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Rare Earth Elements

Author : Leopold Gmelin
ISBN : STANFORD:36105004194937
Genre : Chemistry, Inorganic
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The Isotopic Constitution And Atomic Weights Of The Rare Earth Elements

Author : Francis William Aston
ISBN : OCLC:1191014993
Genre : Isotopes
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Recovery Of Rare Earth Elements Rees From Waste Permanent Magnets By Pyro Hydrometallurgy Process And Supported Liquid Membrane

Author : 倪川森
ISBN : OCLC:1184757946
Genre :
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The Rare Earth Elements

Author : David A. Atwood
ISBN : 9781118632635
Genre : Science
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Lanthanides are of great importance for the electronic industries, this new book (from the EIBC Book Series) provides a comprehensive coverage of the basic chemistry, particularly inorganic chemistry, of the lanthanoid elements, those having a 4f shell of electrons. A chapter is describing the similarity of the Group 3 elements, Sc, Y, La, the group from which the lanthanoids originate and the group 13 elements, particularly aluminum, having similar properties. Inclusion of the group 3 and 13 elements demonstrates how the lanthanoid elements relate to other, more common, elements in the Periodic Table. Beginning chapters describe the occurrence and mineralogy of the elements, with a focus on structural features observed in compounds described in later chapters. The majority of the chapters is organized by the oxidation state of the elements, Ln(0), Ln(II), Ln(III), and Ln(IV). Within this organization the chapters are further distinguished by type of compound, inorganic (oxides and hydroxides, aqueous speciation, halides, alkoxides, amides and thiolates, and chelates) and organometallic. Concluding chapters deal with diverse and critically important applications of the lanthanoids in electronic and magnetic materials, and medical imaging.

Magnetic Properties Of Metals

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1166776737
Genre : Inorganic compounds
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Rare Earth Elements

Author : Marc Humphries
ISBN : 9781437937985
Genre :
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Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What are Rare Earth Elements (REE)?; (3) Major End Uses and Applications: Demand for REE; The Application of REE in National Defense; (4) Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential; Supply Chain Issues; Role of China; (5) Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress: H.R. 4866, and S. 3521, the Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010; H.R. 5136, the FY 2011 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; P.L. 111-84, the FY 2010 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; (6) Possible Policy Options: Authorize and Appropriate Funding for a USGS Assessment; Support and Encourage Greater Exploration for REE; Challenge China on Its Export Policy; Establish a Stockpile. Illustrations.

Rare Earth Elements In Groundwater Flow Systems

Author : Karen H. Johannesson
ISBN : 9781402032349
Genre : Science
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This is the first book of its kind to focus on the geochemistry of the lanthanide series elements in groundwater/aquifer environments. The contributors are leading researchers in the study of low-temperature geochemistry of rare earth elements. Individual chapters address analytical techniques, water-rock interactions, aqueous complexation, and the reactions and processes that influence these heavy metals along groundwater flow paths.

Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare Earth Metals

Author : L.L. Rokhlin
ISBN : 0415284147
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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Magnesium-based alloys containing rare-earth metals are important structural materials, as they combine low density with high-strength properties. This makes them particularly attractive for industry, especially in cases where the low weight of constructions is critical, as in aircraft and space apparatus construction. One of the remarkable features of alloys is the significant difference made by individual rare-earth metals when they are added to magnesium. This second edition of Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare-Earth Metals: Structure and Properties describes the constitution and properties of magnesium-based alloys containing rare-earth metals. It presents the dependence of their characteristics on their atomic number and place in the periodic table and discusses new ideas for rare-earth metals as alloying additives to magnesium. This volume consists mainly of research from Russian scientists but also contains western literature making it a valuable reference tool for students, researchers and professionals in materials science and metallurgy.

The Rare Earth Elements

Author : J.H.L. Voncken
ISBN : 9783319268095
Genre : Science
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This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.

