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The Tyranny Of The Meritocracy

Author : Lani Guinier
ISBN : 9780807078129
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 54. 66 MB
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A fresh and bold argument for revamping our standards of “merit” and a clear blueprint for creating collaborative education models that strengthen our democracy rather than privileging individual elites Standing on the foundations of America’s promise of equal opportunity, our universities purport to serve as engines of social mobility and practitioners of democracy. But as acclaimed scholar and pioneering civil rights advocate Lani Guinier argues, the merit systems that dictate the admissions practices of these institutions are functioning to select and privilege elite individuals rather than create learning communities geared to advance democratic societies. Having studied and taught at schools such as Harvard University, Yale Law School, and the University of Pennsylvania Law School, Guinier has spent years examining the experiences of ethnic minorities and of women at the nation’s top institutions of higher education, and here she lays bare the practices that impede the stated missions of these schools. Goaded on by a contemporary culture that establishes value through ranking and sorting, universities assess applicants using the vocabulary of private, highly individualized merit. As a result of private merit standards and ever-increasing tuitions, our colleges and universities increasingly are failing in their mission to provide educational opportunity and to prepare students for productive and engaged citizenship. To reclaim higher education as a cornerstone of democracy, Guinier argues that institutions of higher learning must focus on admitting and educating a class of students who will be critical thinkers, active citizens, and publicly spirited leaders. Guinier presents a plan for considering “democratic merit,” a system that measures the success of higher education not by the personal qualities of the students who enter but by the work and service performed by the graduates who leave. Guinier goes on to offer vivid examples of communities that have developed effective learning strategies based not on an individual’s “merit” but on the collaborative strength of a group, learning and working together, supporting members, and evolving into powerful collectives. Examples are taken from across the country and include a wide range of approaches, each innovative and effective. Guinier argues for reformation, not only of the very premises of admissions practices but of the shape of higher education itself.

Higher Education Pathways

Author : Ashwin, Paul
ISBN : 9781928331902
Genre : Education
File Size : 56. 66 MB
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In what ways does access to undergraduate education have a transformative impact on people and societies? What conditions are required for this impact to occur? What are the pathways from an undergraduate education to the public good, including inclusive economic development? These questions have particular resonance in the South African higher education context, which is attempting to tackle the challenges of widening access and improving completion rates in in a system in which the segregations of the apartheid years are still apparent. Higher education is recognised in core legislation as having a distinctive and crucial role in building post-apartheid society. Undergraduate education is seen as central to addressing skills shortages in South Africa. It is also seen to yield significant social returns, including a consistent positive impact on societal institutions and the development of a range of capabilities that have public, as well as private, benefits. This book offers comprehensive contemporary evidence that allows for a fresh engagement with these pressing issues.

Understanding Higher Education

Author : Chrissie Bowie
ISBN : 9781928502227
Genre : Education
File Size : 53. 6 MB
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Drawing on the South African case, this book looks at shifts in higher education around the world in the last two decades. In South Africa, calls for transformation have been heard in the university since the last days of apartheid. Similar claims for quality higher education to be made available to all have been made across the African continent. In spite of this, inequalities remain and many would argue that these have been exacerbated during the Covid pandemic. Understanding Higher Education responds to these calls by arguing for a social account of teaching and learning by contesting dominant understandings of students as 'decontextualised learners' premised on the idea that the university is a meritocracy. This book tackles the issue of teaching and learning by looking both within and beyond the classroom. It looks at how higher education policies emerged from the notion of the knowledge economy in the newly democratic South Africa, and how national qualification frameworks and other processes brought the country more closely into conversation with the global order. The effects of this on staffing and curriculum structures are considered alongside a proposition for alternative ways of understanding the role of higher education in society.

Higher Education Admission Practices

Author : María Elena Oliveri
ISBN : 9781108472265
Genre : Education
File Size : 50. 75 MB
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Reveals practices and issues in higher education admissions, which are critical factors for improving worldwide access and equity.

