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Women And The Public Sphere In The Age Of The French Revolution

Author : Joan B. Landes
ISBN : 0801494818
Genre : History
File Size : 69. 45 MB
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In this provocative interdisciplinary essay, Joan B. Landes examines the impact on women of the emergence of a new, bourgeois organization of public life in the eighteenth century. She focuses on France, contrasting the role and representation of women under the Old Regime with their status during and after the Revolution. Basing her work on a wide reading of current historical scholarship, Landes draws on the work of Habermas and his followers, as well as on recent theories of representation, to re-create public-sphere theory from a feminist point of view.Within the extremely personal and patriarchal political culture of Old Regime France, elite women wielded surprising influence and power, both in the court and in salons. Urban women of the artisanal class often worked side by side with men and participated in many public functions. But the Revolution, Landes asserts, relegated women to the home, and created a rigidly gendered, essentially male, bourgeois public sphere. The formal adoption of universal rights actually silenced public women by emphasizing bourgeois conceptions of domestic virtue.In the first part of this book, Landes links the change in women's roles to a shift in systems of cultural representation. Under the absolute monarchy of the Old Regime, political culture was represented by the personalized iconic imagery of the father/king. This imagery gave way in bourgeois thought to a more symbolic system of representation based on speech, writing, and the law. Landes traces this change through the art and writing of the period. Using the works of Rousseau and Montesquieu as examples of the passage to the bourgeois theory of the public sphere, she shows how such concepts as universal reason, law, and nature were rooted in an ideologically sanctioned order of gender difference and separate public and private spheres. In the second part of the book, Landes discusses the discourses on women's rights and on women in society authored by Condorcet, Wollstonecraft, Gouges, Tristan, and Comte within the context of these new definitions of the public sphere. Focusing on the period after the execution of the king, she asks who got to be included as the People when men and women demanded that liberal and republican principles be carried to their logical conclusion. She examines women's roles in the revolutionary process and relates the birth of modern feminism to the silencing of the politically influential women of the Old Regime court and salon and to women's expulsion from public participation during and after the Revolution.

Visualizing The Nation

Author : Joan B. Landes
ISBN : 9781501727535
Genre : History
File Size : 35. 2 MB
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Popular images of women were everywhere in revolutionary France. Although women's political participation was curtailed, female allegories of liberty, justice, and the republic played a crucial role in the passage from old regime to modern society. In her lavishly illustrated and gracefully written book, Joan B. Landes explores this paradox within the workings of revolutionary visual culture and traces the interaction between pictorial and textual political arguments. Landes highlights the widespread circulation of images of the female body, notwithstanding the political leadership's suspicions of the dangers of feminine influence and the seductions of visual imagery. The use of caricatures and allegories contributed to the destruction of the masculinized images of hierarchic absolutism and to forging new roles for men and women in both the intimate and public arenas. Landes tells the fascinating story of how the depiction of the nation as a desirable female body worked to eroticize patriotism and to bind male subjects to the nation-state. Despite their political subordination, women too were invited to identify with the project of nationalism. Recent views of the French Revolution have emphasized linguistic concerns; in contrast, Landes stresses the role of visual cognition in fashioning ideas of nationalism and citizenship. Her book demonstrates as well that the image is often a site of contestation, as individual viewers may respond to it in unexpected, even subversive, ways.

The French Revolution

Author : Gary Kates
ISBN : 0415358329
Genre : History
File Size : 73. 53 MB
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Collating key texts at the forefront of new research and interpretation, this updated second edition adds new articles on the Terror and race/colonial issues, and studies all aspects of this major event, from its origins through to its consequences.

The Rise Of The Public In Enlightenment Europe

Author : James Van Horn Melton
ISBN : 0521469694
Genre : History
File Size : 75. 8 MB
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James Melton examines the rise of the public in 18th-century Europe. A work of comparative synthesis focusing on England, France and the German-speaking territories, this a reassessment of what Habermas termed the bourgeois public sphere.