Rare Earth Element Geochemistry

Author : Paul Henderson
ISBN : 0444421483
Genre : Geochemistry
File Size : 26. 79 MB
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Rare Earth Elements In National Defense Background Oversight Issues And Options For Congress

Author :
ISBN : 9781437984347
Genre :
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An Integrated Rare Earth Elements Supply Chain Strategy

Author : Karl Bopp
ISBN : OCLC:824761504
Genre : National security
File Size : 40. 48 MB
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Rare Earth Elements In Coal And Coal Fly Ash

Author : Clint Scott
ISBN : OCLC:1149923066
Genre : Coal
File Size : 86. 85 MB
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Episodes From The History Of The Rare Earth Elements

Author : C. H. Evans
ISBN : 9789400902879
Genre : Science
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3. 4. 2. "SOMETHING ON CERIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3. 4. 3. THE DISCOVERY OF LANTHANUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3. 4. 4. THE DISCOVERY OF DIDYMIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 4. 5. THE NAME DIDYMIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. 4. 6. THE DISCOVERY OF TERBIUM AND ERBIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. 5. The Cork Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3. 6. Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3. 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Chapter 4. THE 50 YEARS FOLLOWING MOSANDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 F. SZABADVARY and C. EVANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4. 2. The Terbium Dispute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4. 3. Samarium and Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4. 4. The Division of Erbium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4. 5. Separating the Twins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4. 6. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 4. 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Chapter 5. ELEMENTS NO. 70, 71 AND 72: DISCOVERIES AND CONTROVERSIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 HELGE KRAGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 5. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 5. 2. The ytterbium earths unti11905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 5. 3. Auer von Welsbach: aldebaranium and cassiopeium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 5. 4. Urbain: neo-ytterbium and lutecium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 5. 5. The ytterbium controversy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5. 6. Celtium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5. 7. Hafnium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5. 8. New light on old elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 5. 9. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 5. 10. Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5. 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Chapter 6. THE SEARCH FOR ELEMENT 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 JACOB A. MARlNSKY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 6. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 6. 2. Separations and Identifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6. 3. Discovery Confirmed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 6. 4. Announcing, Claiming and 'Naming Element 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 6. 5. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 vii PART II - APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Chapter 7. CARL AUER VON WELSBACH A PIONEER IN THE INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF RARE EAR THS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 E. BAUMGARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Principal Rare Earth Elements Deposits Of The U S

Author : Keith R. Long
ISBN : 9781437942989
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The rare earth elements (REE) are 15 elements with atomic no. 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium, plus yttrium. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-tech applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and lightweight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems. This study provides a non-technical overview of domestic reserves and resources of REE and possibilities for utilizing those resources. Illus. This is a print on demand report.

Handbook Of Rare Earth Elements

Author : Alfred Golloch
ISBN : 9783110365085
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 89 MB
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The Handbook of Rare Earth Elements focuses on the essential role of modern instrumental analytics in the recycling, purification and analysis of rare earth elements. Due to their numerous applications, e.g. in novel magnetic materials for computer hardware, mobile phones and displays, rare earth elements have become a strategic and valuable resource. The detailed knowledge of rare earth element contents at every step of their life cycle is of great importance. This reference work was compiled with contribution from an international team of expert authors from Academia and Industry to presend a comprehensive discussion on the state-of-the-art of rare earth element analysis for industrial and scientific purposes, recycling processes and purification of REEs from various sources. Written with Analytical Chemists, Inorganic Chemists, Spectroscopists as well as Industry Practitioners in mind, the Handbook of Rare Earth Elements is an indispensable reference for everyone working with rare earth elements.

Rare Earth Element Geochemistry

Author : P. Henderson
ISBN : 9781483289779
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 80 MB
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Developments in Geochemistry, Volume 2: Rare Earth Element Geochemistry presents the remarkable developments in the chemistry and geochemistry of the rare earth elements. This book discusses the analytical techniques and the recognition that rare earth fractionation occurs naturally in different ways. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the wide array of types and sizes of the cation coordination polyhedral in rock-forming minerals. This text then examines the application of rare earth element abundances to petrogenetic problems that has centered on the evolution of igneous rocks. Other chapters consider the matching of observed rare earth element abundances with those provided by the theoretical modeling of petrogenetic processes. This book discusses as well the hypotheses on the genesis of a rock or mineral suite. The final chapter deals with the principal analytical methods. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduates, lecturers, and researchers who study petrology and geochemistry.

