wingless flight the lifting body story

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Wingless Flight

Author : R. Dale Reed
ISBN : 9780813161600
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24. 66 MB
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Most lifting bodies, or "flying bathtubs" as they were called, were so ugly only an engineer could love them, and yet, what an elegant way to keep wings from burning off in supersonic flight between earth and orbit. Working in their spare time (because they couldn't initially get official permission), Dale Reed and his team of engineers demonstrated the potential of the design that led to the Space Shuttle. Wingless Flight takes us behind the scenes with just the right blend of technical information and fascinating detail (the crash of M2-F2 found new life as the opening credit for TV's "The Six Million Dollar Man"). The flying bathtub, itself, is finding new life as the proposed escape-pod for the Space Station.

Wingless Flight

Author : R. Dale Reed
ISBN : UIUC:30112040264241
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 69. 75 MB
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Expanding The Envelope

Author : Michael H. Gorn
ISBN : 9780813158945
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24. 40 MB
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Expanding the Envelope is the first book to explore the full panorama of flight research history, from the earliest attempts by such nineteenth century practitioners as England's Sir George Cayley, who tested his kites and gliders by subjecting them to experimental flight, to the cutting-edge aeronautical research conducted by the NACA and NASA. Michael H. Gorn explores the vital human aspect of the history of flight research, including such well-known figures as James H. Doolittle, Chuck Yeager, and A. Scott Crossfield, as well as the less heralded engineers, pilots, and scientists who also had the "Right Stuff." While the individuals in the cockpit often receive the lion's share of the public's attention, Expanding the Envelope shows flight research to be a collaborative engineering activity, one in which the pilot participates as just one of many team members. Here is more than a century of flight research, from well before the creation of NACA to its rapid transformation under NASA. Gorn gives a behind the scenes look at the development of groundbreaking vehicles such as the X-1, the D-558, and the X-15, which demonstrated manned flight at speeds up to Mach 6.7 and as high as the edge of space.