Restoring Trust In Higher Education Making The Investment Worthwhile Again

Author : Aneil K. Mishra
ISBN : 9781440843365
Genre : Education
File Size : 45. 19 MB
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Leaders from both private and public institutions provide a 360-degree view of the challenges and opportunities facing higher education—and offer a manifesto for restoring relevance and respect. • Applies the research-based and field-tested ROCC of Trust© model as a means for providers and consumers to evaluate how an educational institution is addressing key issues regarding the relevance of earning a degree • Shares expert opinions on how to make higher education worthwhile, both developmentally and financially • Develops a call to action showing how institutions of higher education can rebuild the trust they have lost because of skyrocketing tuition costs, declining graduation rates, and persistent underemployment of recent grads • Includes checklists that will help students, parents, and higher education employees assess whether a given institution is worth the money/investment • Offers a calculator that can be used to quantify the payoff from attending various educational institutions

Higher Education For Diversity Social Inclusion And Community

Author : Sjur Bergan
ISBN : 9789287188533
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 37. 83 MB
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How does the Council of Europe put into practice its commitment to the promotion of a culture of democracy through education? Over the past decade or so, our societies have been facing increasing difficulties in reconciling acceptance of diversity and social inclusion with the need for community. The search for simple solutions to complex problems, the fact that “fake news” and “alternative facts” are no longer seen as nonsensical expressions, our responses to migration and the “refugee crisis”, and the growth of populism in many parts of Europe present challenges to our societies, and not least to education. Authors from Europe, North America and South Africa outline how higher education could respond to these challenges. The first section makes a strong case for the continuing importance of higher education and research to modern society. The second focuses on higher education institutions and the need for inclusive and diverse campuses. The third section considers opportunities to improve the inclusion of refugees and immigrants in higher education. Whereas the focus in Europe is mostly on refugees, in the United States it is largely on immigrants, further accentuated by the debate on the Dreamers.

Higher Education Handbook Of Theory And Research

Author : Michael B. Paulsen
ISBN : 9783319724904
Genre : Education
File Size : 90. 2 MB
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Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. Each annual volume contains chapters on such diverse topics as research on college students and faculty, organization and administration, curriculum and instruction, policy, diversity issues, economics and finance, history and philosophy, community colleges, advances in research methodology and more. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world.

Interrupting Class Inequality In Higher Education

Author : Laura M. Harrison
ISBN : 9781317210672
Genre : Education
File Size : 60. 13 MB
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Interrupting Class Inequality in Higher Education explores why socioeconomic inequality persists in higher education despite widespread knowledge of the problem. Through a critical analysis of the current leadership practices and policy narratives that perpetuate socioeconomic inequality, this book outlines the trends that negatively impact low- and middle-income students and offers effective tools for creating a more equitable future for higher education. By taking a solution-focused approach, this book will help higher education students, leaders, and policy makers move from despair and inertia to hope and action.

Transforming Understandings Of Diversity In Higher Education

Author : Penny A. Pasque
ISBN : 9781620363782
Genre : Education
File Size : 26. 87 MB
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This exciting new text examines one of the most important and yet elusive terms in higher education and society: What do we mean when we talk in a serious way about “diversity”? A distinguished group of diversity scholars explore the latest discourse on diversity and how it is reflected in research and practice. The chapters trace how the discourse on diversity is newly shaped after many of the 20th century concepts of race, ethnicity, gender and class have lost authority. In the academic disciplines and in public discourse, perspectives about diversity have been rapidly shifting in recent years. This is especially true in the United States where demographic changes and political attitudes have prompted new observations—some which will clash with traditional frameworks. This text brings together 9 scholars whose research has opened up new ways to understand the complexities of diversity in higher education. Because the essential topic under consideration is changing so quickly, the editors of this volume also have asked the contributors to reflect on the paths their own scholarship has taken in their careers, and to see how they would relate their current conceptualization of diversity to one or more of three identified themes (demography, democracy and discourse). Each chapter ends with a candid graduate student interview of the author that provides an engaged picture of how the authors wrestle with one of the most complicated topics shaping them (and all of us) as individuals and as scholars. Of interest to anyone who is following the debates about diversity issues on our campuses, the book also offers a wonderful introduction to graduate students entering a discipline where critically important ideas are still very much alive for discussion. The contributing scholars are: • Dr. Uma M. Jayakumar, University of San Francisco • Dr. Jarrett T. Gupton, University of Minnesota • Dr. Michael R. Woodford, Wilfrid Laurier University • Dr. Angela M. Locks, California State University, Long beach • Dr. Michelle Samura, Chapman University • Dr. Allison Lombardi, University of Connecticut • Dr. Jerlando F. L. Jackson, University of Wisconsin • Dr. Tamara Nichele Stevenson, Westminster College • Dr. Courtney Carter, Mississippi State University