Hearing History

Author : Mark Michael Smith
ISBN : 0820325821
Genre : History
File Size : 50. 26 MB
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Hearing History is a long-needed introduction to the basic tenets of what is variously termed historical acoustemology, auditory culture, or aural history. Gathering twenty-one of the fields most important writings, this volume will deepen and broaden our understanding of changing perceptions of sound and hearing and the ongoing education of our senses. The essays stimulate thinking on key questions: What is aural history? Why has vision tended to triumph over hearing in historical accounts? How might we begin to reclaim the sounds of the past? With theoretical and practical essays on the history of sound and hearing in Europe and the United States, the book draws on historical approaches ranging from empiricism to postmodernism. Some essays show the historian of technology at work, others highlight how With theoretical and practical essays on the history of sound and hearing in Europe and the United States, the book draws on historical approaches ranging from empiricism to postmodernism. Some essays show the historian of technology at work, others highlight how military, social, intellectual, and cultural historians have tackled historical acoustemologies. Investigating soundscapes that include a Puritan meetinghouse in colonial New England, the belfries of a French village at the close of the Old Regime, the court hall of Elizabeth I, and a Civil War battlefield, the essays vary just as widely in their topics, which include noise as a marker of social and cultural differences, the privileging of music as the sound of art, the persistence of Aristotelian ideas of sound into the seventeenth century, developments in sound related to medical practice, the advent of sound-recording technology, and noise pollution.

Enlightenment And Romance

Author : Robert P. Irvine
ISBN : STANFORD:36105029663528
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 71. 67 MB
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This study places the novels of Tobias Smollett and Walter Scott in two critical contexts: the rise, from the middle of the eighteenth century, of the discourses of the human or social sciences; and the dominance of the novel by women writers throughout the eighteenth century. It argues that both authors, so often seen as paradigmatically masculine, in fact use the discourses of feminine romance or the domestic novel to figure authorial control over narrative structure. It suggests that they do so in order to combine utopian plot-endings, enacting a nostalgic tory ideology, with an essentially deterministic account of history and society, borrowed from the human sciences of the Scottish Enlightenment.

French Revolutionary Syndicalism And The Public Sphere

Author : Kenneth H. Tucker
ISBN : 0521563593
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 58. 9 MB
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Combines social (Habermas) and cultural theory with history of major union in early twentieth-century France.

Habermas And The Public Sphere

Author : Craig Calhoun
ISBN : 0262531143
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 29. 92 MB
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In this book, scholars from a wide range of disciplines respond to Habermas's most directly relevant work, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. The relationship between civil society and public life is in the forefront of contemporary discussion. No single scholarly voice informs this discussion more than that of Jürgen Habermas. His contributions have shaped the nature of debates over critical theory, feminism, cultural studies, and democratic politics. In this book, scholars from a wide range of disciplines respond to Habermas's most directly relevant work, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. From political theory to cultural criticism, from ethics to gender studies, from history to media studies, these essays challenge, refine, and extend our understanding of the social foundations and changing character of democracy and public discourse. Contributors Hannah Arendt, Keith Baker, Seyla Benhabib, Harry C. Boyte, Craig Calhoun, Geoff Eley, Nancy Fraser, Nicholas Garnham, Jürgen Habermas, Peter Hohendahl, Lloyd Kramer, Benjamin Lee, Thomas McCarthy, Moishe Postone, Mary P. Ryan, Michael Schudson, Michael Warner, David Zaret

Monstrous Bodies Political Monstrosities In Early Modern Europe

Author : Laura Lunger Knoppers
ISBN : 0801441765
Genre : Art
File Size : 66. 66 MB
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Multi-disciplinary in approach & cross-European in scope, this volume explores links between the political & the monstrous in Europe from the Renaissance to the 19th century. These essays stress the continual reinvention & polemical applications of the monstrous.