Coming Home

Author : Roger D. Launius
ISBN : 0160910641
Genre : Aerospace engineering
File Size : 28. 70 MB
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This study represents a means of highlighting the myriad of technological developments that made possible the safe reentry and return from space and the landing on Earth. This story extends back at least to the work of Walter Hohmann and Eugen Sänger in Germany in the 1920s and involved numerous aerospace engineers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)/NASA Langley and the Lewis (now the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field) and Ames Research Centers. For example, researchers such as H. Julian Allen and Alfred J. Eggers, Jr., at Ames pioneered blunt-body reentry techniques and ablative thermal protection systems in the 1950s, while Francis M. Rogallo at Langley developed creative parasail concepts that informed the development of the recovery systems of numerous reentry vehicles. The chapters that follow relate in a chronological manner the way in which NASA has approached the challenge of reentering the atmosphere after a space mission and the technologies associated with safely dealing with the friction of this encounter and the methods used for landing safely on Earth. The first chapter explores the conceptual efforts to understand the nature of flight to and from space and the major developments in the technologies of reentry and landing that took place before the beginning of the space age in 1957. Chapter 2 also investigates the methods of landing once a spacecraft reaches subsonic speeds. Once the orbital energy is converted and the heat of reentry dissipated, the spacecraft must still be landed gently in the ocean or on land. Virtually all of the early concepts for human space flight involve spaceplanes that flew on wings to a runway landing; Sänger''s antipodal bomber of the 1940s did so as did von Braun''s popular concepts. However, these proved impractical for launch vehicles available during the 1950s, and capsule concepts that returned to Earth via parachute proliferated largely because they represented the "art of the possible" at the time. Chapter 3 tells the story of reentry from space and landing on Earth from the beginning of the space age through the end of the Apollo program. During that period, NASA and other agencies concerned with the subject developed capsules with blunt-body ablative heat shields and recovery systems that relied on parachutes. The Department of Defense (DOD) tested this reentry concept publicly with Project SCORE (Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment) in 1958 and employed it throughout the CORONA satellite reconnaissance program of the 1960s, snatching in midair return capsules containing unprocessed surveillance footage dangling beneath parachutes. With the Mercury program, astronauts rode a blunt-body capsule with an ablative heat shield to a water landing, where the Navy rescued them. Project Gemini eventually used a similar approach, but NASA engineers experimented with a Rogallo wing and a proposed landing at the Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center) on skids similar to those employed on the X-15. When the Rogallo wing failed to make the rapid progress required, NASA returned to the parachute concept used in Mercury and essentially used the same approach in Apollo, although with greatly improved ablative heat shields. At the same time, the DOD pursued a spaceplane concept with the X-20 Dyna-Soar orbital vehicle that would have replaced the ablative heat shield with a reusable metallic heat shield and a lifting reentry that allowed the pilot to fly the vehicle to a runway landing. This is also the general approach pursued by the DOD with its Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests (ASSET) and Martin X-23A Precision Reentry Including Maneuvering reEntry (PRIME) vehicles. NASA and DOD also experimented with lifting body concepts. Engineers were able to make both of those approaches to reentry and landing work, making tradeoffs on various other capabilities in the process. The eventual direction of these programs was influenced more by technological choices than by obvious decisions. Even as Apollo was reaching fruition in the late 1960s, NASA made the decision to abandon blunt-body capsules with ablative heat shields and recovery systems that relied on parachutes for its human space flight program. Instead, as shown in chapters 4 and 5, it chose to build the Space Shuttle, a winged reusable vehicle that still had a blunt-body configuration but used a new ceramic tile and reinforced carbon-carbon for its thermal protection system. Parachutes were also jettisoned in favor of a delta-wing aerodynamic concept that allowed runway landings. Despite many challenges and the loss of one vehicle and its crew due to a failure with the thermal protection system, this approach has worked relatively effectively since first flown in 1981. Although NASA engineers debated the necessity of including jet engines on the Shuttle, it employed the unpowered landing concept demonstrated by the X-15 and lifting body programs at the Flight Research Center during the 1960s. These chapters lay out that effort and what it has meant for returning from space and landing on Earth. The concluding chapter explores efforts to develop new reentry and landing concepts in the 1990s and beyond. During this period, a series of ideas emerged on reentry and landing concepts, including the return of a metallic heat shield for the National Aero-Space Plane and the X-33, the Roton rotary rocket, the DC-X powered landing concept, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) of the Constellation program between 2005 and 2009. In every case, these projects proved too technologically difficult and the funding was too sparse for success. Even the CEV, a program that returns to a capsule concept with a blunt-body ablative heat shield and parachutes (or perhaps a Rogallo wing) to return to Earth (or, perhaps, the ocean), proved a challenge for engineers. The recovery of scientific sample return missions to Earth, both with the loss of Genesis and the successful return of Stardust, suggests that these issues are not exclusive to the human space flight community. As this work is completed, NASA has embarked on the Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program in which four firms are competing for funding to complete work on their vehicles: * Blue Origin, Kent, WA--a biconic capsule that could be launched on an Atlas rocket. * Sierra Nevada Corporation, Louisville, CO--Dream Chaser lifting body, which could be deployed from the Virgin Galactic * White Knight Two carrier aircraft for flight tests. * Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Hawthorne, CA-- * Dragon capsule spacecraft; also a partial lifting body concept to be launched on the Falcon 9 heavy lifter. * The Boeing Company, Houston, TX--a 7-person spacecraft, including both personnel and cargo configurations designed to be launched by several different rockets, and to be reusable up to 10 times. These new ideas and a broad set of actions stimulated through the CCDev program suggest that reentry and recovery from space remains an unsettled issue in space flight. This book''s concluding chapter suggests that our understanding of the longstanding complexities associated with returning to Earth safely has benefited from changes in technology and deeper knowledge of the process; however, these issues are still hotly debated and disagreement remains about how best to accomplish these challenging tasks. Engineers have had success with several different approaches to resolving the challenges of reentry and landing. Discovering the optimal, most elegant solutions requires diligence and creativity. This history seeks to tell this complex story in a compelling, sophisticated, and technically sound manner for an audience that understands little about the evolution of flight technology. Bits and pieces of this history exist in other publications, but often overlooked is the critical role these concepts played in making a safe return to Earth possible. Moreover, the challenges, mysteries, and outcomes that these programs'' members wrestled with offer object lessons in how earlier generations of engineers sought optimal solutions and made tradeoffs. With the CCDev program--a multiphase program intended to stimulate the development of privately operated crew vehicles to low-Earth orbit currently underway--NASA

Modeling Flight Nasa Latest Version

Author : Joseph Chambers
ISBN : 9780160846335
Genre :
File Size : 65. 13 MB
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state of the art in aeronautical engineering has been continually accelerated by the development of advanced analysis and design tools. Used in the early design stages for aircraft and spacecraft, these methods have provided a fundamental understanding of physical phenomena and enabled designers to predict and analyze critical characteristics of new vehicles, including the capability to control or modify unsatisfactory behavior. For example, the relatively recent emergence and routine use of extremely power- ful digital computer hardware and software has had a major impact on design capabilities and procedures. Sophisticated new airflow measurement and visualization systems permit the analyst to conduct micro- and macro-studies of properties within flow fields on and off the surfaces of models in advanced wind tunnels. Trade studies of the most efficient geometrical shapes for aircraft can be conducted with blazing speed within a broad scope of integrated technical disciplines, and the use of sophisticated piloted simulators in the vehicle development process permits the most important segment of operations—the human pilot—to make early assessments of the acceptability of the vehicle for its intended mission. Knowledgeable applica- tions of these tools of the trade dramatically reduce risk and redesign, and increase the marketability and safety of new aerospace vehicles.