The Great Mistake

Author : Christopher Newfield
ISBN : 9781421427034
Genre : Education
File Size : 49. 7 MB
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A powerful, hopeful critique of the unnecessary death spiral of higher education, The Great Mistake is essential reading for those who wonder why students have been paying more to get less and for everyone who cares about the role the higher education system plays in improving the lives of average Americans.

Whiteness In Higher Education The Invisible Missing Link In Diversity And Racial Analyses Ashe Higher Education Report Volume 42 Number 6

Author : Nolan L. Cabrera
ISBN : 9781119374572
Genre : Education
File Size : 23. 93 MB
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When issues of diversity and race arise in higher education scholarship and practice, the focus is generally on Students of Color. That being said, if there are People of Color being marginalized on college campuses, there is a structural mechanism facilitating the marginalization. This monograph explores the relevance of Whiteness to the field of Higher Education. While Whiteness as a racial discourse is continually changing and defies classification, it is both real in terms of its impacts on the campus racial dynamics. Highlighting many of the contours of Whiteness in higher education, this volume explores the influence of Whiteness on interpersonal interactions, campus climate, culture, ecology, policy, and scholarship. Additionally, it explores what can be done—both individually and institutionally—to address the problem of Whiteness in higher education. Ultimately, this monograph is offered from the perspective that racial issues concern everyone, and this engages the possibility of both People of Color destabilizing Whiteness and White people becoming racial justice allies within the context of higher education institutions. This is the sixth issue of the 42nd volume of the Jossey-Bass series ASHE Higher Education Report. Each monograph is the definitive analysis of a tough higher education issue, based on thorough research of pertinent literature and institutional experiences. Topics are identified by a national survey. Noted practitioners and scholars are then commissioned to write the reports, with experts providing critical reviews of each manuscript before publication.

Potential On The Periphery

Author : Omari Scott Simmons
ISBN : 9780813592893
Genre : Education
File Size : 80. 20 MB
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Even high-performing students sometimes need assistance to transform their high school achievement into a higher education outcome that matches their potential, especially when those students come from vulnerable backgrounds. Without intervention, many of these students, lost in the transition between secondary school and higher education, would not attend selective colleges that provide greater opportunities. Potential on the Periphery profiles the Simmons Memorial Foundation (SMF), a grassroots non-profit organization co-founded by author Omari Scott Simmons, that promotes college access for students in North Carolina and Delaware. Simmons discusses how the organization has helped students secure admission and succeed in college, using this example to contextualize the broader realm of existing education practice, academic theory, and public policy. Using data gleaned from interviews with past student participants in the programs run by the SMF, Simmons illuminates the underlying factors thwarting student achievement, such as inadequate information about college options, limited opportunities for social capital acquisition, financial pressures, self-doubt, and political weakness. Simmons then identifies policy solutions and pragmatic strategies that college access organizations can adopt to address these factors.

Organizational Theory In Higher Education

Author : Kathleen Manning
ISBN : 9781317210696
Genre : Education
File Size : 64. 85 MB
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The second edition of Organizational Theory in Higher Education is a comprehensive and accessible treatment of organizational theory and higher education administration. Noted scholar Kathleen Manning offers a fresh take on the models and lenses through which higher education can be viewed by presenting a full range of organizational theories, from traditional to current. Chapters discuss the disciplinary foundation, structure, metaphor, assumptions, characteristics, and other elements of each organizational theory and conclude with cases highlighting practical applications. Questions for discussion are provided at the end of each chapter and embedded in the cases to assist the reader in making connections to their practice. Manning’s rich, interdisciplinary treatment enables readers to gain a full understanding of the perspectives that operate on a college campus and ways to adopt effective practice in the context of new and continuing tensions, contexts, and challenges. New to this Edition: revised chapters with updated material and new references that reflect current higher education issues including climate change; a new chapter on Institutional Theory, an expanded Feminist and Gendered chapter, and an enhanced Spirituality chapter; new cases throughout to address contemporary issues, and a broader range of institutional types including Historically Black and Hispanic-Serving institutions and 2-year institutions; additional theoretical topics including critical race theory, queer theory, and contemplative practices; updated and enhanced questions for discussion and recommended readings.

