism and Molecular Genetics p. 88 4.5 Mendel's Genes and Benzer's Cistrons p. 93 4.6 Reduction Obstructed p. 97 4.7 Qualifying Reductionism p. 106 4.8 The Supervenience of Mendelian Genetics p. 11 4.9 Levels of Organization p. 117 Introduction to the Literature p. 119 Chapter 5 The Structure of Evolutionary Theory p. 121 5.1 Is There an Evolutionary Theory? p. 122 5.2 The Charge of Tautology p. 126 5.3 Population Genetics and Evolution p. 130 5.4 Williams's Axiomatization of Evolutionary Theory p. 136 5.5 Adequacy of the Axiomatization p. 144 Introduction to the Literature p. 152 Chapter 6 Fitness p. 154 6.1 Fitness Is Measured by Its Effects p. 154 6.2 Fitness As a Statistical Propensity p. 160 6.3 The Supervenience of Fitness p. 164 6.4 The Evidence for Evolution p. 169 6.5 The Scientific Context of Evolutionary Theory p. 174 Introduction to the Literature p. 179 Chapter 7 Species p. 180 7.1 Operationalism and Theory in Taxonomy p. 182 7.2 Essentialism--For and Against p. 187 7.3 The Biological Species Notion p. 191 7.4 Evolutionary and Ecological Species p. 197 7.5 Species Are Not Natural Kinds p. 201 7.6 Species As Individuals p. 204 7.7 The Theoretical Hierarchy of Biology p. 212 7.8 The Statistical Character of Evolutionary Theory p. 216 7.9 Universal Theories and Case Studies p. 219 Introduction to the Literature p. 225 Chapter 8 New Problems of Functionalism p. 226 8.1 Functionalism in Molecular Biology p. 228 8.2 The Panglossian Paradigm p. 235 8.3 Aptations, Exaptations, and Adaptations p. 243 8.4 Information and Action Among the Macromolecules p. 246 8.5 Metaphors and Molecules p. 255 Bibliography p. 266 Index p. 273.

Mind In Nature

Author : Peter H. Barnett
ISBN : UCSC:32106000017613
Genre : Evolution
File Size : 40. 49 MB
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Reduction And Biology

Author : Harmon Robert Holcomb
ISBN : WISC:89010863827
Genre : Biology
File Size : 73. 14 MB
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Sustainable Agriculture News

Author :
ISBN : UCSC:32106015594291
Genre : Sustainable agriculture
File Size : 31. 5 MB
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A Bibliography Of The Philosophy Of Science 1945 1981

Author : Richard J. Blackwell
ISBN : UOM:39015079907443
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 51. 64 MB
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Muslim Modernism And The Problem Of Modern Science

Author : Muhammad Maroof Shah
ISBN : UOM:39015081828348
Genre : Islam and science
File Size : 64. 85 MB
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Chiefly on works and philosophy of Sir Muhammad Iqbal, 1877-1938, Urdu and Persian poet; study.

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