Nasa Historical Data Book

Author :
ISBN : IND:30000124465091
Genre :
File Size : 71. 99 MB
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Developing And Flight Testing The Hl 10 Lifting Body

Author : World Spaceflight News
ISBN : 1549665073
Genre :
File Size : 44. 38 MB
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This NASA history document tells the exciting story of the HL-10 NASA lifting body. From the foreword: The story we want to tell is a bit unique. The story of the development and flight testing of a unique aerospace vehicle--the horizontal lander HL-10--is from our perspective as primary members of the flight test team at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden Flight Research Center). Mr. Kempel was with the program eight months before the first flight and continued through the final (37th) flight. Mr. Painter's association with the HL-10 began approximately three years before the first flight and continued through the final flight. Mr. Thompson flew the first lightweight and heavyweight M2 vehicles. The first heavyweight lifting-body flight, the M2-F2, took place on July 12, 1966, with Mr. Thompson at the controls. Others may be more qualified to relate the story of the birth of the HL-10; however, we have included a section that presents some insight that may not exist elsewhere. This section was compiled using some unpublished notes of Robert W. Rainey and Charles L. Ladson of NASA Langley Research Center. History written by those who did not participate in the events themselves may be inclined to be muted, and this may be the case with this section. Many unnamed pilots, engineers, technicians, mechanics, and support personnel made this program work. The successes of the HL-10 were the result of efforts of the entire team, real people. People made it work. The impressions of the flight operations are ours and we got some help from others who lived it too. We hope, after reading it, that you will also think it is a story worth telling.The origins of the lifting-body idea are traced back to the mid-1950s, when the concept of a manned satellite reentering the Earth's atmosphere in the form of a wingless lifting body was first proposed. Interesting and unusual events in the flight testing are presented with a review of significant problems encountered in the first flight and how they were solved. Impressions by the pilots who flew the HL-10 are included. The HL-10 completed a successful 37-flight program, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies.INTRODUCTION * Lifting-Body Concept * Brief Area Description and Some History * GETTING STARTED * CONFIGURING THE HL-10 * Concept and Early Configuration * Final Configuration * FLIGHT VEHICLE DESCRIPTION * FLIGHT VEHICLE MISSION * FLIGHT TEST PREPARATION * M2-F2 Team * HL-10 Team * FLIGHT TESTING * The Maiden Flight * Postflight Analysis * The Second Flight * Simulation of the HL-10 * The First Lifting-Body Powered Flight * The First Supersonic Lifting-Body Flight * The Fastest and the Highest * Flight-Determined Lift and Drag * The Best Flying of the Lifting Bodies * Piloting the HL-10 * Vehicle Dynamics, Control, and Turbulence Response * Training for and Flying Chase for Lifting-Body Missions * The Final Flights * Pilots Participating in the Program * THE FUTURE AND LEGACY OF LIFTING BODIES * SIGNIFICANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND LESSONS LEARNED * CONCLUDING REMARKS * REFERENCES * APPENDIX A * Glossary * APPENDIX B * The HL-10 Lifting-Body Team

The Smell Of Kerosene Pilot S Day At The Office

Author : National Aeronautics and Space Administration
ISBN : 9788026877899
Genre : Transportation
File Size : 60. 68 MB
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This book puts the reader in the pilot's seat for a "day at the office" unlike any other. The Smell of Kerosene tells the dramatic story of a NASA research pilot who logged over 11,000 flight hours in more than 125 types of aircraft. Donald Mallick gives the reader fascinating first-hand description of his early naval flight training, carrier operations, and his research flying career with NASA. After transferring to the NASA Flight Research Center, Mallick became involved with projects that further pushed the boundaries of aerospace technology. These included the giant delta-winged XB-70 supersonic airplane, the wingless M2-F1 lifting body vehicle, and triple-sonic YF-12 Blackbird. Mallick also test flew the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle and helped develop techniques used in training astronauts to land on the Moon.

The Smell Of Kerosene

Author : Donald L. Mallick
ISBN : 1481990179
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60. 46 MB
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The author gives the reader fascinating firsthand descriptions of his early naval flight training, carrier operations, and his research flying carrer with NASA and its predecessor agency, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).

The World Of Wonders A Record Of Things Wonderful In Nature Science And Art Correspondence

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ISBN : BL:A0022003362
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File Size : 42. 37 MB
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