Two Cheers For Higher Education

Author : Steven Brint
ISBN : 9780691210285
Genre : Education
File Size : 42. 82 MB
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A leading expert challenges the prevailing gloomy outlook on higher education with solid evidence of its successes Crushing student debt, rapidly eroding state funding, faculty embroiled in speech controversies, a higher-education market disrupted by online competition—today’s headlines suggest that universities’ power to advance knowledge and shape American society is rapidly declining. But Steven Brint, a renowned analyst of academic institutions, has tracked numerous trends demonstrating their vitality. After a recent period that witnessed soaring student enrollment and ample research funding, universities, he argues, are in a better position than ever before. Focusing on the years 1980–2015, Brint details the trajectory of American universities, which was influenced by evolving standards of disciplinary professionalism, market-driven partnerships (especially with scientific and technological innovators outside the academy), and the goal of social inclusion. Conflicts arose: academic entrepreneurs, for example, flouted their campus responsibilities, and departments faced backlash over the hiring of scholars with nontraditional research agendas. Nevertheless, educators’ commitments to technological innovation and social diversity prevailed and created a new dynamism. Brint documents these successes along with the challenges that result from rapid change. Today, knowledge-driven industries generate almost half of U.S. GDP, but divisions by educational level split the American political order. Students flock increasingly to fields connected to the power centers of American life and steer away from the liberal arts. And opportunities for economic mobility are expanding even as academic expectations decline. In describing how universities can meet such challenges head on, especially in improving classroom learning, Brint offers not only a clear-eyed perspective on the current state of American higher education but also a pragmatically optimistic vision for the future.

Latino Educational Leadership

Author : Cristóbal Rodriguez
ISBN : 9781641133579
Genre : Education
File Size : 90. 78 MB
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Latino Educational Leadership acknowledges the unique preparation and support for both Latinx educational leaders and Latino communities needed throughout the education and policy pipeline. While leadership in communities exists for educational purposes, this effort focuses on the institutional aspect of Latino Educational Leadership across K-12 schools and university settings. The purpose of this book is to create a greater collaborative focus on Latino Educational Leadership by inviting scholarly contributions and insights from both established and up-and-coming scholars. Latino Educational Leadership also advocates for the preparation of all leaders as well as the preparation of Latinx educational leaders, to serve Latino communities. Our impetus on Latino Educational Leadership primarily stems from the changing demographics of our country. As of Fall 2017, Latinx student enrollment in K-12 schools reached an all-time high, with Latinxs comprising 26.8% of the nation’s public school enrollment. Postsecondary level Latinx student enrollment has also improved; rising from 25% in 2005 to 37% in 2015. Given this growth, particularly at the K-12 level, there has been an increasing urgency to prepare and support more Latinx educational leaders. Their rich cultural and linguistic connections to communities help them more readily understand and meet the needs of Latino students and families. Aside from enrollment growth, Latinxs have made record strides in postsecondary attainment; between 2003-04 and 2013-14, bachelor's degrees more than doubled from 94,644 to 202,412, master's degrees conferred rose from 29,806 to 55,965, and doctoral degrees rose from 5, 795 to 10,665. Despite such promising gains, concern has not waned over how to best address the challenges this diverse student population continues to face in accessing, persisting, and matriculating across the P-20 Pipeline. There is still work to be done, as only 11% of all bachelor’s degrees, 9% of all master’s degrees, and 7% of all doctoral degrees were awarded to Latinxs in 2013-14. In particular, there is increasing urgency to address how higher education institutions can better prepare, develop, and retain Latinx leaders and scholars, who will serve and meet the needs of Latinx college students to ensure their academic success. Thus, the purpose of this book is to advance the knowledge related to serving Latino communities and preparing Latinx leaders.