Changing Perceptions Of The Public Sphere

Author : Christian J. Emden
ISBN : 9780857455017
Genre : History
File Size : 76. 41 MB
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Initially propounded by the philosopher Jürgen Habermas in 1962 in order to describe the realm of social discourse between the state on one hand, and the private sphere of the market and the family on the other, the concept of a bourgeois public sphere quickly became a central point of reference in the humanities and social sciences. This volume reassesses the validity and reach of Habermas's concept beyond political theory by exploring concrete literary and cultural manifestations in early modern and modern Europe. The contributors ask whether, and in what forms, a social formation that rightfully can be called the "public sphere" really existed at particular historical junctures, and consider the senses in which the "public sphere" should rather be replaced by a multitude of interacting cultural and social "publics." This volume offers insights into the current status of the "public sphere" within the disciplinary formation of the humanities and social sciences at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

Origins And Identities In French Literature

Author : Buford Norman
ISBN : 904200634X
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 32. 82 MB
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The essays in this volume investigate origins and identities of individuals and groups in French literature from the seventeenth century to the present, as well in French literature in general. They show how, as France developed a national identity through its literature, individuals of various origins searched for their own identities and often called into question not only traditional identities, but also the very literary means of creating them.

Theater State And The Formation Of Early Modern Public Sphere In Iran

Author : Babak Rahimi
ISBN : 9789004209794
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 23. 18 MB
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This first systematic study of a wide range of Persian and European archival and primary sources, analyzes how the Muharram rituals changed from being an orginally devotional practice to public events of political significance, setting the stage for the emergence of the early modern Iranian public sphere in the Safavid period.

Sites Of Discourse Public And Private Spheres Legal Culture

Author : Uwe Böker
ISBN : 9042015500
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 51. 19 MB
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The present collection of essays grew out of a conference, held in Dresden in December 2001, exploring the relationship between the public sphere and legal culture. The conference was held in connection with the ongoing research undertaken by the Sonderforschungsbereich 537 'Institutionalisation and Historical Change' and, in particular, by the project 'Circulation of Legal Norms and Values in British Culture from 1688 to 1900'. The conference papers include essays on the theory of the public sphere from a systematic and historical point of view by Gert Melville, by Peter Uwe Hohendahl and by Jürgen Schlaeger, all of whom try to re-evaluate and/or improve upon Jürgen Habermas' seminal contribution to the discussion of the emergence of modernism. Alastair Mann's contribution investigates the situation in Scotland, particularly censorship and the oath of allegiance; Annette Pankratz focuses on the king's body as a site of the public sphere; Heinz-Joachim Müllenbrock looks into the widespread 'culture of contention' at the beginning of the eighteenth century; and Eckhart Hellmuth considers the reform movement at the end of the century and the radical democrats' insistence on the right to discuss the constitution. Ian Bell, who took part in the conference, suggested the inclusion of part of the first chapter of his seminal study Literature and Crime in Augustan England (1991). Beth Swan, Anna-Christina Giovanopoulos, and Christoph Houswitschka respectively analyse the ideologies of justice, the interrelation between journalism and crime, and the juridical evaluation of the crime of incest and its representation in public. Greta Olson investigates keyholes as liminal spaces between the public and the private, Juliet Wightman focuses on theatre and the bear pit, Uwe Böker examines the court room and prison as public sites of discourse, and York-Gothart Mix discusses the German emigrant culture in North America.

Pamphlets Public Opinion

Author : Kenneth Margerison
ISBN : 1557531099
Genre : History
File Size : 60. 6 MB
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"Using pamphlets, extensive primary sources, and research and views of well-known historians both cited in the text and heavily footnoted, Margerison explains how the Society of Thirty molded French public opinion... after the establishment... of the Estates General until August 4, 1789. Margerison questions the ideological motivations of crowd actions attributed to them by historians Furet, Halevi, Baker, and others." - CHOICE

Family Romance Of The French Revolution

Author : Lynn Hunt
ISBN : 9781136135644
Genre : History
File Size : 60. 60 MB
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This latest work from an author known for her contributions to the new cultural history is a daring, multidisciplinary investigation of the imaginative foundations of modern politics. Hunt uses the term `Family Romance', (coined by Freud to describe the fantasy of being freed from one's family and belonging to one of higher social standing), in a broader sense, to describe the images of the familial order that structured the collective political unconscious. In a wide-ranging account that uses novels, engravings, paintings, speeches, newspaper editorials, pornographic writing, and revolutionary legislation about the family, Hunt shows that the politics of the French Revolution were experienced through the network of the family romance.