Tables For Emission Spectrographic Analysis Of Rare Earth Elements

Author : Ch. Kerekes
ISBN : 9781483155203
Genre : Science
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Atlas and Tables for Emission Spectrographic Analysis of Rare Earth Elements focuses on the analysis of rare earths with the Zeiss Q 24 spectrograph or with instruments of similar dispersion. The book first offers information on the division of the spectra of rare earth elements and Sc and Y into three groups. The spectra of Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er have lines that, however, do not form characteristic line groups. The text underscores that in preparing the Atlas, the spectral pure-grade rare earth oxides sold by the Johnson & Matthey Co. were considered. Through the help of their spectra, the usable analysis lines and the wavelength values of the interfering spectral lines are created. The operating and photographic conditions are tabulated. The book stresses that for each rare earth, the analysis lines are provided in order of decreasing wavelength. The number located in the lower left corner for each analysis line indicates its relative intensity. The fifteen columns contain the interfering lines of other rare earths and of Sc and Y. The interfering lines are created through the use of the double projector of the Optica Milano Co. and the Gatterer Spectrum. The text is a great source of information for readers wanting to analyze rare earths with the Zeiss Q 24 spectrograph or with instruments of similar dispersion.

The Evolution Of Mineral Processing In Extraction Of Rare Earth Elements Using Liquid Liquid Extraction A Review

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ISBN : OCLC:1051822364
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Graphical abstract: Conventional extractant and ionic liquid are combined to develop more efficient synergistic extractant for LLE. Highlights: The introduction to rare earth elements (REE). Fundamental in extraction of REE using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The evolution of extractants used in extraction of REE from traditional to conventional and synergistic extractants. Abstract: The attempt to extract rare earth elements (REE) has started over a century ago using activated carbon and continues until today with various methods involved to improve the extraction yield. Instead of solid-liquid extraction, the use of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been more common due to the convenient arrangement of the process. Solvent extraction is the main process applied in LLE of REE and along the way, various kind of solvent extractants have evolved. The use of traditional extractants (e.g., benzene, heptane, and kerosene) in LLE has been diverted to the application of conventional extractants (e.g., tributyl phosphate (TBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), and Cyanex 923 to increase the extraction efficiency. Apparently, the disadvantages of conventional extractants have led to the application of ionic liquid (IL) in the evolution of extraction of REE. IL was found as a potential extractant for REE due to its ability to extract certain metals, green solvent, and has the flexibility to create different combination of cation and anion. However, conventional extractants appear to be more effective in the extraction of REE compared to IL. Therefore, the complex solvents are then compromised and synergised to create better extractant with both advantages between conventional extractants and IL. Most synergistic extractants (SE) appear to be more effective in the extraction of REE and able to reduce the use of chemicals. These advantages make SE more desirable in solvent extraction. This paper highlights the evolution of REE extraction using various kind of extractants with advantages and disadvantages discoveries based on various literatures.

Effect Of Inclusions Modified By Rare Earth Elements Ce La On Localized Marine Corrosion In Q460nh Weathering Steel

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ISBN : OCLC:1021147731
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Highlights: The initial stages of the pitting corrosion of Q460NH steel in a marine environment was studied. Two different types of inclusions formed in the Q460NH steel after adding rare earth. Both types of inclusions showed a lower Volta potential than the matrix. Pitting corrosion was induced by the dissolution of inclusions rather than the matrix. Inclusions containing (RE)AlO3 dissolved completely as a result of the acidic solution formed in the pits. Abstract: In this work the initial stages of the pitting corrosion in Q460NH weathering steel in a marine environment was studied. To elucidate the effects of inclusions modified by rare earth (RE) elements on pitting corrosion, field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry (FE-SEM-EDS) analyses, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) tests, and a series of immersion tests were conducted. Two main types of inclusions were formed in the steel, and different pit morphologies were observed. The pitting corrosion was initiated by the dissolution of (RE)2 O2 S-(RE)xSy in both types of inclusions due to the lower potential of this phase compared to the matrix, which indicated that the inclusions in the Q460NH weathering steel had a lower pitting corrosion resistance than the matrix.

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