The New Education

Author : Cathy N. Davidson
ISBN : 9780465093182
Genre : Education
File Size : 60. 32 MB
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A leading educational thinker argues that the American university is stuck in the past -- and shows how we can revolutionize it for our era of constant change Our current system of higher education dates to the period from 1865 to 1925. It was in those decades that the nation's new universities created grades and departments, majors and minors, all in an attempt to prepare young people for a world transformed by the telegraph and the Model T. As Cathy N. Davidson argues in The New Education, this approach to education is wholly unsuited to the era of the gig economy. From the Ivy League to community colleges, she introduces us to innovators who are remaking college for our own time by emphasizing student-centered learning that values creativity in the face of change above all. The New Education ultimately shows how we can teach students not only to survive but to thrive amid the challenges to come.

Critical Race Theory In The Academy

Author : Vernon Lee Farmer
ISBN : 9781648021336
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 67. 74 MB
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Critical Race Theory in the Academy explores the deep implications of race and its effects on the expanse of the American social fabric and its fragile democratic process. This volume contributes to a more effective, powerful, and insightful theorization of racism across the social spectrum while furthering the movement for greater equity in higher education and beyond. The audience for this book is broad and should be of great interest and value to all Americans who fight against racism which is focused on the destruction of Black people and other people of color. Ideally, educators, scholars, and practitioners will be compelled to engage the ideas within this volume to break down the color line and challenge the problematic master narrative in education and other aspects of society. Critical Race Theory in the Academy offers current applications, debates, theories, strategies, and evolutions about critical race theory (CRT), with particular attention to CRT’s intersections with the field of higher education and beyond. As a part of the CRT corpus, this volume details some of the most relevant and current topics deployed in varied disciplines of the academy, confronting the complex interplay of race, racism, education, and social justice in the twenty-first century. Specifically, the authors explore topics from health disparities, politics, religion, literature, music, social work, psychology, sports, distance learning, media bias, affirmative action, to education policies, practices and scholarship. The chapters in this volume should help navigate the tensions in the academy and beyond to work toward alleviating institutionalized racism. Praise for Critical Race Theory in the Academy: "The field of Critical Race Theory is enriched by this important collection of new and original scholarship. Vernon Farmer has brought together a dynamic and eclectic mix of radical voices, from multiple disciplinary backgrounds, including both established and early career scholars. The result is a volume that constantly challenges and surprises the reader." David Gillborn Professor of Critical Race Studies University of Birmingham UK Founding Editor of Race Ethnicity & Education "Critical Race Theory in the Academy has excavated the terrain of critical race theory to unearth multiple perspectives that are central to defining the fundamental contours of the field. Each essay enhances the ways in which we read and understand the complexity of critical race theory. It will be an invaluable resource for building a critical academy." Aileen Moreton-Robinson Queens and University of Technology, Australia Author of The White Possessive: Property, Power and Indigenous Sovereignty "Vernon Lee Farmer has done it again and for the final time. He has pulled together a star-studded cast of academics of color to address an essential concern of the academy. Throughout his career, Farmer has demonstrated the uncanny ability to identify matters that require attention, and attacked them with vigor. In doing so, he provided us with high impact resources that are beneficial to the professional trajectory of scholars of color. This book is no different, and we all should race to the bookstore to add this instant classic to our personal library." Jerlando F. L. Jackson Vilas Distinguished Professor of Higher Education University of Wisconsin-Madison Former Editor, ASHE Reader Series on Higher Education "Critical Race Theory in the Academy adds substantially to our understanding of the roles that race, racism, and social justice play as we tackle the myriad problems of pre-K through higher education. For those interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the issues in higher education -- from curriculum to the lack of diversity in the professoriate -- this work provides helpful insights that can enrich conversations and problem-solving across sectors of society." Freeman A. Hrabowski, III President University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland

The Routledge International Handbook Of Student Centered Learning And Teaching In Higher Education