Museums And The Public Sphere

Author : Jennifer Barrett
ISBN : 9781118274835
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 53. 8 MB
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Museums and the Public Sphere investigates the role of museums around the world as sites of democratic public space. Explores the role of museums around the world as sites of public discourse and democracy Examines the changing idea of the museum in relation to other public sites and spaces, including community cultural centers, public halls and the internet Offers a sophisticated portrait of the public, and how it is realized, invoked, and understood in the museum context Offers relevant case studies and discussions of how museums can engage with their publics' in more complex, productive ways

The Cultural Origins Of The French Revolution

Author : Roger Chartier
ISBN : 9780822373841
Genre : History
File Size : 48. 4 MB
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Reknowned historian Roger Chartier, one of the most brilliant and productive of the younger generation of French writers and scholars now at work refashioning the Annales tradition, attempts in this book to analyze the causes of the French revolution not simply by investigating its “cultural origins” but by pinpointing the conditions that “made is possible because conceivable.” Chartier has set himself two important tasks. First, while acknowledging the seminal contribution of Daniel Mornet’s Les origens intellectuelles de la Révolution française (1935), he synthesizes the half-century of scholarship that has created a sociology of culture for Revolutionary France, from education reform through widely circulated printed literature to popular expectations of government and society. Chartier goes beyond Mornet’s work, not be revising that classic text but by raising questions that would not have occurred to its author. Chartier’s second contribution is to reexamine the conventional wisdom that there is a necessary link between the profound cultural transformation of the eighteenth century (generally characterized as the Enlightenment) and the abrupt Revolutionary rupture of 1789. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution is a major work by one of the leading scholars in the field and is likely to set the intellectual agenda for future work on the subject.

Women Writing And The Public Sphere 1700 1830

Author : Elizabeth Eger
ISBN : 0521771064
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 72. 84 MB
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An international team of specialists examine the dynamic relation between women and the public sphere.

Women Femininity And Public Space In European Visual Culture 1789?914

Author : Temma Balducci
ISBN : 9781351536585
Genre : Art
File Size : 77. 26 MB
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Focusing on images of or produced by well-to-do nineteenth-century European women, this volume explores genteel femininity as resistant to easy codification vis-?is the public. Attending to various iterations of the public as space, sphere and discourse, sixteen essays challenge the false binary construct that has held the public as the sole preserve of prosperous men. By contrast, the essays collected in Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914 demonstrate that definitions of both femininity and the public were mutually defining and constantly shifting. In examining the relationship between affluent women, femininity and the public, the essays gathered here consider works by an array of artists that includes canonical ones such as Mary Cassatt and Fran?s G?rd as well as understudied women artists including Louise Abb? and Broncia Koller. The essays also consider works in a range of media from fashion prints and paintings to private journals and architectural designs, facilitating an analysis of femininity in public across the cultural production of the period. Various European centers, including Madrid, Florence, Paris, Brittany, Berlin and London, emerge as crucial sites of production for genteel femininity, providing a long-overdue rethinking of modern femininity in the public sphere.

Women In France Since 1789

Author : Susan Foley
ISBN : 9781350317383
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 20. 58 MB
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This compelling study traces the changes in women's lives in France from 1789 to the present. Susan K. Foley surveys the patterns of women's experiences in the socially-segregated society of the early nineteenth century, and then traces the evolution of their lifestyles to the turn of the twenty-first century, when many of the earlier social distinctions had disappeared. Focusing on women's contested place within the political nation, Women in France since 1789 examines: - The on-going strength of notions of sexual difference - Recurrent debates over gender - The anxiety created by women's perceived departure from ideals of womanhood - Major controversies over matters such as reproductive rights, significant cultural changes, and women's often under-estimated political roles By addressing and exploring these key issues, Foley demonstrates women's efforts over two centuries to create a place in society on their own terms.

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