Author : Sabine Hoidn
ISBN : 9780429535055
Genre : Education
File Size : 42. 61 MB
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The movement away from teacher-centered toward student-centered learning and teaching (SCLT) in higher education has intensified in recent decades. Yet in spite of its widespread use in literature and policy documents, SCLT remains somewhat poorly defined, under-researched and often misinterpreted. Against this backdrop, The Routledge International Handbook of Student-Centered Learning and Teaching in Higher Education offers an original, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the fundamentals of SCLT and its discussion and applications in policy and practice. Bringing together 71 scholars from around the world, the volume offers a most comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the fundamentals of SCLT and its applications in policy and practice; provides beacons of good practice that display how instructional expertise manifests itself in the quality of classroom learning and teaching and in the institutional environment; and critically discusses challenges, new directions and developments in pedagogy, course and study program design, classroom practice, assessment and institutional policy. An essential resource, this book uniquely offers researchers, educators and students in higher education new insights into the roots, latest thinking, practices and evidence surrounding SCLT in higher education.

The Diversity Bargain

Author : Natasha K. Warikoo
ISBN : 9780226651071
Genre : Education
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We’ve heard plenty from politicians and experts on affirmative action and higher education, about how universities should intervene—if at all—to ensure a diverse but deserving student population. But what about those for whom these issues matter the most? In this book, Natasha K. Warikoo deeply explores how students themselves think about merit and race at a uniquely pivotal moment: after they have just won the most competitive game of their lives and gained admittance to one of the world’s top universities. What Warikoo uncovers—talking with both white students and students of color at Harvard, Brown, and Oxford—is absolutely illuminating; and some of it is positively shocking. As she shows, many elite white students understand the value of diversity abstractly, but they ignore the real problems that racial inequality causes and that diversity programs are meant to solve. They stand in fear of being labeled a racist, but they are quick to call foul should a diversity program appear at all to hamper their own chances for advancement. The most troubling result of this ambivalence is what she calls the “diversity bargain,” in which white students reluctantly agree with affirmative action as long as it benefits them by providing a diverse learning environment—racial diversity, in this way, is a commodity, a selling point on a brochure. And as Warikoo shows, universities play a big part in creating these situations. The way they talk about race on campus and the kinds of diversity programs they offer have a huge impact on student attitudes, shaping them either toward ambivalence or, in better cases, toward more productive and considerate understandings of racial difference. Ultimately, this book demonstrates just how slippery the notions of race, merit, and privilege can be. In doing so, it asks important questions not just about college admissions but what the elite students who have succeeded at it—who will be the world’s future leaders—will do with the social inequalities of the wider world.

Doing The Right Thing

Author : Marybeth Gasman
ISBN : 9780691193076
Genre : Education
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An honest confrontation of systemic racism in faculty hiring—and what to do about it While colleges and universities have been lauded for increasing student diversity, these same institutions have failed to achieve any comparable diversity among their faculty. In 2017, of the nation’s full-time, tenure-track and tenured faculty, only 3 percent each were Black men, Black women, Hispanic men, and Hispanic women. Only 6 percent were Asian/Pacific Islander men, 5 percent were Asian/Pacific Islander women, and 1 percent were American Indian/Alaska Native. Why are the numbers so abysmal? In Doing the Right Thing, Marybeth Gasman takes a hard, insightful look at the issues surrounding the recruitment and hiring of faculty of color. Relying on national data and interviews with provosts, deans, and department chairs from sixty major universities, Gasman documents the institutional forces stymieing faculty diversification, and she makes the case for how such deficiencies can and should be rectified. Even as institutions publicly champion inclusive excellence and the number of doctoral students of color increases, Gasman reveals the entrenched constraints contributing to the faculty status quo. Impediments to progress include the alleged trade-off between quality and diversity, the power of pedigree, the rigidity of academic pipelines, failures of administrative leadership, lack of accountability among administration and faculty, and the opacity and arbitrariness of the recruitment and hiring process. Gasman contends that leaders must acknowledge institutional failures of inclusion, pervasive systemic racism, and biases that restrict people of color from pursuing faculty careers. Recognizing that individuals from all backgrounds are essential to the creation and teaching of knowledge, Doing the Right Thing puts forth a concrete call for colleges and universities to take action and do better.

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